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## Kundiwam irrigation 2013Document Transcript

• 2013 Institute of Geology University of the Punjab KUNDIWAM IRRIGATION SCHEME _ BOUNDARY DEMARCATION SURVEY Submitted To: Sir. Ali Murad Kisana Subject: Geodesy and Surveying Submitted By: Atiqa Ijaz Khan Roll no: Geom-02 Dated: 28th Dec, 2013
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 Table of Contents  Chapter 1: Introduction 02 Reservoir Boundary Demarcation  Chapter 2: 06 10 Observations and Calculations 12 Results 15  References 21 List of Tables  Table 1: Calculations 15-16  Table 2: Results 20 List of Figure  Figure 1: Dam Reservoir (example) 06  Figure 2: EAC Curve (example) 07  Figure 3: ECC Curve (example) 08  Figure 4: Combined (EAC+ECC) (example) 09  Figure 5: Input Data 12  Figure 6: Extracted Data 13  Figure 7: Raster Output 13  Figure 8: Cross-sectional View(raster) 14  Figure 9: Cross-sectional View 14  Figure 10: EAC(2D area in meters) 17  Figure 11: EAC(3D surface area in meters) 17  Figure 12: ECC( in meters) 18  Figure 13: ECC( in feet) 18  Figure 14: EAC+ECC 19  Figure 15: Cross-sectional View (excel) 19  Figure 16: Cross-sectional View (cad) 20 1
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 Chapter 1 ntroduction I Talking about boundary demarcation surveys, first it is important to know what actually the demarcation is? Internationally, 3 of the terms used that are jumbled with each other, like, delimitation, demarcation, and delineation. But, technically, they differ in their meanings. Delimitation: One of the statements regarding this is as follows: “It is the legal process by which the two sovereign nations establish and describe in writing the location of their common boundary. This is the task of diplomats and treaty negotiators, and it may require more than a single agreement.” (The Demarcation and Maintenance of International Boundaries, Dr. Alec McEwen) It should then coincide with the line on the map. Or if it is written text, then care should be taken to use the proper words, without any doubt. Demarcation: It is explained in the following terminology: “It is a field operation; its purpose is to mark the position on the ground for all to see.” (The Demarcation and Maintenance of International Boundaries, Dr. Alec McEwen) A joint commission of equal number of members from each country undertakes it. It may call the physical marking on the ground. 2
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 Delineation: It may become clear from this: “It is the graphical or the mathematical representation of the boundary.” (The Demarcation and Maintenance of International Boundaries, Dr. Alec McEwen) Mostly, a joint commission undertakes both of the demarcation and delineation. They then publish the results that include reports, photographs, other illustration, maps, and tables showing geographical positions of the monuments, and survey control stations. Allocation Delimition Demarcation Maintenance Mangement Overview of Definitions: At times, delimitation and demarcation overlaps, till the late ends of 19 th century, the 1st attempt were made to separate them. The first attempt to separate the two stages was made by Captain A. H. (later Sir Henry) McMahon at a meeting of the Royal Artillery Institution in 1896. During the discussion of a singularly dull paper by Lt. Col. Trotter on the demarcation of the Sierra Leone boundary (Trotter, 1897), McMahon said: “I think when one is talking of a science it is not out of place to consider the name of that science. In my opinion, delimitation (which, as we know, is a new word, not to be found in any dictionary, at least not in Webster or Johnson or any classical dictionary) means the laying down – not the laying down on the ground, but the definition on paper, either in words or on a map – of the limits of a country. Delimitation covers...all the preliminary processes and procedure involved before a boundary is laid down on the ground... Having done all that, you then come to work on the ground, and then the process ceases to be delimitation and becomes demarcation.” 3
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 McMahon’s suggestion only gradually caught on. The 1902 Award in the ArgentineChile Case (Edward VII 1902) refers to ‘definition’ and ‘delineation’ of the border followed by ‘fixing the boundary on the spot’, though the accompanying report by Col. Sir Thomas Holdich (Holdich, 1902) refers to ‘the actual demarcation’. By the time Lord Curzon came to give the Romanes Lectures (Curzon, 1907) the idea seems to have taken hold as he adds a footnote to the word ‘demarcation’. “I use the word intentionally as applying to the final stage and the marking out of the boundary on the spot. Diplomatic agents and documents habitually confound the meaning of the two words ‘delimitation’ and ‘demarcation’, using them as if they were interchangeable terms. This is not the case. Delimitation signifies all the earlier processes for determining a boundary, down to and including its embodiment in a Treaty or Convention. But when the local Commissioners get to work, it is not delimitation but demarcation on which they are engaged.” Preparation Phase of Demarcation: The few of the steps are as follows that are used in the preparation of international demarcation. But these steps can be used up to requirement for local area demarcation. They are as follows: Preparation Phase: 1. Reaching and maintaining the political consensus. 2. Creating an institutional framework (joint commission). 3. Securing the finance. 4. Training of the boundary workers. 5. Legal and technical data collection. 6. Social and geographical settlements. 7. Will of local community. 8. Evaluate the working condition. Field Work: 1. Identify the ground control points. 2. Recover the old marking. 4
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 3. Rebuild or destroy the old markings. 4. Build new intermediate markings. 5. Survey all boundary marks. 6. Perform computational analysis. 7. Compile up satellite images. 8. Map all features. 9. Produce boundary map. So, by the term “Boundary Demarcation Survey” means all the procedures, preparation, and field work that the boundary workers do for marking the boundary on the ground for all to see. Uses: This type of survey can be used in: 1. Marking the International boarders 2. Marking Property boundaries 3. Marking Reservoir boundaries 4. For Residential Land Use 5. For Revenue generation 6. By Municipal committees 5
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey R 2013 eservoir Boundary Demarcation One of the applications of the Boundary Demarcation Survey is in the dam reservoir estimation. By surveying the correct control points, the area and capacity calculation of the reservoir is done accurately. Now what is reservoir? “A reservoir is a large, artificial lake created by constructing a dam across a river.” While broadly speaking, any lake or water pool may be included in this term. Fig.1. Dam Reservoir Reservoir can be: 1. Single-purpose Reservoir 2. Multi-Purpose Reservoir Reservoirs can be of many types: 1. Storage Reservoir 2. Flood Control Reservoir 3. Distribution Reservoir 4. Balancing Reservoir 5. Hydropower Reservoir 6
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 6. Irrigation Reservoir Available Storage Capacity of a Reservoir: Whatever may be the use of a reservoir, its most important function is to store water during floods and to release it later. The storage capacity of a reservoir is, therefore, its most important characteristics. The available storage capacity of a reservoir depends upon the topography of the site and the height of dam. To determine the available storage capacity of a reservoir upto a certain level of water, engineering surveys are usually conducted. For accurate determination of the capacity, a topographic survey of the reservoir area is usually conducted, and a contour map of the area is prepared. A contour plan of the area is prepared to a scale of 1 cm = 100 m or 150 m with a contour interval of 1 to 3 m, depending upon the size of the reservoir. The storage capacity and the water spread area at different elevations can be determined from the contour map, as explained below: Area-Elevation Curve: From the contour plan, the water spread area of the reservoir at any elevation is determined by measuring the area enclosed by the corresponding contour. Generally, a planimeter is used for measuring the area. An elevation-area curve is then drawn between the area as abscissa the elevation as surface and ordinate. Fig.2. EAC Curve 7
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 Elevation-Capacity Curve: The storage capacity of the reservoir at any elevation is determined from the water spread area at various elevations. The following formulae are commonly used to determine the storage capacity (i.e. storage volumes): Fig.3. ECC Curve 1. Trapezoidal Formula 2. Cone Formula 3. Prismoidal Formula Combined Diagram: It is the usual practice to plot both the elevation -area curve and the elevationstorage curve on the same paper. The reader should carefully note the abscissa marking as the areas and volumes increase in the opposite directions 8
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey Fig.4. Combined Diagram (EAC + ECC) 9 2013
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 Chapter 2 Objective The objective is to study the reservoir of a dam by using survey data. Study Area The study area belongs to the “Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme” South Waziristan, FATA, Pakistan, on the Tank-Wana Road. Data Sources The data is available in by precise survey of that particular area for the year 2010. Data Format The data is in auto-cad drawing format. The contours lines are measured and mentioned. Software The software used is: 1. Auto-cad (2007) 2. Arc GIS (9.3) 3. Microsoft Excel (2013) Given Task Our task is to measure the elevation, area and volume of the reservoir. In order to show the relation between, elevation-capacity curve and elevation-area curve. Methodology It includes 2 major steps as follows: Step 01: 1. Open ArcGIS V9.3. 10
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 2. Add Cad File... double click... just add “POLYLINES”, because we have to take in contours only. 3. Export those lines by right clicking the added file. 4. Now go to the “SELECTION BY ATTRIBUTES”: a. Select from Exported file. b. Apply query as: “Layers = INDEX OR Layers= INTERMEDIATE”. c. Check the UNIQUE VALUES for “INDEX & INTERMEDIATE”. d. Press OK. 5. Contours are selected in a result of the above selection. 6. Export that selection to get Only contours. 7. Create a polygon shape file with projection “Pak Zone 1”. a. For this add, pre-defined projection file for “Pak Zone 1 & 2” in “:C/Program Files/ArcGIS/Coordinate Systems”. 8. Select the MAXIMUM CONTOUR (1393m) by Selection Feature from general toolbar. 9. Mark boundary around the maximum contour, including the Dam Axis, but nothing beyond axis. And another polygon around the dam axis with much larger horizontal extent as polygon_2. 10. CLIP the contours within the boundary by using: “Analysis-Extract- Clip”. a. Input=Contours b. Clip=Boundary 11. Open Attribute Table of Clipped feature, and sort out for Zero Elevation (check the min = 1379 and re-check the max = 1393). 12. Convert the Clipped feature into DEM and also the 2nd polygon, separately, by using: “3D Analyst-Raster Interpolation-Topo to Raster”. a. Input= Contour & Boundary b. For Contour: Select Elevation c. For Boundary: Select FID d. Cell size=1 13. Can also convert the Clipped feature and polygon_2 in TIN, by: “3D AnalystCreate/modify TIN-Create TIN from Features”. 14. Now note down the Area(2D), Surface Area(3D), and Volume, after every 0.5m by using : “3D Analyst-Surface Analysis-Area/Volume” as: 11
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey a. Height of plane=1 b. CHECK: statistics below the plane c. Z=1 d. Click Calculate Statistics every-time. Step 02: 1. Note down the values of Elevation, Area, Surface Area and Volume. 2. Add the values in the excel sheet, note pad or word. 3. Create 5 graphs in Excel as: a. Create a graph of Elevation Vs Area (EAC). b. Create a graph of Elevation Vs Surface Area. c. Create a graph of Elevation Vs Volume (ECC). Graph’s Units: 1. EAC curve in Meters. 2. EAC curve with surface area in Meters. 3. ECC curve in Meters. 4. ECC curve with Volume in Acre feet. Observation and Calculations Following figures describe the process and observations as: Fig.5. Input data in Cad format 12 2013
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey Fig.6.Extracted data from Cad drawing Fig.7. Output raster 13 2013
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey Fig.8. Cross-sectional view (raster) Fig.9. Cross-sectional View 14 2013
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 The following data has been obtained by using ArcGIS v 9.3: Serial Interval Area_2D Surface Volume Volume Interval No (m) (m2) Area_3D (m3) (acre feet) (feet) Elevation (m2) Elevation 1 1378.5 43.06 43.06 0.45 0.000364821 4522.637795 2 1379 469.59 470.25 132.63 0.107524865 4524.278215 3 1379.5 852.27 855 464.61 0.376665367 4525.918635 4 1380 1216.65 1223 979.13 0.79379342 4527.559055 5 1380.5 2387.13 2399.24 1836.8 1.489117638 4529.199475 6 1381 3599.25 3620.8 3317.16 2.689264735 4530.839895 7 1381.5 6215.77 6249.66 5627.02 4.561898265 4532.480315 8 1382 7803.06 7854.51 9201.41 7.459702705 4534.120735 9 1382.5 9499.96 9573.24 13449.64 10.90379799 4535.761155 10 1383 12790.48 12889.68 18984.35 15.39085934 4537.401575 11 1383.5 18063.86 18191.76 26683.72 21.63283869 4539.041995 12 1384 22477.97 22639.39 36830.07 29.85861654 4540.682415 13 1384.5 26506.21 26705.57 49081.31 39.79085607 4542.322835 14 1385 30522.05 30764.75 63342.2 51.35234499 4543.963255 15 1385.5 35322.88 35618.11 79711.94 64.62350601 4545.603675 16 1386 38896.98 39253.87 98417.37 79.78824128 4547.244094 17 1386.5 41766.46 42192.31 118559.29 96.11755767 4548.884514 18 1387 44986.31 45488.02 140215.1 113.6742044 4550.524934 19 1387.5 48896.59 49481.39 163747.66 132.7523567 4552.165354 20 1388 53879.04 54554.37 189227.79 153.4094293 4553.805774 21 1388.5 59508.94 60284.52 217837.37 176.6035877 4555.446194 22 1389 63583.73 64468.39 248629.37 201.5670624 4557.086614 23 1389.5 67748.26 68750.37 281486.38 228.2046676 4558.727034 24 1390 72073.72 73199.86 316402.6 256.5117011 4560.367454 25 1390.5 76873.26 78130.08 353503.06 286.5895263 4562.007874 26 1391 82102.86 83497.3 393188.87 318.7633284 4563.648294 27 1391.5 87206.12 88745.99 435500.34 353.0657871 4565.288714 15
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 28 1392 93158.49 94849.9 480570.74 389.6049463 4566.929134 29 1392.5 100722.72 102573.15 529039.37 428.8990948 4568.569554 30 1393 107509.37 109526.27 581199.92 471.1863307 4570.209974 31 1393.5 113138.62 115330.12 636412.98 515.9482763 4571.850394 32 1394 116184.25 118556.37 693852.51 562.5152499 4573.490814 33 1394.5 118180.19 120737.11 752472.3 610.0390757 4575.131234 34 1395 119845.75 122590.76 811985.94 658.2875574 4576.771654 Total 16.5 1684031.85 1711308.17 7751891.4 6284.559133 154689.9606 Table.1. Calculations Results The important graphical results are as follows: EA_Curve 1396 119845.75, 1395 1394 ELEVATION (M) 1392 1390 1388 1386 Series1 1384 1382 1380 1378 1376 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 AREA (SQ M) Fig.10. EAC (2D area in sq m) 16 100000 120000 140000
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 Surface Area_Curve 1396 122590.76, 1395 1394 ELEVATION(M) 1392 1390 1388 1386 Series1 1384 1382 1380 1378 1376 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 SURFACE AREA (SQ M) Fig.11. EAC (3D area in sq m) EC_Curve 1396 811985.94, 1395 1394 1392 ELEVATION(M) 1390 1388 1386 Series1 1384 1382 1380 1378 1376 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 VOLUME (METER CUBE) Fig.12. ECC (in meter cube) 17
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 EC_Curve 4580 ELEVATION (FT) 4570 4560 4550 4540 Interval (ft) 4530 4520 4510 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 VOLUME (ACRE FEET) Fig.13. ECC (in acre feet) EAC+ECC AREA (SQ M)_SERIES 1 140000 1396 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 1394 ELEVATION (M) 1392 1390 1388 1386 1384 1382 1380 1378 1376 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 VOLUME (METER CUBE)_SERIES 2 Series2 Series1 Fig.14. EAC+ECC (in meters) 18 700000 800000 900000
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 ELEVATION (M) Cross-Section 1406 1404 1402 1400 1398 1396 1394 1392 1390 1388 1386 1384 1382 1380 1378 1376 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 DISTANCE (M) Series1 Figure.15. Cross-sectional View (excel_2013) Figure.16. Cross-sectional View (cad_2007) 19
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 The following are the results tabular form: No Serial Minimum Value Maximum Value at at 1379 m Summation 1393 m 01. Area (m2) 43.06 119845.75 1684031.85 02. Surface Area (m2) 43.06 122590.76 1711308.17 03. Volume (m3) 0.45 811985.94 7751891.4 0.000364821 658.2875574 6284.559133 04. Volume (acre feet) Table.2. Results 20
• Kundiwam Irrigation Scheme _ Boundary Demarcation Survey 2013 References 1. Criteria for determining municipal boundaries and categorization of Metropolitan municipalities (Bid no ao3/2010mdb), Report prepared for: municipal demarcation board By: Professor Robert Cameron, Department of political studies, University of Cape Town, Professor John Meligrana, School of urban and regional planning, Queen’s university, Kingston, Canada 2. Delimitation and demarcation of boundaries in Africa. The user’s guide African union border programme (aubp) 3. The demarcation and maintenance of International boundaries, Prepared for the Canadian Commissioner of the Canada/United States international boundary commission, who presented it at a training workshop on the demarcation and maintenance of International boundaries, held at the University of Durham, 8-10 July 2002, By Dr. Alec McEwen 4. Chapter 3: Reservoir, Ce_05016_ch3_4 5. Mapping in support of frontier arbitration: Delimitation and demarcation By: Dennis Rush-Worth 21