Universal Declaration of Human Rights Articles 16-30
The Universal Declaration of Human RightsArticle 16. & Article 17.• The right to marry and to found a family and the right to own propertyArticle 18. & Article 19.• Freedom of thought, conscience and religion and freedom of opinion and expression
Women’s Rights• 2010 UN Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women (UNWomen.org) – Grounded in a vision of equality, works for the: • elimination of discrimination against women and girls; • empowerment of women; and • achievement of equality between women and men as partners and beneficiaries of development, human rights, humanitarian action and peace and security.
Women’s Rights• Commission on the Status of Women- has elaborated international guidelines and laws for women’s equality and non-discrimination – 1979 Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women• Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) – monitors the 1979 Convention, considers reports, assesses progress, etc.
Women in National Parliaments Regional Averages (%) Pacific Arab States Asia Both Houses Combined Sub-Saharan AfricaEurope- OSCE Member… Upper House or SenateEurope- OSCE Member… Single House or Lower Americas House Nordic Countries 0 20 40 60 80 100
Universal Declaration of Human RightsArticle 20. The right to peaceful assembly and associationArticle 21. The right to take part in the government and equal access to public serviceArticle 22.The right to social securityArticle 23. The right to work; the right to equal pay for equal work; the right to form and join trade unions.Article 24.The right to rest and leisure.
International Labour Organization• The ILO is the international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labour standards.• It is the only tripartite UN agency that brings together representatives of gov’ts, employers and “The primary goal of the ILO workers to jointly shape today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain policies and programmes decent and productive work, in promoting Decent Work for conditions of all. freedom, equity, security and human dignity.”
ILO Fundamental Conventions• Forced Labour Convention, 1930- suppression of forced or compulsory labour. Exceptions -military service, convict labour properly supervised, emergencies such as wars, fires, earthquakes.• Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948- the right of all workers/employers to form/join organizations of their own choosing w/o prior authorization.• Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949- protection against anti-union discrimination, for protection of workers’ and employers’ orgs against acts of interference, and for measures to promote collective bargaining.• Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951- =pay and benefits for men & women .• Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957- Prohibits the use of any form of forced or compulsory labour as a means of political coercion, punishment for the expression of political or ideological views, workforce mobilization, labour discipline, punishment for participation in strikes, or discrimination.
More Fundamental Conventions• Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958- Calls for a national policy to eliminate discrimination in access to employment, training and working conditions, on grounds of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin, and to promote equality of opportunity and treatment.• Minimum Age Convention, 1973 Aims at the abolition of child labour, stipulating that the minimum age for admission to employment shall not be less than the age of completion of compulsory schooling.• Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 Calls for immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, which include slavery and similar practices, forced recruitment for use in armed conflict, use in prostitution and pornography, and any illicit activity, as well as work which is likely to harm the health, safety and morals of children.
Rights of Migrant Workers• Migrant worker- “a person who is to be engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a national “• Migrant Worker Convention 1990- makes it illegal to expel migrant workers on a collective basis and or destroy their identity documents, work permits, or passports. – Entitles migrant workers to many rights shared by nationals (social benefits, medical care, trade unions etc…)
Universal Declaration of Human RightsArticle 25.• The right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being … including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services...• Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES Director-General prioritizes• to support the progressive Horn of Africa realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security• Enable people to feed themselves with dignity and to establish a safety net for those who are unable to do so
The Rights of Indigenous PeoplesPermanent Forum on Declaration on the Rights ofIndigenous Issues Indigenous People• Subsidiary organ of ECOSOC formed in 2000 • 2007- sets out rights of• Six mandated areas of indigenous people UNPFI: including- rights to – Economic and social culture, identity development , language, employment, he – Culture alth and education – Environment – Education – Health – Human rights
Universal Declaration of Human RightsArticle 26.• The right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages.Article 27.• The right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community; the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Declaration on the Right to DevelopmentThe right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development, in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized.
The Rights of Children• United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)- strive for global commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Children – Committee on the Rights of the Child- monitors progress of States fulfilling obligations of the convention• In 2000 Gen. Assembly adopted 2 optional protocols: – Prohibits recruitment of children under 18 into the armed forces or their participation in hostilities – Strengthens prohibitions/penalties concerning sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography
Universal Declaration of Human RightsArticle 28.- Article 30.• Recognize that everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which human rights set forth in the Declaration may be fully realized;• that these rights may only be limited for the sole purpose of securing recognition and respect of the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the requirements of morality, public order and general welfare in a democratic society;• and that each person has duties to the community in which she or he lives
Racism• Apartheid: Ended a system of institutionalized racial segregation and discrimination imposed by the South African government from 1948 until the early 1990s.• 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racism• International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination- Legally binding instrument• It defines racial discrimination as any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise… of human rights and fundamental freedoms…"
Rights of Minorities• Some 1 billion people worldwide belong to minority groups many of which are subject to discrimination and exclusion and are often the victims of conflict• Forum on Minority Issues- 2007 provides a platform for promoting dialogue and cooperation on issues pertaining to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities as well as thematic contributions and expertise to the work of the independent expert on minority issues
Persons with DisabilitiesConvention on the Rights of Persons withDisabilities and its Optional Protocol General Principles• Some 650 million people (10% of the • Respect for inherent dignity, individual world’s population, of which some 80% autonomy including the freedom to lives in the developing world) have make one’s own choices, and some type of physical mental or independence of persons sensory impairment • Non-discriminationKey Issues • Full and effective participation and inclusion in society• MDGs and Disability • Respect for difference and acceptance• Women and girls with disabilities of persons with disabilities as part of• Disability and statistics human diversity and humanity • Equality of opportunity• Disability and HIV/AIDS • Accessibility• Mental Health and Development • Equality between men and women• Disability, natural disasters and • Respect for the evolving capacities of emergency situations children with disabilities and respect for• Disability and Sports the right of children with disabilities to preserve their identities
Administration of Justice• The UN worked to develop standards and codes that serve as models for national legislation. They cover such issues as: – Treatment of prisoners – Protection of detained juveniles – Use of firearms by police – Conduce of law enforcement officials – Role of lawyers and prosecutors – Independence of judiciary• 2010 – there were 24 International Instruments relating to administration of justice