Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.
Type 1 Diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90% of people with diabetes around the world, and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity.
Gestational Diabetes is hyperglycaemia with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
An estimated 285 million people, corresponding to 6.4% of the world's adult population, will live with diabetes in 2010. The number is expected to grow to 438 million by 2030, corresponding to 7.8% of the adult population.
The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men.
While the global prevalence of diabetes is 6.4%, the prevalence varies from 10.2% in the Western Pacific to 3.8% in the African region. However, the African region is expected to experience the highest increase.
The number of deaths attributable to diabetes in 2010 shows a 5.5% increase over the estimates for the year 2007. This increase is largely due to a 29% increase in the number of deaths due to diabetes in the North America & Caribbean Region, a 12% increase in the South East Asia Region and an 11% increase in the Western Pacific Region.
Almost 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.
WHO projects that diabetes deaths will double between 2005 and 2030.
50% of all diabetics are unaware of their condition.
The vast majority of people with type 2 diabetes suffer from a range of co-morbidities, such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.
Major marketed products in the Type-2 diabetes market
Actos (pioglitazone) Takeda
Avandia (rosiglitazone) GlaxoSmithKline
Januvia (sitagliptin) Merck & Co., Inc.
Starlix (nateglinide) Novartis
Byetta (exenatide) Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Lilly USA, LLC.
Lantus (insulin glargine) Sanofi Aventis
Levemir (insulin detemir) Novo Nordisk
Primary drugs candidates undergoing phase III clinical trial for Type -2 diabetes
According to New Pharmaceuticals research report from GlobalData 2010
Five major drugs under phase III clinical trial for Type-2 diabetes
Islet cell transplant predominantly Allogenic. The shortage of human donor pancreases for islet cell transplantation has led to a search for alternative sources of islet cells. Autologous is used to treat Type-1 patients when diabetes is not already present.
WHO activities to prevent and control Diabetes
WHO aims to stimulate and support the adoption of effective measures for the surveillance, prevention and control of diabetes and its complications, particularly in low and middle-income countries. To this end, WHO:
provides scientific guidelines for diabetes prevention;
develops norms and standards for diabetes care;
builds awareness on the global epidemic of diabetes; including partnership with the International Diabetes Federation in the celebration of World Diabetes Day (14 November);
conducts surveillance of diabetes and its risk factors.
The WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health complements WHO's diabetes work by focusing on population-wide approaches to promote healthy diet and regular physical activity, thereby reducing the growing global problem of overweight and obesity.
The key market players at present are Hoffmann-La Roche, Novo Nordisk, Merck & Co., Novartis Ag, Sanofi-aventis, Eli Lilly & Company and GlaxoSmithKline reinstated by the figure above. Competitive dynamics of the leading players in the global diabetes market, 2005
Global* market share of leading insulins (%), 1999-2003 , The leading giant still is the US with more than 50% market share while the Pacific region is still growing owing to the large population of Diabetic patients in Japan and South Asia.