Total Quality Management Chapter 5: Continuous Process Improvement Atit Patumvan Faculty of Management and Information Sciences, Naresuan University 1
Agenda • Process • Juran Trilogy • Improvement Strategies • Types of Problems • The DPSA Cycle • Kaizen • Six-SigmaAtit Patumvan, Faculty of Management and Information Sciences, Naresuan University
Input/Output Process Model CONDITIONS PROCESS INPUT OUTPUT People.Materials, Information, Equipment, OUTCOMEMoney, Data, Method,Information, Product, Procedure,Data, etc. Service, etc. Materials CONDITIONS
Basic Ways to Improve Process• Reduce resources• Reduce errors• Meet or exceed expectations of downstream customer• Make the process safer• Make the process more satisfying
Juran Trilogy• A systematic approach • Break through existing level of quality and reach unexpected ones • Conscientious and dedicated system of thinking and activities • Not merely haphazard project-by-project improvement
Juran Trilogy : Quality Deﬁned• Fitness for use • Quality consists of those product features that meet customer needs • Quality consists of freedom from deﬁciencies• Meeting customer needs and eliminating of waste • Customer -- internal and external • Eliminating of waste -- employing cost-efﬁcient process
Planning, Control, and Improvement The Quality Trilogy• The Trilogy consists of three sequential and logical groups of activities: • Quality Planning, Quality Control, and Quality Improvement.• All three process are universal • Applied to a particular process • Performed by top management or by middle management Lessons Learned Source: Adopted from Juran, J. M. (May 1989). Universal Approach to Managing for Quality, Executive Excellence, 6,5, ABI/Inform Global
Types of Problems• Compliance• Unstructured• Efﬁciency• Process Design• Product Design
The DPSA Cycle • A PDSA (Plan-Do-Study- Act) cycle is a way of determining if a change leads to an improvement. • It is a method for rapidly testing a change - by planning it, trying it, observing the results, and acting on what is learned
Kaizen• Kaizen is small incremental changes made for improving productivity and minimizing waste.• Measure for implementing continuous improvement.• Continuous improvement is nothing but continuous elimination of waste
Kaizen Principles• Consider the process and the results.• The need to look at the entire process of the job at and and evaluate the job as the best way to get job done.• Kaizen must be approached in such a way that no one blamed and the best process is put in to place.
Five S of Kizen (5ส) Sei-ri Sorting out สะสาง Systematic Sei-ton สดวก Arrangement Sei-So Spic and Span สะอาดSei-ke-tsu Standardization สร้างมาตรฐานShi-tsu-ke Self Discipline สร้างนิสัย
Six-Sigma• Scientiﬁc and practical method to achieved improvements in a company 6σ • Scientiﬁc: • Structured approach • Assuming quantitative data • Practical: • Emphasis of ﬁnancial result. • Start with the voice of the customer
Focus of Six Sigma• Accelerating fast breakthrough performance• Signiﬁcant ﬁnancial results in 4-8 months• Ensuring Six Sigma is an extension of the Corporate culture, not the program of the month• Results ﬁrst, then culture change!
Improvement Methodology• Deﬁne: Means to deﬁne high-level and priority project goals and the process needed to achieve them.• Measure: Key aspects and characteristics of a process should be measured and data collected.• Analyze: After everything has been measured, the data that is collected should be analyzed to determine the cause-and-effect relationship of the process in question.• Improve: After the data has been analyzed, a solution should be reached to improve the process.• Control: The process needs to be controlled to ensure that all variables that lead to defects are corrected.