3. Anthropology . a. any of the traditional divisions of humankind, the commonest being the Caucasian, Mongoloid, and Negro, characterized by supposedly distinctive and universal physical characteristics: no longer in technical use.
b. an arbitrary classification of modern humans, sometimes, esp. formerly, based on any or a combination of various physical characteristics, as skin color, facial form, or eye shape, and now frequently based on such genetic markers as blood groups.
c. a human population partially isolated reproductively from other populations, whose members share a greater degree of physical and genetic similarity with one another than with other humans.
4. a group of tribes or peoples forming an ethnic stock: the Slavic race.
5. any people united by common history, language, cultural traits, etc
History The people of America hail from all over the world and all walks of life. No one “owns” America, we are all immigrants. Our Countryis Heterogeneous.
"Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door."
Pilgrims & Native Americans The true Native Americans were persecuted and thought of to be “racially inferior”.
Revolutionary War: Fought to gain America’s freedom and Independence. The freedom and rights of all non whites was Achieved.
Civil War: “We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic cords of memory will swell when again touched as surely they will be by the better angels of our nature.” Fought to Free the Slaves in America
Race Race does not exist in nature. Race is “social concept”, normally used in order to discriminate. Race cannot even be definitively determined biologically. "People who have lived in the same geographic region for many generations may have some alleles in common, but no allele will be found in all members of one population and in no members of any other.“ (Human Genome Project) The primary indicator of race has primarily been skin color. “Whiteness gives us status.” Certain physical traits have been recognized to determine race.
Reasons for Diversity Immigration patterns Interracial marriages increasing US military presence in Asia Most importantly Loving vs Virginia
Loving vs Virginia Mildred Jeter and Richard Loving were married in the District of Columbia. They moved to Virginia and were charged for violating Virginia’s ban on interracial marriage. The judge sentenced them to one year or suspended sentence if they left the state. He said, “ Almighty God created the races, white black, yellow , malay and red and he placed them on separate continents…the fact that He separated the races means He did not intend for them to mix.” Supreme Court overturned the decision in 1967
Thurgood Marshall In 1967 Thurgood Marshall was only months away from appointment to the Supreme court when he suffered an indignity which today seems outrageous. He and his wife could not live in Virginia because he was black and she was Asian. The supreme court struck down the anti-interracial laws in Virginia and 18 other states. In 1967 these laws were not leftover scraps from an extinct era. A Gallop poll done in 1965 showed that 72 percent of Southern whites and 42 percent of Northern whites wanted to ban interracial marriages.
Census The 2000 census over 6.8 million Americans marked an identification with two or more races. The 2000 census was the first census to allow respondents to choose more than one race.
2.4 percent of the United States is Multi Racial That means 6.8 Million people reported being of mixed decent, even though it is believed to be more. Most people record whatever the race they feel they “identify” with. Hawaii has the largest multiracial population. – 24.1 percent of its population. Alaska is second with 5.4 percent. The five least multiracial states are Mississippi, West Virginia, Maine, Alabama, and South Carolina. Every State has a Multi Racial population.
APOLO ANTON OHNO Caucasian American Japanese Olympic Gold medalist; Skater
Mariah Carey Mother: Irish American Father: Afro-Venezuelan and African American Singer, Actress, Tv show Host
VIN DIESEL Father: African American Mother: Italian Producer, Writer, Actor, Director
Barak Obama Mother: English, German, Irish Father: African President of United States
Hypodescent – or the one drop rule In the past Americans uncomfortable with the idea that you can be more than one thing. One drop rule was deeply ingrained in our society. Obama has led to some frank discussions about race (see below) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehhxGC0cd4E http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BtWgl1qF3Y0
Future projections It is expected by 2050, the majority of the US population, nearly 75 million, will identify with more than one race. Thirty years ago it was 1-100, today it is 1-20.
What does it mean? The multiracial individual is a visible indication of our country’s move towards acceptance not just tolerance. As we become more integrated as a society, discussions of race may become unnecessary. Diversity is not only about race but experiencing various perspectives, values and the thoughts they bring with them. We are all the same underneath. WE ARE ALL EQUALS.
Ways to combat racism. Educate. Face our reluctance to discuss race. Let children lead the way. Confront and stereotyping when it occurs. Don’t wait for Heritage Days and History months. Beyond Tolerance: Expecting Acceptance.
When they asked –Arnold Arnaff When they asked If I was Black or White or what. I said: I was Black and White and what difference did it make to them. and they said: did I have the answers to the math problems? and I had the answers.