Key points • It doesn’t matter if you are born in Africa, the Caribbean or Northern Ireland • If you indentify talent • And create the correct environment to nurture that talent • You can win major titles/medals
Overview Optimisation Testing Marginal gainsScientific Refinement of environmentPrinciples Progression of key “Correct” determinants environmental interaction “Correct” genetic potential
mtDNA lineages • mtDNA is highly mutable and is inherited in a matrilineal fashion • Accumulation of linked complexes of polymorphisms down different lines of descent • Can trace the ancestry of individuals and populations
Section main points • The “correct” genotype for elite performance is of course fundamental • Africans not likely to be any different to “our” genetics • It is the interaction of each genetic element with the environment that is likely to be important
PhD - Environment • Diet and energy balance (DLW) • Fluid intake and hydration balance • Electrolyte balance • Training load and physiological responses • Daily physical activity patterns (i.e. recovery)
Results • Fudge B.W., Westerterp K.R., Kiplamai F.K., Onywera V.O., Boit M.K., Kayser B., and Pitsiladis Y.P. (2006). Evidence of negative energy balance using doubly labeled water in elite Kenyan endurance runners prior to competition. British Journal of Nutrition 95(1): 59-66. • Fudge B.W., Easton C., Wilson J., Irwin L., Clark J., Haddow O., Kayser B., Pitsiladis Y.P. (2007). Estimation of oxygen uptake during fast running using accelerometery and heart rate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 39 (1): 192-198. • Easton C., Fudge B.W., Pitsiladis Y.P. (2007). Rectal, telemetry pill and tympanic membrane temperatures during exercise in the heat. Journal of Thermal Biology 32 (2): 78-86. • Fudge B.W., Easton C., Kingsmore D., Kiplamai F.K., Onywera V.O, Westerterp K.R., Kayser B., Noakes T.D., and Pitsiladis Y.P. (2008). Elite Kenyan endurance runners remain well hydrated day-to-day with ad libitum fluid intake. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 40 (6): 1171-1179. • Beis L., Fudge B.W., Noakes T., Pitsiladis Y.P. (2011). Food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 8(7). • Ingham S.A., Hardman S.L., Fudge B.W., Pringle J.S., Richmond V.L. (Manuscript in preparation, 2011). Parameters derived from an incremental step-wise and ramp-wise graded rowing exercise test and 2000-m rowing ergometer performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. • Ojiambo R.M., Mohammad Y., Fudge B.W., Kingsmore D., Parisotto R., Magnus L., Pitsiladis Y.P. (Manuscript submitted, 2010). Haematological profiles of elite east-African runners over a 7 year period. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. • Beis L., Fudge B.W., Noakes T., Pitsiladis Y.P. (Manuscript submitted, 2011). Drinking behaviours of elite male runners during marathon competition. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. • Ross R., Fudge B.W., Gibson A., Ojiambo R.M., Wilson J., Pitsiladis Y.P. (Manuscript submitted, 2011). Evaluation of the Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic system during fast running outdoors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. • Ojiambo R., Gibson A.R., Ross R., Konstabel K., Casajus J.A., Fudge B.W., Easton C., Reilly J.J., Pitsiladis Y.P. (Manuscript in preparation, 2011). Comparative evaluation of the ActiTrainer and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer outputs during structured activities in adolescents. • Ingham S.A., Fudge B.W., Pringle P., Jones A.J. (Manuscript in preparation, 2011). Oxygen uptake kinetics and the optimal warm-up strategy for elite 800m running performance. • Fudge B.W., Scott R.A., Pitsiladis Y.P. (Manuscript in preparation, 2011). Polymorphisms within the ADRB1, ADRB2, ADRB3, genes and their association with the determinants of endurance success in East African runners. • Fudge B.W., Scott R.A., Pitsiladis Y.P. (Manuscript in preparation, 2011). Polymorphisms within the 5HT, NOS3 and BDKRB2 genes and their association with the determinants of endurance success in East African runners.
Sub- section main points • Kenyan athletes have a conducive environment for developing as an endurance runner: • Diet • Hydration • Rest/recovery • Training is simple
Performance – LHTH & LHTLBonetti & Hopkins, Meta-analysis of sea levelperformance following adaptation to hypoxia.Sports Medicine 39: 107-27, 2009
Hypoxia & Genetics • Text Vogt & Hoppeler, 2010
Altitude Adaptation…Bekele Run Altitude (m) Distance (km) Average HR (bpm) Average speed (km/h) Average Speed (min:mile)Rift Valley Plains 1400-1600 15 139 14.9 06:32 Forest 3000-3200 18 141 14.7 06:27
Sub-section main points • Typically the best endurance runners in the world are based at altitude...regardless of origin • Altitude training may be a vehicle to optimally modify the aerobic phenotype • But by no more than the limit set by an individuals genotype...not a magic bullet!
The East African Way…• For 40 weeks/year (5 days/week) for 10 years • Min: 2 x 5 km/day • Max: 4 x 5 km/day• Equivalent to: • Min: 20,000 km or 12,430 miles • Max: 40,000 km or 24,860 miles• Before they leave school
Sub-section main points • Running/walking to school is an important part of east African life • And has an important role to play in developing (the physiology of) world- class athletes • All world-class athletes must undertake a substantial period of development at some point regardless of origin
Section summary • World-class athletes at some point must undergo a substantial period of development regardless of origin • Altitude training may help endurance athletes realise their true aerobic potential
Altitude model aims Type Aim Duration A Improve general fitness – especially 21-28 days aerobic capabilities B To prepare for high intensity training 21-28 days following altitude C Improve competitive performance 17-21 days
Optimal trainingcamps High enough for blood adaptation Low enough to train when quality required
Optimal Camp Venues Multiple altitude locations are required
Theory in to Practice Multiple altitude exposures are necessary
Section summary • UKA endurance runners have a unique opportunity to live and train at altitude • The program is year round which allows the opportunity to complete different types of altitude training (i.e. A, B and C) • Fully supported program (medicine, science, etc)
Section summary • Testing is important • Benchmarking • Progression • Programme accountability • Should be completed regularly • But not so much that it impinges on the training programming
Optimisation Marginal Gains – Warm DownSlides courtesy of Dr Steve Ingham, Head of Physiology, EIS (with modifications).
How do you get fit? Mechanical (inc neural)/ Train metabolic stimulusHormonal, immune response/ inflammation/ Blood flow/ Adapt breakdown/ Eat/Drink Nutrients/ genetranscription/ growth No further Rest stress
Repeated bout effect Present the same stimulus to the body Reduced disturbance to+ve homeostasis BUT will result inPerformance smaller adaptive response So you have train-ve more/harder Time (hours, days) Recovery treatments are popular...
Ice baths – reduce soreness 10 Cryotherapy Control 9 Perceived Soreness (1-10) 8 * †* 7 †* 6 †* 5 4 3 2 10-15° C 1 Pre-exercise 0h 1h 24h 48h 168h water 10-15 mins Time (h)Bailey et al, 2007 Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage followingprolonged intermittent shuttle running. J Sports Sci. 2007 Sep;25(11):1163-70. et al., 2007 Bailey
Muscle strength – maintain strength 4.0 Cryotherapy Control 3.5 Isometric MVC (Nm.kg-1) 3.0 †* # †* 2.5 2.0 1.5 0.0 Pre-exercise 24h 48h 168h Time (h)Bailey et al, 2007 Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage followingprolonged intermittent shuttle running. J Sports Sci. 2007 Sep;25(11):1163-70.
But reduces long term adaptation!!! 50 Control † Percentage change (%) 40 Cooled 30 20 † † † 10 † 0 Perfomance VO2max VT Femoral artery Maximal Muscle trial diameter Strength endurance -10 Test parameterYamane et al., 2006 Post-exercise leg and forearm flexor muscle cooling in humans attenuatesendurance and resistance training effects on muscle performance and on circulatory adaptation. Eur JAppl Physiol. 2006 Mar;96(5):572-80. Epub 2005 Dec 22.
Section summary• Injury rate is high, probably due to impact• Recovery treatments are popular• Recovery treatments are not encouraged out of competition• Increased physiological loading is now the emphasis• Maximum adaptation is the focus not maximum training
General Summary Optimisation Testing Marginal gainsScientific Refinement of environmentPrinciples Progression of key “Correct” determinants environmental interaction “Correct” genetic potential
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