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110320exhibition

  1. 1. 70%关 系 到 人 类 居 所 的 思 考 与 实 践人 民 的 建 筑 [ / / / ] 海 上 港 香 圳 深 京 北 展 回 巡 师 筑 建 俊英谢The Question of Housing for 70% of HumanityPeople’s ArchitectureHsieh Ying-chun, Architect
  2. 2. 4/5诞生于两次世界大战之间,以包豪斯为代表的现代主义建筑运动,是人类历史上第一个有着普世理想的世界性建筑思潮,其理想是把现代化的工业生产与人民生活结合。但是,第二次世界大战以后,这一运动一方面陷入形式主义泥潭,并随着60 年代国际风格广受质疑而式微;一方面毫无抵抗地倒向以消费为导向的市场机制,建立技术与专业的壁垒,使建筑与人更加疏离。谢英俊自 1999 年起,进行了一系列强化用户为参与主体的项目,采用以适用科技、协力造屋、可持续发展为理念的社会建筑实践。尤其是在两岸灾后重建、少数民族偏远地区建筑与社区重建的项目中,设计出具有开放性的结构系统与工法,透过此一平台,居民不仅可以参与其中,地域文化的多样性与当地的传统,也得以体现和延续。当建筑日益受制于市场机制并沉迷于形式主义美学,谢英俊逆潮流而动的卓绝作为,就显得殊为“另类”和难得。从社会建筑角度,向媒体和观众展示谢英俊实践的真意;从开放建筑角度,向建筑界揭示谢英俊设计理念的真相,是展览举办的目的。策展人 史 建At the time of its emergence in the interwar period, the modern architecture movement as represented by the Bauhaus was the firstinstance of global architectural thought to combine ideals of modern industrial production with an emphasis on everyday relevance.However, following the Second World War, modern architecture fell into a quagmire of formalism, with the advent of the 1960sInternational style signaling its decline. The movements turn toward consumer-oriented market systems created technical andprofessional barriers which further alienated the public from architecture.Beginning in 1999, Hsieh Ying-chun carried out several programs aimed at increasing user participation in architecture. He adopteda social architecture practice which emphasizes site-appropriate technologies, community building practices, and sustainabledevelopment. In his reconstruction efforts following natural disasters in Chinese mainland and Taiwan and in outlying ethnicminority regions, as well as in his general practice of community rebuilding, Hsiehs designs reveal a sense of openness in structureand work methodology. Residents are encouraged to participate in the process, allowing regional cultural diversity and local customsto be incorporated and supported.Contemporary architecture faces continual pressure from market systems and is submerged in the aesthetics of formalism. HsiehYing-chun stands out for moving tirelessly against the current – for being a particularly unusual brand of out of the ordinary. Withthat in mind, we have organized this exhibition to share the intentions and philosophy of this remarkable architect.Shi Jian, Curator
  3. 3. 10/11 Hsieh Ying Chun graduated from Tamkang University School of Architecture in 1977, and worked in construction for many years before returning to the world of architectural design. His rich experience in construction initiated the deep reflections on the industrialization of contemporary architecture spurred his revolution in architectural continuity. Following the massive earthquake in Taiwan on September 21, 1999, Hsieh took his office to the Sun Moon Lake disaster area in Nantou County, with its high population of Aboriginal Thao minority, to begin reconstruction efforts there. Guided by the simple tools and environmentally-friendly materials in Thao buildings, Hsieh and his collaborators were able to complete reconstruction within extremely tight economic parameters. In 2004, Hsieh traveled to rural areas of Hebei, Henan, and Anhui to promote cooperative, sustainable building in the countryside to demonstrate a novel and effective integration of rural social and economic conditions. In the wake of the devastating May 12, 2008 earthquake in Sichuan, Hsieh and members of his Rural Architecture Studio aided in reconstructing homes for disaster victims in isolated mountain areas, beginning with the erection of more than 500 model houses. When the August 2009 typhoon ravaged Taiwans mountainous and riparian areas inhabited by indigenous minorities. Hsieh was entrusted by a number of charitable organizations with the task of rebuilding longstanding tribal buildings and to work toward permanent housing arrangements. Hsieh and his team rebuilt a total of 700 homes for members of 13 different tribal groups. In 2010, he also completed work on settlements for Tibetan herders, among other projects. Observers often connect Hsieh and his team with post-disaster reconstruction, or view them as humanitarian architects. But it is谢英俊建筑师,1977 年淡江大学建筑学系毕业。曾从事多年营造工作,再重回建筑设计行列。多年的 more appropriate to say that they have picked up the broken thread of Bauhaus modernism to develop housing projects of the people,营造经历使他思考当今建筑产业化的特性,并萌生永续建筑的想法。 for the people and by the people, with an end of eventually guiding architecture toward sustainable development.1999 年因应台湾“9 · 21”大地震灾后重建,谢英俊及其事务所进入南投日月潭邵族灾区协助重建,带 Over 70% of the worlds population make their homes in rural areas. Under prevailing conditions of rapid economic development,领邵族人以环保材料和简单工具自力造屋,在极低的经费条件下完成社区重建工作。2004 年,进入大 traditional lifestyles and values are falling by the wayside. Villagers adopt techniques and materials unfamiliar to them, and are陆农村,结合农村社会、经济条件,于河北、河南、安徽推动农村生态建筑协力造屋。2008 年,四川 impoverished for life: the results – new houses of reinforced concrete, brick, and tile – are costly, vulnerable to earthquakes, bad for发生“5 · 12”大地震,谢英俊及其乡村建筑工作室成员协助四川偏远山区灾民重建农房,启动 500 余 the environment, unreasonable. Architecture professionals are out of their depth in this sphere, having never so much as tested the套示范房重建。2009 年 8 月,台风重创台湾山区、河岸原住民地区,谢英俊建筑师受捐助单位委托, water in this area before. Moreover, the issue of sustainable development ultimately concerns tests of survival for humanity as a whole,协助兴建原住民部落中继屋与永久安置房,完成 13 个部落 700 户家屋重建。2010 年还完成西藏牧民 challenging both generally-understood operational models in contemporary architecture as well as contemporary notions of value,定居房等工作。 even aesthetics…虽然外界常把谢英俊及其团队与灾后重建连结在一起,或视他们为人道主义建筑师,但毋宁说他们接 With these predicating thoughts, Hsieh Ying Chun and his team proclaim that modern architecture is not a narrow matter of续了包豪斯现代主义中断的香火,着眼于普罗大众居所,在当前可持续发展课题下应如何作为。 technology; for it necessarily involves considerations of economic, sociocultural, and environmental issues. Through the use of local广大农村地区是 70%人类居住生存的居所,在快速发展的趋势下,逐渐放弃传统生活方式与价值观。 source materials, low-cost building strategies and appropriate technologies, as well as the design of Hsiehs new, open, structural村民采用他们不熟悉的工法与材料,穷一生之力盖昂贵、不抗震、不环保、不合理的钢筋混凝土或砖 systems, the team has considerably lowered costs and technological thresholds. Peasant farmers are able to participate in their own瓦新房,而建筑专业者无法、也未曾踩入这个领域。除此之外,可持续发展课题关乎全人类生存考验, modern home-building projects that also adhere to green, energy-saving, low-carbon standards, and vouchsafe the rights of members挑战了一般理解的现代建筑操作模式,也挑战了当前的价值观,甚至美学…… of this disadvantaged group to live and to work with dignity. At the same time, design requires flexibility; architecture must reflect the diversity of different regions and cultures.在这样的思考前提下,谢英俊建筑师及其团队认为,建筑不仅仅是技术层面的问题,还必需考虑经济、社会文化与环境等因素。透过就地取材、低成本、适用技术以及建立开放式构造体系的设计作为,降 To this end, architectural systems designed by Hsieh highlight the concept of intersubjectivity. A designer only provides a platform;低成本与技术门坎,农民能参与符合绿色环保、节能减碳的现代化家屋兴建,保障了弱势族群的生存 from this open platform, the builder and the user can contribute to the projects greater work, whether it be their own images of what权与工作权。同时,设计需有弹性,使建筑得以反映不同地区、族群文化的多样性。 the project can become, or a specific standpoint of culture, environment, or faith…all participants have the opportunity to develop and to reflect the rich diversity of their particular place and background.在这里,谢英俊设计的建筑体系提出“互为主体”的观念。设计者只是提供一个平台,在这个开放性的平台上,施工者、使用者皆可参与进来,不论是对建筑的想象,或是生活、文化、环境、信仰……都有机会展现,并反映出不同地区、族群文化的丰富与多样。
  4. 4. 14/15社区 [ 农村、部落 ] 是大部分人的生活场域,社区建筑在自然生态保育、能源节约、提高人居环境质量的战略上,皆处于关键地位。如何让社区建筑跳脱纯粹技术以及商品化的思维,将庞大的农村富余劳动力与互助换工的优良传统结合,并将绿色环保、社群文化的多样性等因素加入,建立社区自主的营建体系,以及合作社等区域微型经济的支持体系,是可持续建筑实践的核心作为。1998 年国际建筑与营建研发联盟 [ CIB:International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction, 1998]拟定可持续建筑架构。[ 如图 ]实践策略环境 绿建筑—生活化、普识化经济 建立自主[非依赖性]营建体系,利用富余劳动力,就地取材做材料加工与房屋兴建,降低对主流营建市场的依赖,降低对货币依赖,生产设备简化,减少资本投入。社会、文化 尊重每一个人的工作权、生存权,透过居民参与、协力互助、集体劳动,凝聚部落社意识。社区主体意识的建立,是保持文化多样性的基础。Community (rural, tribal) is the arena within which most people live their lives. Community architecture places particular strategicsignificance on environmental protection, resource efficiency, and the raising of quality in the human habitat.The core principle of sustainable community architecture is to release people from technology – and commodity-dependency, todeploy and integrate the vast available rural labor forces in concert with well-loved traditions in projects of mutual assistance and workexchange, as well as to incorporate elements of environmental protection and diverse local culture, to establish self-reliant communitybuilding systems, cooperatives and other small-scale local economic support systems.In 1998, the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) drafted a framework forsustainable architecture, shown here. [clockwise (large outside triangles) from top Left: economic constraints; social equity andcultural issues; environmental quality; and (smaller insidetriangles) from top: resources; waste; biodiversity]Practical StrategiesEnvironment green architecture — increase relevance to daily life, greater mass awarenessEconomics establish community self-reliant (non-dependent) building systems; employ excess labour power; use locally-sourcedmaterials in construction; reduce dependence on mainstream construction markets, reduce reliance on currency; simplify productionfacilities; reduce capital investment.Social and cultural respect every persons right to work and subsistence; crystalize tribal community consciousness through residentparticipation, mutual aid, and collective labour. The establishment of community consciousness is the foundation for protecting andmaintain cultural diversity.
  5. 5. 16/17强调建筑的完成不仅是依赖设计者这个主体,创造力与生产力大部分来自另一个主体—居民,设计者建构一个开放性的平台,让居民在其上发挥。这平台需具备开放 [ 开放建筑 ] 与简化构法的特性,在这里除了呈现这两个特性外,还呈现另一个主体—居民参与以及所展现丰富多样的面貌。开放建筑 空间与构架、构法具备开放性与弹性,可因地制宜、就地取材,传统的材料工艺都可以用上,随着需求的改变也可灵活更动。简化构法 让居民使用简单的工具,即便是非建筑技术专业者皆能参与施工,尊重每一个人的工作权、生存权,利用富余劳动力投入材料加工与房屋兴建,降低对主流营建市场的依赖,降低对主流货币的依赖,生产设备简化可减少资本投入。Completion of ideal architectural projects should not dependsolelyon the designer. Forlarge contributions in creativity and productivity can and should come from anothersource – the residents themselves. The designer merely constructs an initial platform forwhich residents can release their innate talents and imagination.This initial platform must be both open and simply-construct; besides thesecharacteristics, it must have room for resident participation and the rich, diverse featuresthat emerge therefrom.Open Architecture Space, structure, and structuring principles are open andflexible: they should adapt to local conditions, incorporate local resources; deploy localtraditional materials and craftsmanship; and be flexible enough to shift dynamically inresponse to changing needs.Simple Construction Principles Enable residents to use simple tools sothat even those not trained in architecture can participate in the construction; respectthe right of every person to life and to work with dignity; invest excess labour-power inmaterial processing and in construction; reduce dependence on mainstream constructionmarkets; reduce dependence on mainstream currency; simplify production facilities andequipment to decrease need for capital investment.
  6. 6. 18/19在“互为主体”的原则下,专业者只做有限度的事,这有限的作为是在探寻、建构房屋的各种原型,包括结构与材料力学分析、各种构件实验等,并非设计最终完整的建筑。Under the principle of intersubjectivity, the professional only undertakes work of a limitedscope. This limited action involves seeking out and constructing all kinds of housingprototypes, and includes structural and material mechanics analysis, component testing,etc., and not a mere design with a complete, finalized plan for the building.问题的核心在于哲学。现代文明发展短短数百年,使得人类与地球的未来走到不可持续的瓶颈。“可持续”挑战了当前的价值观念,也解构了现代性与美学观。在此,将从头探索现代强调个人价值的哲学根源,同时也将解构现代性,挑战当前个人与消费文明无限制扩张的价值观、为刺激消费的美学观,并提出互为主体的观念。The core of the problem lies in philosophy. Over the brief centuries that saw thedevelopment of modern civilization, the future of humanity and earth has reached anunsustainable bottleneck. Sustainability now challenges our current systems of value,whilst deconstructing modernity and modern aesthetics.
  7. 7. 22/23 邵族为台湾现存人数最少的原住民族,有独特的风俗习惯、文化、语言,以及保存完好的祖灵信仰和丰富的岁时祭仪,大 多集中在日月潭畔之 BARWBAW [ 日月村 ];1999 年“9 · 21”大地震造成八成邵族人家屋损毁。为了挽救这个族群,在台 湾“中央研究院”以及国内外民间团体、NGO 捐助下,建立这个安置社区,作为邵族族群保存、文化复育的基地。 安置社区的配置是以仪式空间为主轴,配合环境地势结构而成,用以工代赈的方式,让族人集体参与社区的营建劳作,一 方面解决生计问题,最重要的是要透过集体的劳作来重新凝聚部落意识。 The Thao aborigines comprise the smallest population of Taiwans recognized indigenous minority groups. They have unique cultural traditions and customs, a unique language, well-maintained beliefs based in ancestor-worship, and rich seasonal rituals. Most of the Thao population is concentrated in Brawbaw Village on the banks of Sun Moon Lake. On September 21, 1999, a massive earthquake damaged or destroyed 80% of Thao homes in the area. To provide a base for recovering and preserving Thao culture, a resettlement community was constructed, with support from Taiwans Academia Sinica as well as domestic and foreign NGOs and civic groups. The plan for the resettlement community was organized with ceremonial spaces as the main axis, and developed in accordance with the underlying topography of the land as well as the local environment. A system of work instead of charity was invoked to allow tribe members collectively to contribute to the labor of rebuilding the community, addressing the question of economic livelihoods, but most importantly, re-solidifying tribal consciousness through collective labor.配置图一层平面图 双井立面图 侧立面图台湾,南投县,鱼池乡Yuchih, Nantou, Taiwan2000结构:轻钢构、混凝土基础建材:墙面 - 竹编 + 发泡铝箔,屋面 - 竹编 + 油毛毡面积:占地面积/约 48m2兴建:42 单元住屋、图书馆、部落教室、工坊及各式祭仪空间
  8. 8. 广大农村地区是 70%人类居住生存的居所,面对全新的技术材料与工法,以及全然不同的社会组织与价值观,农民只能靠有限的知识以试错的方式积累经验。从北到南,扑天盖地的建完全不抗震、耗能极大又昂贵的水泥砖房。面对当前可持续发展课题,谢英俊建筑师于 2004 年进入大陆农村,结合农村社会、经济条件,先后于河北、河南、安徽推动农村生态农房协力造屋。Rural areas are home to 70% of the worlds population. Confronted with entirely newtechnology, materials and construction techniques, as well as entirely different forms ofsocial organization and systems of value, peasants are only able to rely on limited trial-and-error methods to accumulate experience. Everywhere from north to south are theubiquitous cinderblock houses– entirely vulnerable to earthquakes, heavily energy intensiveand costly. In facing current issues of sustainable development, Hsieh Ying Chun traveledto rural areas in Hebei, Henan and Anhui in 2004 to promote cooperative constructionof sustainable homes in the countryside as an integration of rural social and economicconditions.
  9. 9. 26/27河北,定州 河南,兰考Dingzhou, Hebei Lankao, Henan2005 2006结构:大木结构建材:墙面 - 草土填充,平屋面 - 木椽条 + 草土 + 水泥硬化层,斜屋面 - 芦苇板 + 镀锌压型钢板 结构:轻钢结构面积:占地面积/ 86m2,建筑面积/ 172m2 建材:墙面 - 草土填充,屋面 - 稻草保温 + 镀锌压型钢板 面积:占地面积/ 88m2,建筑面积/ 165m2位于河北省定州市翟城晏阳初乡建学院内,由建筑相关本科生与村民合力建造的生态住宅─协力造屋的示范屋。木结构 结合当地合作社,共同举办生态建筑工作营及推动合作建房,结合农村富余劳动力,透过社员互助换工的方式建房,减少草土墙体,三开间两层楼住宅。内部并建造有改良传统作法,适合二层住宅使用的双层节能炕。不仅抗震性能好,节能断 对货币的依赖,以及就地取材,旧料回收再利用等节能减排生态农宅建造。热效果佳,在夏季时,内外温差可达 10 度。 A green architecture work camp was organized in partnership with the local cooperative to promote cooperative buildings. The campLocated within the Y. C. James Yen Rural Reconstruction Institute in Zhaicheng Village (under Dingzhou City) in Hebei Province, Earth brought together surplus rural labor power, encouraged mutual aid and work exchange among community members for home construction,House 001 is a model green home jointly constructed by villagers and undergraduate architecture students. It is a two-storey, three-room reduced reliance on currency, and employed locally-sourced and salvaged materials and other such resource-conserving measures inbuilding with a wooden frame and adobe walls. Work on the interior used and expanded upon traditional methods to create a double-level constructing their green rural homes.energy-conserving kang [a heated earthen platform-bed found in homes across north China] suitable for a two-storey home. The buildingis not only earthquake resistant, but also has excellent heat-conserving capabilities; in summer, the interior temperature can be kept as lowas 10 degrees Celsius.正向立面图 正向立面图侧向立面图 一层平面图 侧向立面图 一层平面图剖面图 二层平面图 剖面图 二层平面图
  10. 10. 28/29 杨柳村是为数不多仍保留有传统语言和文化的羌族村落。通过村民协力互助的方式,历时一年完成 56 户重建。以轻型钢做 骨架,结合当地建屋习俗,一层墙体使用就地取材的石头砌筑,二层采用钢网混凝土,三层使用木板。以开放性的架构为基础, 家户有很大的自由度,可随各自的经济条件与需求灵活调动,最终能呈现有规制又不失多样化的风貌。 Yangliu Village is one of the few Qiang tribal minority villages to maintain Qiang cultural and linguistic traditions. Through the use of mutual aid and labor-sharing methods among the villagers, reconstruction of 56 houses was successfully completed within the last year. Light-gauge steel frames were used in combination with traditional local building techniques; first-floor walls were built from locally- sourced and salvaged stone, second storey walls used reinforced concrete, and third-storey construction used wood. Work began from a basic open structural layout, giving individual families a great deal of freedom to adjust plans based on their particular circumstances and requirements. Ultimately, this strategy created a harmonious balance in the overall appearance of the re-built village between standardization and diversity.剖面图三层平面图二层平面图一层平面图 侧向立面图四川,阿坝州,杨柳村Yang-liu, Abzhou, Sichuan2008结构:轻钢构、混凝土基础建材:墙面-石材 + 水泥砂浆粉刷 + 防腐木板,屋面-镀锌烤漆钢板面积:建筑面积/约 167m2,总楼地板面积/约 267m2 正向立面图
  11. 11. 2009 年 8 月,台湾因台风带来超大豪雨,造成山区、河岸原住民地区受泥石流侵袭。谢英俊建筑师及其团队受台湾“世界展望会”以及“台湾红十字会”委托,进行原住民部落过渡房、永久安置房的兴建工作。于 2010 年底之前,完成 13 个部落,700 户家屋重建。灾后民众普遍失业,原有部落因易地安置,使得其社会文化遭到冲击,因此以协力造屋方式进行灾后重建,是得以兼顾各项要求的最适操作方法。谢英俊的轻量型钢体系建筑设计强调互为主体性,设计者只是提供一个平台,在这个平台上,施工者、使用者皆可参与进来,不论是对建筑的想象,或是生活、文化、环境、信仰……都有机会展现。由于工期短、兴建数量较大,从材料加工到现场组装、施工,都动员灾民参与,具体地展现了谢英俊强调的简化工法、简化生产工具、建立社自主营建体系的优势,并以市场价 60% 的预算完成高质量的家屋重建。In August 2009 severe mudslides, the result of violent torrential rain brought by thetyphoon, occurred throughout the mountainous and riparian areas of Taiwan populatedby members of the islands various indigenous minority tribes. Hsieh Ying Chun andhis team were asked by World Vision Taiwan and the Taiwan Red Cross Society tobuild temporary housing, and also to implement plans for permanent housing. Beforethe end of 2010, the team had completed reconstruction projects of 700 houses for 13different tribal communities.Following the disaster, many people were without work, tribal society and culturesuffered from the relocation of members to new permanent housing elsewhere. In theface of these more deep rooted issues of tribal and cohesion, Hsiehs team deployedcooperative building methods in their post-disaster reconstruction as a pragmaticsolution for both issues. Hsiehs based on light-weight C-beam steel frames activates theprinciple of intersubjectivity – the idea that the designer merely provide a basic platformthat enables the builder and the user to share in the larger part of the project, be it theirown architectural imagination, a particular traditional or cultural consideration, theenvironment, or faith … all these elements are released to manifest in the final product.Due to time constraints and the massive volume of reconstruction work scheduled,participation from disaster-area residents was required at all stages of Hsiehs work,from materials-processing to on-site assembly to construction, and became a concreteexample of Hsiehs focus on simplification of techniques and tools, and his emphasis onthe importance of establishing self-sufficient local construction systems. In this manner,high-quality homes were built within a budget equivalent to 60% of prevailingmarket prices.
  12. 12. 3 2/3 3台湾 , 台东县 , 大武乡 台湾 , 屏东县 , 玛家Dawu, Taitung, Taiwan Majia, Pingtung, Taiwan2010 2010结构:轻钢构、混凝土基础 结构:轻钢构、混凝土基础建材:墙面 - 杉木雨淋板 , 屋面 - 镀锌烤漆钢板 建材:墙面 - 杉木雨淋板,屋面 - 镀锌烤漆钢板户数:801j 屋型 / 19,803s 屋型 / 12 户,共计 31 户 户数:玛家部落/ 132 户,好茶部落/ 177 户,大社部落/ 174 户,共计 483 户 801j 屋型 803s 屋型 配置图 玛家部落 好茶部落 大社部落803s 屋型 立面图 配置图
  13. 13. 3 4/3 5 西藏牧民冬季需要定居房。由于运输路途遥远,气候条件特殊,且属强震区,因此于传统生土建筑中加入一套可简易组装 的轻钢架,提高抗震设防至 9 度 [ 0.4g 加速度 ],可使用最少的水泥与钢材用量,减少外购与运输成本,克服施工品管难题, 传统的土工、木工技术得以保存,居民可自建。于纳木湖乡兴建示范村 18 户,及卫生室、活动室。 Tibetan herders need settled quarters for their winters. Given the lengthy transport routes, severe climactic conditions, and the fact that those Tibetan areas fall within an earthquake zone, the introduction of light weight steel simple-assembly frames to traditional earthen construction upgrades earthquake resistance to a level of 9 points on the Richter scale (at 0.4 G of acceleration). Hsieh and his team used minimum of concrete and steel components, reduced the need for outside purchase and attendant transport costs; overcame the difficult problems of quality control, and succeeded in preserving local traditional earth construction and woodworking techniques that the herders themselves employed. In Namuhu Township, the team constructed an 18-household model village plus a clinic and a community activity room.正向立面图侧向立面图剖面图一层平面图西藏,当雄县,纳木湖乡Namuhu, Dangxiong, Tibet2010结构:轻钢构 , 混凝土基础建材:墙面 - 水泥粉刷,屋面 - 粘土层面积:建筑面积/ 60m2
  14. 14. 3 6/3 7台 王湾成 明功 蘅大学建 Wang Ming-Heng筑 民居是建筑的大宗,谢英俊数十年来的努力及成果,值得观摩。其中内蕴的重要讯息,值得释放。所触及的深层课题,更学系 值得阐述。乘着他的思想羽翼,得以迎风而起,俯览建筑大地。教授 主体:在个体与群体之间 当条件严苛时,住居可能被化约成基本的楼地板面积。对居民而言,主体性的意义不多 于只是使用权。不同居民之间的个体差异也可能稀薄到不存在。当生活条件提高了,个体需求的差别会浮现,也可能加大 而反映在住居的空间内容中。当条件更好时,纵容个体的需求是可以想象的,其空间形式是深层欲望的投射。欲望的原型 则常在童年的潜意识中育成。 主体性的萎缩与膨胀,不单纯只是内在的条件函数,也与外在的文化规范对应。文化是群体的产物,有时宽松,有时紧迫。 主体性是在个体与群体之间的选择的权力,也是自由行动的权力。在绝对的个体与绝对的集体两端,都是不自由的,无从 选择。主体只成了没实质内涵的空洞名词。民居是个过程,民居中涉及的主体议题,不在个体之中,也不在群体之中,而 在两者“之间”。 权力与知识的再分配 昔时造园,云:“七分主人三分匠”,意指营造上的心智和技术上的分工与分配原则。“主人” 的比重反映主体的强度。因此可以想见,有完全自理与自造的民居,当然,也有由建筑师完全代理、由营造商完全代工的民居。 上个世纪二战后的西方世界,为了因应重建的大量需求,而发展能大量生产的房屋预铸系统,因此需要建立标准化的构件, 也因此得建立标准化的空间,最后得研究标准化的居住单元,乃至于标准家庭。虽已过半个世纪,这种科学主义的幽魂仍 漂浮在许多建筑学黉的上空。 在系统房屋的高峰期,西方同时出现反向的社会批判,“民众参与”是个关键词,如利刃般穿透政治、都市计划及建筑专 业的意识核心,一如人民专政的劲道。不分东西,建筑师在传统中建立的权力被迫下放,甚至专业知识也得自废武功,重 新学习。 启于荷兰的“开放建筑”代表了 60 年代意识型态转变下的一个新方向,其中却包含了许多民居久远的老智能。在巩固居民 主体性的前提下,如何延续系统房屋的效能成了技术上的新挑战,也引发了设计方法上的新课题,同时浮现了从大量而少 样的制造观念走向少量而多样的市场局面。 层级 开放建筑的核心观念就是层级。自然界有层级的现象,人造环境更显现出层级的构造。层级是种垂直关系,在空 间中以领域形式出现:房间在房屋中;房屋在聚落中;聚落在区域中。在实体上,层级会呈现辖制关系:下层级的元素得 依附上层级,但较自由;上层级的元素有辖制能力,但较不自由。二者适当地切割,才能存同求异。房屋的骨架若是上层 结构,内部的房间就是填充体。因为较为自由,所以能符合个体不同的需求,也能因应日后需求的变化。民居才得以是个 活体,而非尸体。 方言 隈研吾认为他的老师内田祥哉将日本的现代建筑从沉溺在混凝土板的蛮横中拯救出来,并称他代表着建筑的“民 主”。内田先生是日本开放建筑的核心人物,也是系统房屋的专家。他碎化了浇灌塑造一体成型的建筑,即使是钢筋混凝 土也应该像传统的砖头、木头般成为独立的元素。建筑应该是构成的艺术,如同音乐,如同文章。 建筑是种语言,或值得成为语言,便应当创造有意义的构筑字汇,将它交给人民,让人民用它来描绘地方的风貌,来抒发 个人的情感。语言是集体的,而写作则是个体的。在写作中,语言逐渐丰富。不同的写作,丰富了地方风貌。民居是大地 文章。
  15. 15. 3 8/3 9台 王湾资 墨深 林剧场工 Wang Muo-Ling作 以谢英俊作为一种方法,我们从台湾充满了世俗化的现代主义风建筑,可以观察到台湾人对于现代性的体会,大抵限定于者、 对划一化形式的审美经验,多样性反而从一套套的人工化的工学系统中被排除掉。因而以谢英俊作为一种方法,我们在他导演 设计的建筑中,最深刻感受到的即是他为未来自然生成的多样性预留出发展的空间。这里提到所谓的“多样性”,可以说, 是相对于资本主义最为强调的“均质化”,切断在地长时间积累起来,并成为了一种社会关系资本的风土人情,却以极快资深 的速度重新再配置模造的均质化文化,使生活环境渐渐失去了它的“场所性”。文化评 谢英俊的“场所主义”恰恰是一条路径,让我们由此审视从 1960 年代开始流行现代主义与小区建筑的结合,却产生切断个论者 人与文化连结的必要之恶,完全被称之为一套标准化的“生活机能”模式所取代。生活环境原本是身体行为与外部建筑的 关系,在不断辩证下所互动出的一个“场所” [place] 就是以身体的行为对 , “场所”进行占有的行动,如此才从中产生“居住” 的意义;而居住者也因为对这个场所=生活世界的占有,所谓“主体”更由此而生。五六十年代在西方社会福利制度下兴 建的“国民住宅”,却因常常设计过度而形成另一种新的人工化场所,“居住者”的身体行为因而踰越了设计者架空的想象, 而将空间的行动权从设计者手中夺取过来,遂被称之为“犯罪的温床”,其结局就是全部炸毁,其中著名例子乃是 1958 年 美国圣路易市政府盖的 33 栋 11 层的 Pruitt Igoe 小区,于 1972 年将其炸毁。 谢英俊在其经典建筑,也是 1999 年“9 · 21”大地震之后,在日月潭为原住民邵族所盖成的一个新小区,其中最重要的不只 是部落的重建,更是族人失落已久的一座生活世界的再现。我们就看到在台湾原住民之中,因汉化最深而被整个原住民论 述边缘化的邵族,他们先以对国有地,也是对祖先曾经保卫的土地予以占据,并在其地面以自然材质盖了族人的房屋,然 后通过“祖灵篮”的连结,由此建构起邵族在圣与俗、公与私、中心与边缘对立下的公共圈论述。现代性的空间在这个过 程里,一直被挤压地往后退,而让原住民占据了现代性后退出来的空白,邵族就在这个空白上建立了他们的场所=生活世界, 也是一座支持主体的基体。 谢英俊在其“场所主义”所主张的多样性,相对于均质性或标准化的建筑环境,或被称为充满混杂性,也就是在多样混合 的异质空间里一直呈现着一种不安定状态,即使房屋已造好,因身体知觉仍不断在空间[space]被体验化,而居住者就将 这种身体被经验化的世界不断延展出一座实存的空间,并据此成为身份认同的坐标。或者我们可以说,在“场所主义”下 的场所=生活世界,从外形看愈来愈已丧失其现代性的建筑环境,但它却是最适于主体存在的环境。
  16. 16. 40/41 学历 • 第十二届台北市文化奖,2008 年 • Lecture, Dept. of Architecture, Columbia University, USA, 2006 • Lecture, Dept. of Architecture, MIT University, USA, 2006 淡江大学建筑系学士,1977 年 • 利氏学舍第二届“人籁”月刊生命永续奖,2008 年 • Lecture, Graduate Center of Architecture, Peking University, 2005 • 台湾六堆客家文化园区竞图首奖,2006 年 • Lecture, Academia Sinica Taiwan, 2005 经历 • 深圳城市 建筑双年展组委会特别奖,2006 年 • Visiting Lecturer, Dept. of Architecture, Feng-Chia University, Taiwan, 2002 • 侯金堆文教基金会环境保护杰出荣誉奖,2005 年 • Visiting Lecturer, Dept. of Arch. and Historic Preservation, Shu-Te University, Taiwan,• 台湾“8 · 8”水灾灾区原住民家屋重建,2009 年迄今 2001 a. 台东县介达中继屋 • 入选联合国最佳人居环境项目[联合国人居署最佳实践],2005 • Visiting Lecturer, Dept. of Architecture, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Taiwan, b. 屏东县玛家乡三和避难屋 年—“永续建筑架构下的原住民部落重建”[在“可持续建筑” 1998 c. 台东县大鸟部落永久屋 概念原住民社区重建] • Research Tour of traditional folk housing and drama in China, 1987, 1989, 1995 d. 台东县大武部落永久屋 • Director of Architect Hsieh Ying-Chun and Associates, Taiwan, since 1984 • 台湾建筑奖社会服务贡献奖,2003 年 e. 台东县德其永久屋 • Structural Engineer of Architect Chen Chi-Kwan and Associates, Taiwan, 1979 • 台湾“9 · 21”重建委员会重建贡献奖,2002 年 f. 屏东县玛家农场永久屋 [ 含玛家村,大社村,好茶 ] • Architectural Engineer Officer for the ROC Army, 1977 g. 台东县滨茂永久屋 • 第三届远东杰出建筑设计佳作奖,2001 年 h. 屏东县中间路部落永久屋 • 第二届远东杰出建筑设计奖决选入围,2000 年 Exhibitions i. 高雄县勤和部落避难屋 • 第一届远东杰出建筑设计奖决选入围,1999 年 • Illegal Architecture: Installation Exhibition of Wang Shu and Hsieh Ying-Chun, 2011 j. 台东县海棠台风迁村 • 新竹科学工业园区标准厂房公共工程品质评鉴优等 • Shenzhen Biennale of Urbanism and Architecture, 2009• 四川“5 · 12”灾区农房重建,2008-2009 年 • La Biennale di Venezia, 2009 • 美浓客家文物馆竞图首奖,1998 年 a. 带领志工,村民兴建粪尿分集厕所,已完成 15 座 • Detours: Tactical approaches to urbanization in China, Toronto Exhibition, 2006 • 台湾建筑师杂志奖[台湾建筑奖],1997 年 • La Biennale di Architettura di Venezia, 2006 b. 支援偏远山区居民自力建造家屋,其中青川县 [ 汉人聚落 ]146 户, • 台湾“省政府”优良建筑师奖,1996 年 • Shenzhen Biennale of Urbanism and Architecture, 2005 茂县 [ 羌族聚落 ]56 户,汶川县 [ 藏族聚落 ]48 户 • 台湾公共工程品质特优奖,1996 年 • Myxomycity, MOCA Taipei Exhibition, 2003 c. 支援德阳市农村居民自建农房,26 户• 安徽南塘合作社农村合作建房,2007 年 • 新竹县文化中心竞图首奖,1995 年 Awards• 新竹县尖石煤源部落迁村九户 • Contribution to the Public Service, 10th Annual Award to the Outstanding Architect, [ 台湾“世界展望会”捐助 2007 年竣工 ] 参展 Taiwan, 2010• 河南兰考农村合作建房,2006 年 •“朗读违章”王澍 × 谢英俊建筑展,2011 年 • Special Committee Award, China Architecture Media Awards, 2008• 新竹县尖石天湖部落迁村 35 户 • 第 53 届威尼斯双年展返台展,2010 年 • Taipei City Cultural Award, 2008 • 深圳城市 建筑双年展,2009 年 • Life Sustainability Award, Renlai Monthly, Taipei Ricci Institute, 2008 [ 台湾“世界展望会”捐助 2006 年竣工 ] • Competition First Prize, Taiwan LiuDuei Hakka Cutural Park, 2006• 受美国麻省理工学院及哥伦比亚大学邀请发表专题演讲,2006 年 • 第 53 届威尼斯当代艺术双年展,2009 年 • Special Committee Award, Shenzhen Biennale of Urbanism and Architecture, 2006• 河北定州市晏阳初乡村建设学院,乡村建筑工作室主持,2005 年 • 加拿大多伦多大学设计展 [ 绕行:要在中国城市化的策略问题 ], • Honor Award for Environmental Protection, Ho Jin-Duei Foundation, 2005 2006 年 • Nominee Finalist, UN- HABITAT’ Best Practices Dubai Awards, 2004 s• 台中县松鹤部落迁村 40 户 • Social Contribution Prize, Taiwan Architectural Award, 2003 [“台湾红十字会总会”捐助,2005 年竣工 ] • 威尼斯建筑艺术双年展,2006 年 • Taiwan 921 Reconstruction Committee Award for Reconstruction Contribution, 2002• 赴印尼亚齐南亚海啸灾区,提供家屋重建方案,2005 年 • 深圳城市 建筑双年展,2005 年 • Citation Prize, Far Eastern Award for Outstanding Architecture Design, 2001• 台湾“9 · 21”地震灾区重建,1999-2006 年 • 台北当代艺术馆“黏菌城市”展,2003 年 • Nominee Finalist, Far Eastern Award for Outstanding Architecture Design, 2000 • Nominee Finalist, Far Eastern Award for Outstanding Architecture Design, 1999 a. 支援部落社区居民自力建造家屋 [2001-2006 年 ] • Evaluation of Superior Quality for Public Construction, HsinChu Science Park b. 支援松鹤部落带领居民自力建造 30 户家屋及部落教室,2000 年 Education Standard factory buildings c. 进驻日月潭,带领邵族人自力建造临时安置社区,包含 42 个单元住屋, • B.Arch, Tamkang University, 1977 • Competition First Prize, Mei-Nung Hakka Museum, 1998 图书馆,部落教室,工坊及各式祭仪空间,并协助推动文化重建,生活重 • Taiwan Architecture Award, Taiwan Architect Magazine, 1997 建等 Projects • Taiwans Outstanding Architect Award, 1996• 逢甲大学建筑系兼任讲师,2002 年 • Aboriginal community reconstruction of Typhoon Morakot, Taiwan, 2009-present • Extraordinary Quality Award, Public Construction Commission, Taiwan, 1996• 树德科技大学大学建古系兼任讲师,2001 年 • Rural community reconstruction after SiChuan Earthquake, May 2008-August • Competition First Prize, HsinChu County Cultural Center, 1995 2009• 中原大学建筑系兼任讲师,1998 年 • Conduct of Agricultural cooperative building in Nan-Tang, An-Hui, 2007• 游历大陆 , 从事民居及戏剧考察,1987 年,1989 年,1995 年 • Removal of Mei-Yuan Village, Jien-Shi, Xin-Zhu County, 2007 乡村建筑工作室• 谢英俊建筑师事务所主持,1984 年 • Conduct of Agricultural Cooperative building in He-Nan, Lan-Kao, 2006 http://www.atelier-3.com / • Removal of Tian-Hu Village, Jian-Shi, Xin-Zu County, 2006 http://blog.sina.com.cn / rastudio• 陈其宽建筑师事务所工程师,1979 年 • Removal of Song-He Village, TaiChung County, 2005• 陆军建筑工程官,1977 年 • Housing reconstruction proposal for Aceh Tsunami, Indonesia, 2005 • Community Reconstruction of 921 Earthquake, Taiwan, 1999-2006 获奖 Profile• 第 10 届杰出建筑师公共服务贡献奖,2008 年 • Director of Rural Architecture Studio, Yen-Yang Chu Rural Construction• 中国建筑传媒奖组委会特别奖,2008 年 Academy, HeBei, 2005
  17. 17. 42/43A.“9 · 21”震灾及水灾部落重建 完工时间:2002 D4. 大武部落 完工时间:2006 G. 社区公共建筑 地点:台湾南投县埔里镇 完工时间:2010/7 地点:河南兰考县贺村A1. 煤源部落迁村 地点:台湾台东县大武乡 兴建:自建 G1. 浮云剧场完工时间:2007/2 B10. 中正 石金山宅 完工时间:2006 兴建:31 户地点:台湾新竹县尖石乡 完工时间:2001 E9. 南塘合作社 地点:台湾宜兰县冬山河兴建:9 户 地点:台湾南投县仁爱乡中正村 D5. 德其永久屋 完工时间:2007 兴建:自建 完工时间:2010/7 地点:安徽阜阳 G2. 无尾港生态教室A2. 天湖部落迁村 地点:台湾台东县太麻里 兴建:自建 完工时间:2004完工时间:2006/4 B11. 中正 黄阿缎宅 地点:台湾宜兰县苏澳 兴建:33 户地点:台湾新竹县尖石乡 完工时间:2001 E10. 小汤山程宅兴建:36 户 地点:台湾南投县仁爱乡中正村 D6. 玛家农场永久屋 完工时间:2008 G3. 来园咖啡屋 完工时间:2010 地点:北京小汤山 完工时间:2004A3. 松鹤部落迁村 地点:台湾屏东县玛家乡玛家农场 E11. 纳木湖牧民安居房 地点:台湾台中县石冈完工时间:2005/7 C. 四川“5 · 12”灾区农房重建 兴建:483 户,部分自建 完工时间:2010/10地点:台湾台中县和平乡 G4. 礁溪帐篷剧场兴建:42 户 C1. 川震重建尿粪分集厕所 D7. 宾茂永久屋 地点:西藏当雄现纳木湖乡 兴建:18 户,卫生室、活动室 完工时间:2004 完工时间:2008/5~2009/8 完工时间:2010A4. 松鹤部落家屋及部落教室 兴建:15 座 地点:台湾台东县太麻里乡 地点:台湾宜兰县礁溪完工时间:2000 E12. 北京长城村 兴建: 15 户 G5. 台北有机屋 [ 宝藏岩 ]地点:台湾台中县和平乡博爱村 C2. 茂县杨柳村 地点:北京市延庆县兴建:自建,30 户 地点:四川茂县太平乡 D8. 嘉兰二 [ 海棠 ] 兴建:250 户,部分自建 完工时间:2003 地点:台湾台东县金峰乡 地点:台湾台北市公馆 兴建:56 户,自建A5. 邵族安置社区 兴建:15 户,自建 C3. 汶川码头村 G6. 亚洲小剧场艺术节帐篷剧场完工时间:2000 F. 个别家屋地点:台湾南投县日月潭伊达邵 地点:四川汶川县草坡乡 D9. 中间路部落永久屋 完工时间:2003兴建:42 单元住屋、图书馆、部落教室、工坊及 兴建:48 户,自建 地点:台湾屏东县牡丹乡 F1. 埔里 曾宅 地点:台湾台北市华山艺文特区各式祭仪空间,并协助推动文化重建、生活重建等 兴建:45 户,部分自建 完工时间:2008 C4. 九龙示范农宅 地点:台湾南投县埔里镇 地点:四川棉竹市九龙 D10. 勤和部落避难屋 F2. 林内 张宅 H. 工作营B.“9 · 21”个别家屋 兴建:3 户,自建 地点:台湾高雄县桃源乡 兴建:12 户,自建 完工时间:2008 H1. 原住民传统家屋教学 C5. 青川香树坝B1. 潭南 巫浪宅 D11. 嘉兰一西侧 地点:台湾云林县林内乡 完工时间:2005 地点:四川青川县骑马乡完工时间:2003 地点:台湾宜兰县华德福实验小学 兴建:自建 地点:台湾台东县金峰乡 F3. 吉安 李宅地点:台湾南投县信义乡潭南村 完工时间:2006 H2. 森林小学木构造体验营兴建:自建 C6. 里坪冯家 地点:台湾花莲县吉安乡 完工时间:2003/5 地点:四川青川县骑马乡 E. 大陆农村生态农房B2. 潭南 幸宗元宅 F4. 芎林 张宅 地点:台湾南投县日月潭伊达邵 兴建:自建完工时间:2003 E1. 生态节能礼堂 完工时间:2004/6 H3. 凤山工作营地点:台湾南投县信义乡潭南村 C7. 里坪村小学 完工时间:2005 地点:台湾新竹县芎林乡 完工时间:2003/5 地点:四川青川县骑马乡 地点:河北定州市晏阳初乡村建设学院B3. 达观 共同厨房 F5. 信义 金宅 地点:台湾高雄县凤山市 兴建:自建完工时间:2003 E2. 雅齐麻达屋 完工时间:2004/3地点:台湾台中县和平乡达观村 C8. 沙洲 完工时间:2005兴建:自建 地点:四川青川县沙洲镇 地点:河北定州市晏阳初乡村建设学院 地点:台湾南投县信义乡 I. 其他 兴建:自建 F6. 宜兰 翟宅 I1. 大南社头目传统家屋暨聚会所B4. 达观 罗萍宅 E3. 地球屋 002 完工时间:2004/2完工时间:2003/7 C9. 沙洲 [ 市区 ] 完工时间:2005 地点:台湾宜兰县宜兰市 地点:台湾台东县知本乡地点:台湾台中县和平乡达观村 地点:四川青川县沙洲镇 地点:河北定州市晏阳初乡村建设学院 兴建:三开间两层楼 F7. 仁爱 瓦旦牧师宅 I2. 茧 兴建:自建B5. 潭南 谷年安宅 完工时间:2009 完工时间:2004/1完工时间:2002 E4. 地球屋 001 地点:台湾南投县仁爱乡春阳部落 地点:广东深圳地点:台湾南投县信义乡潭南村 完工时间:2005 D. 台湾“8 · 8”水灾重建 地点:河北定州市晏阳初乡村建设学院 F8. 狮坛 张宅 I3. 邵族传统家屋B6. 东埔 部落教室完工时间:2002 D1. 介达中继屋 E5. 河北尿粪分集生态厕所 完工时间:2003/6 完工时间:2005 完工时间:2010/1 地点:台湾苗栗县狮潭乡 地点:台湾屏东县原住民文化园区地点:台湾南投县信义乡东埔布农部落 完工时间:2005 地点:台湾台东县太麻里兴建:自建 地点:河北定州市晏阳初乡村建设学院 F9. 长滨 三间屋民宿 I4. 差事剧团帐篷剧场 兴建:50 户,自建 完工时间:1998 完工时间:2004B7. 中正 高杰义宅 E6. 甘孜塔公牧民定居房完工时间:2002 D2. 大鸟部落 地点:台湾台东县长滨乡三间屋 地点:台湾台北市公馆宝藏岩 完工时间:2009 完工时间:2010/2地点:台湾南投县仁爱乡中正村 地点:四川甘孜康定 F10. 员山 陈宅 I5. 富鸿建设工务所兴建:自建 地点:台湾台东县大武乡 完工时间:1995 完工时间:2003/11 兴建:14 户,部分自建 E7. 地球屋 003 地点:台湾宜兰县员山乡B8. 潭南 古宋阿今宅 地点:台湾台北市士林区石牌 完工时间:2006完工时间:2002 D3. 三和避难屋 F11. 丰原 谢宅 地点:河南兰考县贺村地点:台湾南投县信义乡潭南村 完工时间:2010/3 兴建:贺村合作社施工队 地点:台湾台中县丰原市 地点:台湾屏东县长治乡B9. 埔里 王机陆宅 兴建:20 户、备灾中心、公厕,自建 E8. 兰考旧房改造
  18. 18. 人民的建筑:谢英俊建筑师巡回展People’s Architecture: Hsieh Ying-chun, Architect策展人 史建 Curator Shi Jian展出策划 乡村建筑工作室 Exhibition Planner Rural Architecture Studio巡展筹划 李虎 黄伟文 杜鹃 李翔宁 Traveling Exhibition Planner Li Hu, Huang Weiwen, Du Juan, Li Xiangyu项目协调 郑空空 蒲鸿 Exhibition Contact Zheng Kong Kong, Pu Hong展览视觉设计 wx-design 侯颖 丁凡 陈梦梅 Exhibition Vision Design wx-design, Hou Ying, Ding Fan, Chen Mengmei展场设计 谢英俊 林信和 Exhibition Design Hsieh Ying-chun, Lin Hsin-her展场制作 薛亮 高春贵 Installation Management Xue Liang, Kao Chun-kuei展览文件制作 洪明裕 张鹃后 聂晨 刘丁 Exhibit Text Hung Ming-yu, Chang Chuan-hou, Nie Chen, Liu Ding展版设计 刘振 Panel Design Liu Zhen实体展品设计 颜学理 江敏懿 Installation Management Yen Hsueh-hi, Chiang Ming-yi场地器材设备协调 许雅筑 Audio/Visual Management Xu Yazhu翻译 梅若琳 阮思蓓 Translation Caroline Merrifield, Elisabeth Ramsey校对 徐小虎 毛晨悦 Copy Editor Joan Stanley-Baker, Mao Chenyue文献整理 刘肇隆 蔡佩妏 林书吟 Editor Liu Chao-lung, Tsai Pei-wen, Lin Shu Ying影片提供 Video Recording《地球屋 003》 导演:余隽江 Earth House Director: Yu Chuan-Ching《川震记录》[2009 威尼斯双年展展出影片] 导演:余隽江 Steel and Mountain [2009 Venice Biennale Official Selection] Director: Yu《“8 · 8”水灾重建协力造屋》 导演:元创意工作室 Chuan-Ching《嘉兰中继屋》 导演:林宜锋 Reconstruction in the Wake of the 88 Flood Director: Studio Meta.tw Jialan Relief Housing Director: Lin Yi Fang主办Studio X Beijing 哥伦比亚大学北京建筑中心 Organizer深圳城市设计促进中心 Studio X Beijing, Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture,香港建筑师学会 + 香港艺术发展局 Planning and Preservation同济大学建筑与城市规划学院 Shenzhen Center for Design The Hong Kong Institute of Architects & Hong Kong Arts巡展  Development Council3 月 [ 北京 ] Studio X Beijing 哥伦比亚大学北京建筑中心 The College of Architecture and Urban Planning of Tongji University4 月 [ 深圳 ] 深圳图书馆5 月 [ 香港 ] 前中区警署总部大楼 Exhibition Schedule6 月 [ 上海 ] 同济大学建筑与城市规划学院 March, Beijing April, Shenzhen May, Hongkong June, Shanghai媒体支持 / Media Support:鸣谢 / Thanks:
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