10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

1
Definition of clouds
…03
Formation of clouds
…06
Classification of clouds
…10
Vertically Developed clouds
…16
Categories
…...
 “A visible collection of CONDENSED
tiny water droplets and ice crystals suspended
in the atmosphere.”
Clouds can be in ...
10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

4
All the
weathering
phenomenon
occurs due to
the clouds…
ranges within
the
troposphere.


10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

5
 Water is known to exist in three forms:

 Clouds, snow and rain are all made up of
some form of water.

10/27/2013

MET...


Generally produced by atmospheric motion with
upward component cools the air.



Clouds form when temperature is below...
By orographic uplift of air near the mountainous
terrain.

10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

8
 Air parcel will rise up naturally if the air

within it is warmer than the surrounding air by
convection.

10/27/2013

M...
Clouds are classified into a system that uses
“Latin” words to describe their appearances.
They are define on the basis ...
HOWARD divided them into 4 categories
using Latin names as:
LATIN NAMES

ENGLISH NAMES

Cirrus

Curl of hair

Stratus

La...
 They are further divided into 4 groups having 10
types of the clouds:
GROUPS

HEIGHTS

High Clouds

5-13km

Middle Cloud...
STRATUS
10/27/2013

CIRRUS
METEOROLOGY

13
C
U
M
U
L
U
S
N
I
M
B
U
S
10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

14
• Cirrus
• Cirrostratus
• Cirrocumulus

• Altostratus
• Altocumulus

High
Clouds

Middle
Clouds

Vertically
Developed
Clou...
 They

are due to unstable atmospheric
conditions.
Height can range up to 12000m.
Generated most commonly either by
the...
10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

17
They are
generally not the
sign of calm
weather.

10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

18
Vertically developed clouds are more
conveniently divided into 2 categories as:
1)Cumulus Clouds
i. Cumulus Humilis Cloud...
They look like white ball of cotton _ isolated in sky.
Are sign of pleasant weather.
They have flat bottoms and lumpy t...
10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

21
They are found as low as 330ft.

10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

22
Humilis stands for “HUMBLE.”
Generally have flattened bases and slight vertical
development.
Mostly rises up to 5-8km.
...
Between each cumulus humilis, the air descends slowly
to replace the rising thermals

10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

24
As a
result, t
he
cloud field
can
look
very
regularl
-y
Spaced.

10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

25
Cumulus clouds that appear in irregular
fragments, as if they had been shred or torn.

Always appear in
association with...
They can form in fair weather as rising pockets of
warm air rise and condense into these proto-clouds

Cumulus fractus o...
Congestus is Latin for "piled-up".
When a humilis cloud grows vertically
it turns into a congestus cloud.
These
clouds
...
It stands for “Castle-like”.
It displays multiple towers
arising from its top, indicating
significant vertical air
movem...
10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

30
These clouds are named because they are puffy
("cumulo") and because they often are dark clouds
which cause rainstorms ("...
Cumulonimbus clouds designs
its formation mostly during the
afternoon time, as this the time
when the earth surface gets
...
Common types of Clouds

10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

33
Cumulonimbus Cloud Over Africa

10/27/2013

March 24, 2011

METEOROLOGY

Image Credit: NASA

34
10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

35
Incus stands for “Anvil”.
A mature cumulonimbus incus is definitely the
“King of Clouds”, and sometimes reaching 60,000 ...
10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

37
They look like “BAG.”
Mammatus is one of the most spectacular and
distinctive of all cloud formations.

10/27/2013

METE...
During a thunderstorm, warm, moist updrafts rise to
the top of the troposphere. Here the temperature levels
off and the a...
Mechanisi
m for rain
formation by
cumulonimb
us
mammatus.

10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

40
Calvus stands for “Bald”.
Calvus occurs when convection and atmospheric
instability combine to push the cloud tops beyon...
The mushrooming top is a sign
of the vigorous updrafts that may
eventually force the cloud up into
the highest levels of ...
10/27/2013

METEOROLOGY

43
1. www.buzzel.com
2. www.uwsp.com
3. www.atmosphere.com
4. www.uiuc.com
5. www.climate4you.com
6. www.apollo.com
7. www.me...
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Clouds 2011

  1. 1. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 1
  2. 2. Definition of clouds …03 Formation of clouds …06 Classification of clouds …10 Vertically Developed clouds …16 Categories …19 1) Cumulus clouds …20 1) Hmulis …23 2) Fractus …26 3) Congestus …28 4) Castellanus …29 2) Cumulonimbus clouds …31 1) Cumulonimbus Incus …36 2) Cumulonimbus Mammatus …38 3) Cumulonimbus Calvus …41 6) References …44 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 2
  3. 3.  “A visible collection of CONDENSED tiny water droplets and ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere.” Clouds can be in variety of forms.  Some are found at high elevation but other are near the ground relatively 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 3
  4. 4. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 4
  5. 5. All the weathering phenomenon occurs due to the clouds… ranges within the troposphere.  10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 5
  6. 6.  Water is known to exist in three forms:  Clouds, snow and rain are all made up of some form of water. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 6
  7. 7.  Generally produced by atmospheric motion with upward component cools the air.  Clouds form when temperature is below the dew point.  When air blows over the colder surface. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 7
  8. 8. By orographic uplift of air near the mountainous terrain. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 8
  9. 9.  Air parcel will rise up naturally if the air within it is warmer than the surrounding air by convection. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 9
  10. 10. Clouds are classified into a system that uses “Latin” words to describe their appearances. They are define on the basis of their “Heights”. This was done by an English chemist “Luke Howard” in 1803. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 10
  11. 11. HOWARD divided them into 4 categories using Latin names as: LATIN NAMES ENGLISH NAMES Cirrus Curl of hair Stratus Layer like Cumulus Heap Nimbus Rain 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 11
  12. 12.  They are further divided into 4 groups having 10 types of the clouds: GROUPS HEIGHTS High Clouds 5-13km Middle Clouds 2-7km Low Clouds 0-2km Vertically Developed Clouds --- The first 3 groups are differentiating by their heights. The fourth group contains thick clouds as they are NOT describe on the basis of heights level from grounds. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 12
  13. 13. STRATUS 10/27/2013 CIRRUS METEOROLOGY 13
  14. 14. C U M U L U S N I M B U S 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 14
  15. 15. • Cirrus • Cirrostratus • Cirrocumulus • Altostratus • Altocumulus High Clouds Middle Clouds Vertically Developed Clouds Low Clouds • Cumulus • Cumulonimbus 10/27/2013 • Stratus • Stratocumulus • Nimbostratus METEOROLOGY 15
  16. 16.  They are due to unstable atmospheric conditions. Height can range up to 12000m. Generated most commonly either by thermal convection or frontal lifting. Releasing incredible amount of energy to condensed the water vapor within the clouds. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 16
  17. 17. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 17
  18. 18. They are generally not the sign of calm weather. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 18
  19. 19. Vertically developed clouds are more conveniently divided into 2 categories as: 1)Cumulus Clouds i. Cumulus Humilis Clouds ii. Cumulus Fractus Clouds iii. Cumulus Congestus Clouds iv. Cumulus Constellus Clouds 2)Cumulonimbus Clouds i. Cumulonimbus Incus Clouds ii. Cumulonimbus Mammatus Clouds iii. Cumulonimbus Calvus Clouds 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 19
  20. 20. They look like white ball of cotton _ isolated in sky. Are sign of pleasant weather. They have flat bottoms and lumpy tops. Top often is in the form of towers--- shows the limit of rising air. Formation : Rising air is associated with high relative humidity. Generally they are formed by convection resulting from solar heating in summers. Over open lakes in autumn and winters. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 20
  21. 21. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 21
  22. 22. They are found as low as 330ft. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 22
  23. 23. Humilis stands for “HUMBLE.” Generally have flattened bases and slight vertical development. Mostly rises up to 5-8km. Formation : Once the thermals rise above the surface, the potential for cloud development increases. At the condensation level, the relative humidity of the thermal air will be around 100 percent (saturated). 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 23
  24. 24. Between each cumulus humilis, the air descends slowly to replace the rising thermals 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 24
  25. 25. As a result, t he cloud field can look very regularl -y Spaced. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 25
  26. 26. Cumulus clouds that appear in irregular fragments, as if they had been shred or torn. Always appear in association with other clouds. For a short time before, during and a short time after precipitation. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 26
  27. 27. They can form in fair weather as rising pockets of warm air rise and condense into these proto-clouds Cumulus fractus on not-so-fair days, too, as they "shredded" by larger cumulonimbus cloud after a rain storm 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 27
  28. 28. Congestus is Latin for "piled-up". When a humilis cloud grows vertically it turns into a congestus cloud. These clouds may produce abunda nt showers 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 28
  29. 29. It stands for “Castle-like”. It displays multiple towers arising from its top, indicating significant vertical air movement 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 29
  30. 30. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 30
  31. 31. These clouds are named because they are puffy ("cumulo") and because they often are dark clouds which cause rainstorms ("nimbus"). Cumulonimbus clouds are characterized as tall, dense clouds These are more vertically developed than fair weather cumulus and have tops that can reach up to 39,000 feet (12,000m). These are fueled by strong updrafts that transfer air up through the atmosphere. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 31
  32. 32. Cumulonimbus clouds designs its formation mostly during the afternoon time, as this the time when the earth surface gets heated up.  Cumulonimbus clouds are usually seen in the shape of mushroom. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 32
  33. 33. Common types of Clouds 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 33
  34. 34. Cumulonimbus Cloud Over Africa 10/27/2013 March 24, 2011 METEOROLOGY Image Credit: NASA 34
  35. 35. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 35
  36. 36. Incus stands for “Anvil”. A mature cumulonimbus incus is definitely the “King of Clouds”, and sometimes reaching 60,000 feet in tropical and subtropical areas. Formation always be regarded as a significant aviation hazard because of : “the powerful air currents involved in its formation and the potentially damaging effect of the large hailstones it may produce.” 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 36
  37. 37. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 37
  38. 38. They look like “BAG.” Mammatus is one of the most spectacular and distinctive of all cloud formations. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 38
  39. 39. During a thunderstorm, warm, moist updrafts rise to the top of the troposphere. Here the temperature levels off and the air stabilizes. This causes the rising cloud to expand horizontally over areas of cooler, cloud-free air. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 39
  40. 40. Mechanisi m for rain formation by cumulonimb us mammatus. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 40
  41. 41. Calvus stands for “Bald”. Calvus occurs when convection and atmospheric instability combine to push the cloud tops beyond the congestus stage to heights of up to 30,000 feet. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 41
  42. 42. The mushrooming top is a sign of the vigorous updrafts that may eventually force the cloud up into the highest levels of the troposphere. At this level of the troposphere, temperatures are normally well below freezing, and any condensation that takes place will produce ice crystals rather than water droplets. This gives the top of the cloud a brilliant, white appearance. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 42
  43. 43. 10/27/2013 METEOROLOGY 43
  44. 44. 1. www.buzzel.com 2. www.uwsp.com 3. www.atmosphere.com 4. www.uiuc.com 5. www.climate4you.com 6. www.apollo.com 7. www.merrian.com 8. www.anglefire.com 9. www.cityofportsomuth.com 10.www.mapmakermeteor.com 11.www.islandnet.com 12.www.jeffsweather.com 13.www.mariauthorbooks.com 14.www.chitambo.com 10/27/2013 15. www.trueknowldge.com 16. www.chalkrichmond.co m 17. www.mapsofworld.com 18. www.airlinepilots.com 1. Google.com 1. Meteorology Today by C. Donald Ahrens 6th edition METEOROLOGY 44

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