Introduction to Remote Sensing_2014

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Introduction to Remote Sensing_2014

  1. 1. Part _ 1
  2. 2. Emerging New Subjects and their applications Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 2
  3. 3. Introduction to New Fields Remote Sensing (RS) Geographic Information System (GIS) Geomatics Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 3
  4. 4. PART - 01 Remote Sensing Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 4
  5. 5. Introduction to Basics Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 5
  6. 6. Remote Sensing (RS)  “The art and science of obtaining information about an object without being in direct contact with the object” (Jensen 2000).  The science (and art) of acquiring information about an object, without entering in contact with it, by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing, and applying that information.  Information usually gathered from spacecraft or an airplane.  In from of aerial photographs to satellite images. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 6
  7. 7. Remote Sensors … Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 7 Eyes Ears Binoculars Digital Camera Pigeon Cameras 1903
  8. 8. Types of Remote Sensing Types Terrestrial RS Optical 300nm – 3000nm Thermal >3000nm-14,000nm Microwave 1mm-1m Celestial RS Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 8
  9. 9. VISION Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 9 HUMAN’s EYE Rods (to see objects at night) = 7 million Cones (to see colors) = 100 million CAT’s EYE Rods (to see objects at night) =~ 21 million Cones (to see colors) =~ far less
  10. 10. The basic principle of remote sensing is based upon the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmosphere and the earth. Electromagnetic radiation reflected or emitted from an object is the usual source of remote sensing data. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 10
  11. 11. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 11 Wavelength Frequency (how many times peak passes per second) Light - can be thought of as a wave in the 'electromagnetic field' of the universe A wave can be characterized by its wavelength or its frequency Remote sensing is concerned with the measurement of EMR returned by the earth’s natural and cultural features that first receive energy from the sun or an artificial source such as a radar transmitter. Blue green yellow red 1020 Hz 1018 Hz 1016 Hz 1014 Hz 1012 Hz 1010 Hz 1 pm 10pm 10 nm 1 micron 100 microns 1 mm 100 mm vi- si- ble Gamma Rays X-Rays UV N. IR Th. IR Microwaves Radar TV FM Radiowaves 0.4 m 0.5 m 0.6 m 0.7 m Mid IR Far IR Visible light contains light from 0.4 to 0.7 micrometers Infrared light from 0.1 micrometers to 1 millimeter
  12. 12. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 12
  13. 13. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 13
  14. 14. Resolutions Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 14 Resolutions SPATIAL Smallest identifiable area as a discrete object in an image SPECTRAL No. of frequencies recorded = sensors TEMPORAL Time interval between measurements RADIOMETRIC Intensities identified by sensors
  15. 15. Image is the Pictorial Presentation of Raster. Pixels are called as Picture elements. Size of Pixel gives the Resolution of the image. Smaller the Pixel size Larger will the Resolution. Every Raster is not image but every image is a Raster. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 15 SPATIAL RESOLUTION
  16. 16. * Vegetation in Yellowish green, * Vegetation in Red. * Water in Gray, * Water in Black. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 16 SPECTRAL RESOLUTION
  17. 17. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 17 Spectral Resolution MSS Multi-spectral Bands: 3-14 Hyper-spectral Bands: 24-224
  18. 18. Temporal Resolution (Example: for satellite in Red and Black colors) Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 18 Time July 1 July 12 July 23 August 3 11 days 16 days July 2 July 18 August 3 TEMPORAL RESOLUTION
  19. 19. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 19 1023 6-bit range 0 63 8-bit range 0 255 0 10-bit range 2-bit range 0 4 RADIOMETRIC RESOLUTION
  20. 20. Resolution of Satellite Systems Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 20 SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS  NOAA-AVHRR (1100 m)  GOES (700 m)  MODIS (250, 500, 1000 m)  Landsat TM and ETM (30 – 60 m)  SPOT (10 – 20 m)  IKONOS (4, 1 m)  Quick-bird (0.6 m)
  21. 21. *LAC: Local Area Coverage *GAC: Global Area Coverage Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 21 Serial No. Satellites Altitude (km) Bands (µm) Multi-spectral (m) Panchromati c (m) Thermal (m) Purpose
  22. 22. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 22
  23. 23. October 23, 2005 Dust storm in Chad at 250 m resolution, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer) NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, 705 km, sun-synchronous orbit, 1-2 day for all of earth, 250 m, 500 m, 1000 m resolution. NASA Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 23 MODIS (250 m)
  24. 24. 30 m resolution and 60 m resolution (thermal), 705 km orbit, 7 bands including thermal infrared, Manhattan, KS. Image, 2000 (USGS- EROS) Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 24 LANDSAT (30 m)
  25. 25. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 25 IKONOS (04 m) MSS
  26. 26. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 26 SPOT (2.5 m)
  27. 27. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 27 IKONOS (01 m) (Panchromatic)
  28. 28. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 28 Quick Bird (0.6 m)
  29. 29. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 29 Imagery and their price ranges
  30. 30. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 30 Imagery free of cost
  31. 31. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 31
  32. 32. REFERENCES Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 32 1. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) to Manage Civil Engineering Projects By Asmaa Abdul Jabbar 2. Longley et al (2005) Geographic Information Systems and Science. 2nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. (Chapter 14, pages 317-319) 3. www.esri.com/engineering 4. http://webhelp.esri.com/arcpad/8.0/userguide/index.htm#capture_devices/concept_intro.htm Special Acknowledgement Industrial partners: ESRI, Danish Hydraulic Institute, Camp, Dresser and McKee, Dodson and Associates Government partners: Federal: EPA, USGS, Corps of Engineers (Hydrologic Engineering Center) State: Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Texas Water Development Board Local: Lower Colorado River Authority, City of Austin, Dept. of Watershed Protection Academic Partners: University of Texas, Brigham Young University, Utah State University
  33. 33. Monday, August 11, 2014PIAIP_NESPAK 33

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