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Koppen classification 2011 Koppen classification 2011 Document Transcript

  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 1Submitted Topic: Kooppen Climatic Classification SystemSubmitted To: Sir.Salman TariqSubmitted By: Atiqa Ijaz KhanRoll no.: SS09-03Date of Submission: 17th–Nov-2011
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 21) The Classical Age of Climatic Classification 03a. Kooppen System 03b. Thornthwaite System 032) The Modified Koopen System 03a. 1stletterb. 2ndletterc. 3rdletter3) Detailed Classification 07a. Climate and Temperature 07i. Tropical Moist 071. Af2. Am3. Awii. Dry Climate 081. Bw2. Bsiii. Moist_subtropical Mid-latitude Climate 081. Cfa2. Cfb3. Csiv. Moist Continental Mid-latitude Climate 081. Dfa2. Dfb3. Dfw, Dfc, Dwd, Dwcv. Polar Climate 091. ET2. EFb. Climate and Vegetation 09i. Tropical Climate.ii. Desert Climateiii. Mid-latitude Climateiv. Moist wintersv. Polar Climate4) High lands 155) Short Summary 166) References 21
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 3The Classical Age of Climatic Classification:Because of the relatively short data records and the massive amount of the atmospheric data collected fromindividual weather stations, the identification of the true climatic regions is a relatively recent endeavor.This age has been broadly classified into two major types as:1. Kooppen Climatic Classification: A widely used classification of world climates based on the annual andmonthly averages of temperature and precipitation was devised by the famous German scientist WaldimirKöppen (1846– 1940). Initially published in 1918,the original Köppen classification system has since beenmodified and refined. Faced with the lack of adequate observing stations throughout the world, Köppen relatedthe distribution and type of native vegetation to the various climates. In this way, climatic boundaries could beapproximated where no climatological data were available.2. Thornthwaite Climatic Classification: This was formulated by C. Wrren Thornthwiate in 1931 and completedin 1948. It represent an alternative to the Kooppen classification system.The Modified Kooppen Classification System:The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used system for classifying theworlds climates. Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperatureand precipitation. The Köppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type isdesignated by a capital letter.Classical ageof climaticclassificationKoopppenClassificationThornthwaiteClassififcation
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 41stletter:Code Type DescriptionA Tropical climate Monthly average temperature > 18°C No winter season Strong annual precipitations (higher than evaporation)BDry climate /Desert Annual evaporation higher than precipitations No permanent riversCHot moderateclimate The 3 coldest months average a temperature between -3°C and 18°C Hottest month average temperature > 10°C The summer and winter seasons are well definedDCold moderateclimate Coldest month average temperature of the coldest month < -3°C Hottest month average temperature > 10°C The seasons summer and winter seasons are well definedE Polar climate  Average temperature of the hottest month > 10°C The summer season is very little different from the rest of the year2ndletter:Code Description Applies toS  Steppe climate (semi-arid) Annual precipitations range between 380 and 760 mmBW  Dry (Arid and semi-arid) climates Annual precipitations < 250 mmBF Wet climate Precipitations occur every month of the year No dry seasonA-C-DW Dry season in winterA-C-D
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 5Examples:1. Af: Tropical rain forest climate. Examples : Singapore, Belém, Brazil.2. Aw: Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. Examples : Bangalore, India, Veracruz, Mexico, Townsville,Australia.3. Am: Tropical monsoon climate. Examples : Conakry, Guinea, Chittagong, Bangladesh.4. BS: steppe climate5. BW: desert climate6. Cf: humid moderate climate without dry seasons7. CW: humid moderate climate with dry winter8. Cs: Mediterranean climate : humid moderate climate with dry summer9. Df: cold continental climate without dry season10. Dw: cold continental climate with dry winter11. ET: Tundra climate. Examples : Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Provideniya, Russia. Deception Island,Antarctica. Longyearbyen, Svalbard.12. EF: Ice cap climate13. EM: subarctic maritime climateS Dry season in summerCM Monsoon climate: Annual precipitations > 1500 mm Precipitations of the driest month < 60 mmAT Average temperature of the hottest month between 0 and 10°CEF Average temperature of the hottest month < 0°CEM  Abundant precipitations Mild winterE
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 63rdletterA third letter allows us to refine the B,C and D climate types. It is related to the temperature variations.Code DescriptionApplies toa: hot summer Average temperature of the hottest month > 22°CC-Db: moderate summer  Average temperature of the hottest month < 22°C The 4 hottest months average temperatures > 10°CC-DC: short and coldsummer Average temperature of the hottest month < 22°C Monthly average temperatures > 10°C for less than 4 months Average temperature of the coldest month > -38°CC-DD: very cold winter Average temperature of the coldest month < -38°CDH: dry and heat Annual average temperature > 18°CBK: dry and cold Annual average temperature < 18°CBExamples :1. BWh : Sahara2. BWh : Yuma, Arizona3. Cfb : France4. Dfc : Siberia5. Etw : Canadas Yukon Territory
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 7Detailed Classification:This detailed classification has been divided into two types as:1-Climate and Temperature:1) Tropical Moist Climates (A)Tropical moist climates extend northward and southward from the equator to about 15 to 25degrees of latitude. In these climates all months have average temperatures greater than 18degrees Celsius. Annual precipitation is greater than 1500 mm.Three minor Köppen climate types exist in the A group and their designation is based on seasonal distributionof rainfall.a) Af or tropical wet is a tropical the climate where precipitation occurs all year long. Monthlytemperature variations in this climate are less than 3 degrees Celsius. Because of intense surfaceheating and high humidity cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds form early in the afternoons almostevery day. Daily highs are about 32 degrees Celsius while night time temperatures average 22degrees Celsius.b) Am is a tropical monsoon climate. Annual rainfall is equal to or greater thanAf, but falls in the 7 to 9 hottest months. During the dry season very little rainfall occurs.c) Tropical wet and dry or savanna (Aw) has an extended dry season during winter. Precipitationduring the wet season is usually less than 1000 millimeters and only during the summer season.Baobob and acia in East AfricaDetailedClassificationClimate andtemperatureClimate andVegetation
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 82) Dry Climates (B)The most obvious climatic feature of these climate is potential evaporation and transpirationexceed precipitation. These climates extend from 20 - 35 degrees North and South of the equatorand in large continental regions of the mid-latitudes often surrounded by mountains. Minor typesof this climate include:a) Bw - dry arid (desert) is a true desert climate. It covers 12 % of the earths land surfaceand is dominated by xerophytic vegetation.b) Bs - dry semiarid (steppe). Is a grassland climate that covers 14% of the earths landsurface. It receives more precipitation than the Bw either from the intertropicalconvergence zone or from mid-latitude cyclones.Cumulus cloud over steep grassland of WesternNorth America3) Moist Subtropical Mid-Latitude Climates (C)This climate generally has warm and humid summers with mild winters. Its extent is from 30 to 50degrees of latitude mainly on the eastern and western borders of most continents. During thewinter the main weather feature is the mid-latitude cyclone. Convective thunderstorms dominatesummer months. Three minor types exist:a) Cfa-humid subtropical: The humid subtropical climate (Cfa) has hot muggy summers and mainlythunderstorms. Winters are mild and precipitation during this season comes from mid-latitudecyclones. A good example of a Cfa climate is the southeastern USA.b) Cfb- marine: climates are found on the western coasts of continents. They have a humid climate with shortdry summer. Heavy precipitation occurs during the mild winters because of continuous presence ofmidlatitude cyclones.c) Mediterranean climates (Cs): receive rain primarily during winter season from the mid-latitudecyclone. Extreme summer aridity is caused by the sinking air of the subtropical highs and may exist for up to 5months. Locations in North America are from Portland, Oregon to all of California.4) Moist Continental Mid-latitude Climates (D)Moist continental mid-latitude climates have warm to cool summers and cold winters. The locationof these climates is pole ward of the C climates. The warmest month is greater than 10 degreesCelsius, while the coldest month is less than -30 degrees Celsius. Winters are severe withsnowstorms, strong winds, bitter cold from Continental Polar or Arctic air masses. Like the Cclimates there are three minor types:a) Hot summer (Dfa): Distinctive four seasons with marked temperature. US from eastern to Midwestb) Mild summer (Dfb): Less precipitation,less humid and drier.c) Subarctic(Dfc, Dfd, Dwd, Dwc): Serve winters with clear sky dominated by high pressure.
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 9Conifers (Dw)5) Polar Climates (E)Polar climates have year-round cold temperatures with warmest month less than 10 degreesCelsius. Polar climates are found on the northern coastal areas of North America and Europe,Asia and on the landmasses of Greenland and Antarctica. Two minor climate types exist as:a) ET or polar tundra is a climate where the soil is permanently frozen to depths of hundreds of meters, acondition known as permafrost. Vegetation is dominated by mosses, lichens, dwarf trees andscattered woody shrubs.b) EF or polar ice caps has a surface that is permanently covered withsnow and ice.2-Climate and vegetationKoppen used vegetation groups to aid in climate classification. Koppen used definite temperatureand precipitation criteria to distinguish between climate types.Tropical (A) ClimatesAll tropical climates are warm; the subdivisions are based on differences in preicipitation.Tropical Rainforest (AF) Climate Located in the ITCZ (10-15 N/S).Diurnal range in temperature is greater than the difference between the warmest and coolestmonths (annual range).Every month has precipitation and no month is deficient in rainfall. This high amount of rainfallkeeps the soil moisture at capacity.a) Tropical Rainforest (AF) ClimateVegetation Tropical rainforest vegetation is very closely associated with the tropical rainforestclimate.Representative areas include: Amazon Basin Congo Basin in Africa, parts of the Indo-Malaysianarea of Asia.The tropical rainforest is densely forested.Three levels of vegetation are frequently recognized in the typical rainforest as:Climate and TermperatureTropical (A)Af Am AwDry(B)Bs BwMid-latitude(C)Cfa Cfb CsMoistcontenental(D)Dfa DfbDfc, Dfb,Dwd,DwcPolar(E)ET EF
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 10 The high level consists of solitary giant trees that reach heights of 200 feet extending farabove the rest of the forest. The middle layer of trees grow to heights of 100-130 feet and makes a massive canopywhich sunlight has difficulty penetrating. Beneath the middle layer is the bottom portion of the forest which has little undergrowthbecause of lack of sunlight.The tree trunks are slender with few branches.The crowns begin at great heights where sunlight isavailable.70% of all plant species growing in the tropical rainforest are trees.There is great divesity of species with no pure stands of trees. A single acre may contain 50 species of trees. Anumber of other plants other then trees have adapted themselves to the environment: Lianas - plants that do not have rigid stems, vine-like. They use trees as support to growtowards the sunlight. Epiphytes - such as bromeliads and orchids make homes in the trees deriving moisturefrom the air. Although the ground in the rainforest is clear from undergrowth it is difficultto get around.The soil is always wet so tree roots do not go deep into the soil.Buttresses fan out 10-15 feet on all sides as support.The soil in tropical rainforests is extremely poor, and is very acid. The luxuriant vegetation growsin infertile soil.Nutrients are locked up in the vegetation that falls to the forest floor. Since there are notemperature or precipitation seasons here leaves fall when they die throughout the year. Thicklayers of plant material collect on the rainforest floor. This material decays quickly in the hot,humid climate and releases its nutrients immediately. Extensive root systems close to the surfacesoak up the nutrients quickly. If the rainforest is not disturbed, growth can go on indefinitely.As soon as an area is deforested, intense leaching of the soil begins and remaining nutrients canbe depleted in several years. If these fields are abandoned, secondary forest moves in that maytake centuries to return to rainforest.b) Tropical Monsoon (Am) ClimateAlways hot, seasonally excessively moist. Similar to tropical rainforest (Af) climate in temperatureconditions.Distinguish: It is distinguished from Af by its rainfall regime. The winter/summer reversal of airflow brings dryand wet seasons to the Am climate.Am vegetation: The forest becomes less dense with individual trees more widely spaced. Ground cover isheavier because more light penetrates to the ground surface. The forest is semi-deciduous, i.e. sometrees drop their leaves during the dry season and some retain their leaves. The trees that retainleaves have adaptations to dry weather that include: deep or extensive roots. small leaves thickcuticles. Many of the trees found in the rainforest are also found in the semi-deciduous forest butdrop their leaves during the dry season. Somewhat pure stands of trees occur including: teak,ebony, mahogony, cacao, rubber and banana.c) Tropical Wet & Dry(Aw) ClimateNorth and south of the Af climate are areas where the ITCZ penetrates during the high sun periodbringing convectional precipitation. During the low sun period the trade winds dominate bringing adistinct dry season.Aw vegetation: Move poleward to tropical climates with less annual rainfalland longer dry seasons, the vegetation shows xerophytic adaptations. Xerophytic adaptationsinclude low growing trees to reduce water loss from wind, thick bark, small leaves or thorns.On the equator side of the Aw climate trees are present and this forest can be very luxurious duringthe wet season but life less during the dry season. As trees become more and more scatteredbecause of the increasing dry period, grasses become dominant. This is Savanna vegetation andis found in the drier Aw climates and well into the BS climate. The grasses have dense rootsystems and can absorb moisture rapidly so very little rain makes it past the roots deep into thesoil. During the dry season the tops of the grasses die but the roots remain viable. The dead
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 11grasses insulate the roots form cold and drought. Trees are found in the Savanna but are widelyseparated because of lack of moisture and need for extensive root systems. Root systems areoriented either vertically (very deep to tap deep soil moisture, typically 10 times height of tree), orhorizontally (close to surface to absorb maximum amount of rainfall, typically 5-7 times height oftree). Deep-rooted trees have a shortened dormancy period because they can tap deep soilmoisture during dry season.Examples: Tree/shrub species found on Savanna: Acacia, Eucalyptus.Chaprral vegetation in North AmericaDesert Climates (BS, BW)a) Semi-arid Hot Climate (BSh) or Low-latitude Steppe:This climate is found surrounding the low-latitude deserts. You cannot distinguish between Bshand BWh climates by temperature only, but consider precipitation also. Although the precipitationin the BSh climate is not very much, it is greater than the deserts. The typical steppe has 10"precipitation per year and always less than 30". Seasonal distribution varies. BSh climates on theequator side receive 80% of rainfall during the high-sun period when the ITCZ migrates to theregion. The steppes on the poleward side of the low-latitude deserts experience maximumprecipitation during the low-sun period. Precipitation is mainly from cyclonic fronts thatoccasionally swing far south. The water balance shows a deficit throughout the year.b) Low-Latitude Deserts (BWh)These deserts lie approximately between 18-28 in both hemispheres. They coincide with theequatorward edge of the subtropical high pressure belt and trade winds. Includes the worldsgreat deserts: Sahara, Sonoran, Thar, Kalahari, Great Australian.Desert Vegetation: Deserts are regions where PEVT is much higher than annual precipitation.The name desert was originally a term describing vegetation that was coined in North Africa.Desert means "plants that are evenly spaced". Western civilization applies the term desert to bothvegetation and climate.All deserts have some plant life. Even the driest deserts, which appear without plant life most ofthe time, contain dormant seeds that come to life after rare showers. The rain showers may beyears apart.
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 12Creosote and cacti in Southwestern AmericaIn the worlds deserts there are two major types of plant life: Species nourished directly be rain and may be dormant for long periods of time. Areannuals and perannials. Other plants live in protected areas, e.g. valleys and depressions and seek water throughtheir extensive root systems.Desert plants have to survive extreme dryness and drastic diurnal and annual temperatureranges.Example:Location/Temp. Average max. temp. Average min. temp. RangeLima, Peru 89F 51F 38FYuma, Ariz. 113 31 89Reno, Nev. 98 -1 99Kazalinsk,Russia 103 -21 124Many desert plants are adapted to use dew for moisture and can take in water through leavesand stem.1) Adaptation of Xerophytic Plants: Have extensive root systems oriented either horizontally or vertically. Above ground plants have compact growth with leaves hugging the ground. Leaves have thick cuticles. Leaves are small or absent or have hairs that raise wind off surface.2) Growth Forms of Desert Plants: Leafless Evergreen Shrub - e.g. Cactus, which is found in the Americas or Euphorbiafound in Africa. Have shallow, poorly developed root systems but can store a lot of water.Leaves are absent but trunk is green and can photosynthesize. Deciduous Shrubs - major component of desert vegetation. They leaf out only whensufficient water is present. Can leaf out more than once a year. Growth is very fast in wetperiods. Ephemerals - only present when enough water falls to ensure a complete growth cycle.e.g. grasses annuals - have fragrent, colorful flowers to ensure pollenation. Seeds knowwhen to sprout because outer covering is abraded or chemical is washed off.
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 13Mid-Latitude Climates ("C"- Cs/Cf/Cm)These climates (C) are located in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. They are characterized byseasonality in temperature. Have mild winters. Different "C" climates based on seasonality ofprecipitation (f,w,s), and severity of winter (a,b,c). Precipitation regimes depend upon theirposition relative to the subtropical high pressure belt and the polar front.a) Dry Subtropical Climate (Csa) or Mediterranean:The Mediterranean basin contains the largest area of this climate. This climate is found on thewest coasts of middle latitude continents in for example, California, Central Chili, South Africa,Western/Central Australia.Sclerophyll Forest: Largest area of development in Mediterranean Basin. Associated with Cfaclimate. The vegetation of this forest is dominated by an evergreen, leathery, drought-resistantfoliage. Heights range from 18 inches to 10 feet. The woody vegetation varies depending uponthe length of the dry season.In the wettest areas of this climate tree species include cork, pine, oak and olive. These treesprovide an open canopy. In drier areas trees tend to disappear and shrubs form a dense coveringover the ground. In the drier areas the shrub cover is discontinuous and lower, reflecting the lackof water.b) Subtropical (Cfa) ClimateFound on the Southeastern side of continents primarily between 30-40. In the U.S. and China, polar air massesbring cold "spells" in winter.Mid-Latitude Deciduous Forest: This forest community is generally associated with the Cfa andDfa climates, i.e. continental climates with mild winters. This forest is found in easternU.S./southern Canada, NW Europe, southern tip South America, East Asia.Approximately 5000 different species of plants here compared with 50,000 in Tropical Rainforest..There are 2-3 layers of vegetation present: canopy layer (100) understory of bushes not well developed, thick ground cover in early spring when trees have not leafed out yet.Leaves of Decidous brust(Cfa & Dfa)The Mid-latitude Deciduous Forest has great extent both latitudinally and longitudinally. Thisforest is not homogeneous but has dominent species in different areas because of the wide rangeof temperature and precipitation that is experienced in this forest. The center of the EasternDeciduous Forest is located in the Smokies and Cumberland mountains. There are as many as25 different dominant species in the Eastern Deciduous Forest, all dominent in different areas.c) Marine West Coast (Cfb) ClimateThis climate lies poleward of the dry subtropical climates on the western sides of continents andcan extend quite a distance. The prevailing westerlies constantly bring in moisture from theoceans and if a warm ocean current is present off-shore the climate is even more moist and mild.The degree to which this climate extends inland depends on the presence or absence of
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 14mountain barriers. Locations: The west coast of U.S. from N. California to the panhandle of Alaska. Southern Chile (narrow band because of mountains). NW Europe - extends far inland because of lack of North-South trending mountains.This climate (Cfb) is very mild because of the modifying effects of the ocean. This climate doesnot have large seasonal extremes of temperature, summers are cool and winters are mild.Average summer temps are 60-65F. Average winter temps are 30-45F. Freezing temperaturesare more frequent and more severe then in the Humid Subtropics but the growing season is stillquite long (6-8 months) considering the latitude.Rainfall is adequate throughout the year, the water budget always shows a surplus. Places suchas Europe get 25-30 inches per year. Evaporation rates are low so rainfall is very effective. Inareas with mountain barriers precipitation can be high (40-100"/year) on the windward side.Moist, Severe Winter (D) CimatesThese climates are found poleward of the "C" climates. The "D" climates have longer, colderwinters and greater annual range of temperature as compared with "C" climates. The boundarybetween C/D climates is where the coldest month averages below 32F.Boreal Forest (assoc. with Cfa, Cfb, Dfa, Dfb) / Tiaga: the Boreal Forest occurs under a numberof climatic regimes. The Boreal Forest is associated with climates having cool summers and coldwinters. The trees are evergreen and are conifers. They have special adaptations to the severeclimate. The air is dry here so plants need adaptations for temperature and precipitationfluctuations. Small leaves have thick cuticles. Trees are conical shaped to allow snow to fall offbranches. The canopy is closed and is low to the ground. There is little ground cover. There arefew species of trees in the Tiaga but you find extensive pure stands. Representative speciesinclude spruce, larch (tamarack), fir birch, pine. Humid continental (Dfa): land of tall parire grasses Humid continental(Dfb): More firs, pines and root plant(potatoes), apples, cherries etc.with shorter growing seasons Subarctic(Dwd, dfd, dwc, dfw):No agriculture, with open land area normally “taigaforest”Tagia forestPolar (E) Climatesa) Tundra (ET) ClimateThis climate lacks a summer. Its southern boundary is the northern limit of the forest. Thisboundary occurs approximately with the July 50F isotherm which means the warmest month, inthe Tundra, averages 50F. The dividing line between the ET and EF climate is 32F for warmestmonth. The ET climate has long, cold winters and short summers similar to Alabama in January.Only 2-4 months have average temperatures above freezing.Tundra Vegetation:The transition from Boreal Forest to treeless Tundra is very gradual with treespecies thinning out and becoming dwarfed. Although the tundra receives little precipitation(some call it a frozen desert) it remains as snow and insulates the ground in winter. The tundra is
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 15underlain by permafrost which produces poor drainage in summer.A Flow Chart:High lands(H): It is not necessary to visit polar regions to experience. Because tepmperature de reases withlatitude. Climatic change experincewithin 300m in elevatin is equal to horizontal distance of 300km northward forthese changes. Therefore, climbing a mountain makes able to experience different climatic zones within shorterperiod of time.Climate andVegetationTropical (A)AfAmAwDesert (B)BshBwhWarm andmoist (C)CfaCbaCsaCool andmoist (D)Polar(E)
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 16Koppen Climate Classification Chart in a Short Summary:A Tropical humid Af Tropical wet No dry seasonAmTropicalmonsoonalShort dry season; heavy monsoonal rains in other monthsAwTropicalsavannaWinter dry seasonB Dry BWhSubtropicaldesertLow-latitude desertBShSubtropicalsteppeLow-latitude dryBWkMid-latitudedesertMid-latitude desertBSkMid-latitude steppeMid-latitude dryCMild Mid-Latitude Csa Mediterranean Mild with dry, hot summerCsb Mediterranean Mild with dry, warm summerCfaHumidsubtropicalMild with no dry season, hot summerCwaHumidMild with dry winter, hot summer
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 17subtropicalCfbMarine westcoastMild with no dry season, warm summerCfcMarine westcoastMild with no dry season, cool summerDSevere Mid-Latitude DfaHumidcontinentalHumid with severe winter, no dry season, hot summerDfbHumidcontinentalHumid with severe winter, no dry season, warm summerDwaHumidcontinentalHumid with severe, dry winter, hot summerDwbHumidcontinentalHumid with severe, dry winter, warm summerDfc Subarctic Severe winter, no dry season, cool summerDfd Subarctic Severe, very cold winter, no dry season, cool summerDwc Subarctic Severe, dry winter, cool summerDwd Subarctic Severe, very cold and dry winter, cool summerEPolar ET Tundra Polar tundra, no true summer
  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 18EF Ice Cap Perennial iceHHighland
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  • Koppen Climatic Classification System 2011Friday, June 07, 2013 Page 211. www.about.com (28-10-11)2. www.blueplanetbiomes.com (11-11-11)3. Climatology by Robert V. Rohli and Anthony J. Vega4. www.elmhurst.edu (28-10-11)5. www.foa.org (11-11-11)6. www.gpcc.dwd.de (28-10-11)7. www.meterologyclimate.com (28-10-11)8. Meterology Today by C. Donald Ahrens. 9thEdtion.9. www.mjksciteachhinngs.ideas.com (28-10-11)10. www.nationalgeographic.com (28-10-11)11. www.srh.noaa.gov. (11-11-11)