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Athletics NI Coaching Conference 2013 - Tom Crick
 

Athletics NI Coaching Conference 2013 - Tom Crick

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'Do You Need A General Preparation Phase?'

'Do You Need A General Preparation Phase?'

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    Athletics NI Coaching Conference 2013 - Tom Crick Athletics NI Coaching Conference 2013 - Tom Crick Presentation Transcript

    • DO YOU NEED A GENERAL PREPARATION PHASE? Things to consider when planning over the next three months
    • INTRODUCTION Do you need a general preparation phase?
    • Planning… •  Planning is a massive topic! Ideally we need to discuss: –  Coaching philosophy –  Classification of exercises –  Long term athlete development –  Strategies for training organisation –  Designing training progressions –  Classic models for event organisation •  ALL before we even get started on any specific topic! •  Luckily this is all covered in the Event Group Coaching Qualifications which are currently all FREE!
    • Rule #1 of Planning! “Give the athlete the workout they need, that day, every day for their entire career” Henk Kraaijenhoff
    • Please talk about planning the general preparation phase? •  Suggested topic… What coaches should you do during the ‘general preparation phase’ (GPP) •  This topic makes some very big assumptions 1.  Everyone does/should do a ‘general preparation phase’ 2.  Its has ‘special content’ that is different to regular training!
    • What is a general preparation phase? •  I asked a few coaches what the ‘general preparation phase’ was all about? –  “It’s when you do general training to prepare the athlete for the season ahead” –  “It’s when you do high volume at the start of the year” –  “It comes after the transition phase and before specific preparation”
    • What is a general preparation phase? •  Looked at the literature to find a definition: –  Loading: Intensity Low Volume High Recovery Low –  Exercise selection: •  Technically speaking a general preparation phase only includes non technical exercises classified as GPE & SPE –  Maybe better described as a “physical preparation phase”?
    • GPE & SPE by event group Sprints & Hurdles Jumps Throws Endurance SPE (Non-specific Explosive Activities) Weight Training, Multi-Jumps, Multi- Throws (Non-specific Endurance Activities) General Strength (Circuits), Endurance cross-training GPE (Non-specific Endurance Activities) General Strength, Flexibility (Non-specific Explosive Activities) Weight Training, Multi-Jumps, Multi-Throws, Flexibility
    • General Preparation Phase
    • What’s the goals of a general preparation phase? •  I asked several coaches why people did general preparation phases: –  “Get the athlete back into the habit of training after a period of rest” –  “Work on improving base levels of fitness” –  “You can’t just go straight into full training or they will get injured” –  “Get them fit enough to do real (event specific technical) training” –  “Help them to lose the fat they put on while not training!”
    • What is a General Preparation Phase? •  As a consensus statement: –  FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT •  Is carried out after a period of rest •  Aims to prepare the athlete physically and mentally to do specific training –  IMPLEMENTATION •  Involves exercises classified as GPE and SPE •  Involves loading that is: –  High volume –  Low intensity.
    • You shouldn’t take my word for it… Does this consensus statement make logical sense?
    • ANALYSING THE ASSUMPTIONS… The General Preparation Phase
    • GPP as a concept •  GPP is an element that makes up part of an annual plan •  It is carried out after a period of rest (usually after the end of the outdoor competitive season) –  ASSUMPTIONS: •  An annual plan must include a GPP! •  After resting you need a training with a different emphasis than at other times –  Do we really need a General Preparation Phase? –  What are the requirements of training following a period of rest?
    • GPP as a concept •  It aims to ‘get the athlete back into shape’ so they are ready for full training during the ‘specific preparation phase’ –  ASSUMPTIONS: •  The athlete is out of shape after a rest period •  You can’t get involved in ‘real training’ (CE & SDE) immediately after a period of rest –  How deconditioned really is the athlete after a period of rest? –  What exactly are they deconditioned to? –  Why can’t you start real training after a rest period?
    • Traditional training implementation during GPP •  Exercise selection –  GPP should include only GPE and SPE exercises –  Why? –  What’s wrong with SDE and CE during GPP? •  Loading strategy –  GPP should be a period of high volume and low intensity work –  Why? –  What’s wrong with high intensity during GPP? –  What’s wrong with low volume during GPP?
    • Recap of questions to answer •  GPP as a concept –  What are the requirements of training following a rest period? –  Are there any truly logical reasons why ‘real training’ cannot begin after a rest period? –  How deconditioned really is the athlete after a period of rest? •  What exactly are they deconditioned to? •  Traditional GPP implementation –  Why should you exclude SDE and CE during GPP? –  Why should you use a high volume, low intensity loading strategy?
    • REQUIREMENTS OF TRAINING FOLLOWING A REST PERIOD GPP as a concept
    • Training and adaptation •  When athletes train they undergo physiological adaptation to numerous systems: –  Brain / Nervous system –  Muscles –  Tendons –  Energy systems (Cardio vascular) •  Each system adapts over a different timeframe •  Each system adapts through a different mechanism •  Each system detrains over a different timeframe –  Nervous system vs Tendon?
    • Training and adaptation •  Take home messages on adaptation –  The length of the rest period determines the athlete's status with respect to different adaptations throughout the body –  Not all systems will be at the same point in their adaptation cycle •  In practice –  An athlete may not be as unfit as you expect in some areas but significantly more unfit in others –  They will probably experience DOMS! This can be dangerous!
    • DOMS and performance
    • WHY CAN’T YOU START ‘REAL TRAINING’ IMMEDIATELY AFTER A REST PERIOD? The General Preparation Phase
    • From rest to ‘real training’ •  What do coaches mean by ‘real training’? –  Specialised in nature –  Technical event specific emphasis (CE & SDE) •  What are the pre-requisites for undertaking SDE and CE training? –  The body needs to be prepared to absorb the forces involved •  CE & SDE have the greatest injury risk because they involve: –  Focused high force activity –  And/or repetitive loading
    • Are all CE & SDE activities equally as dangerous? •  The idea that there are pre-requisites to CE & SDE is one explanation for why the GPP should only include GPE and SPE activity BUT… •  Are all SDE and CE activities equally as risky? •  Do they all require a lot of preparatory work? –  Endurance: Easy running (SDE) vs Specific Endurance (CE)? –  Jumps: Repeat take-offs (SDE) vs full approach jumping (CE)? –  Throws: Standing throws (SDE) vs full throws (CE)? –  S&H: 10m accels (CE) vs Speed Endurance/Rhythm Endurance (CE)?
    • Are all CE & SDE activities equally as dangerous? •  All event specific training progressions typically start with some kind of fundamental CE / SDE activity to introduce key skills •  By keeping volume low and by taking the edge off intensity (within acceptable limits) you can reduce injury risk •  Take Home Message –  Reduce risk by manipulating volume & intensity –  If used conservatively, CE & SDE can be used immediately after a period of rest
    • TRADITIONAL IMPLEMENTATION OF GPP… General Preparation Phase
    • Traditional implementation of GPP •  Exercise selection –  Some forms of SDE and CE have pre-requisite qualities which have a significant adaptation time –  BUT some CE & SDE do not, especially in low doses! –  There is no reason why some CE & SDE cannot be done straight away •  Loading strategy –  The high volume / low intensity paradigm is influenced by the Matveyan ‘Periodization’ approach to structuring training from the 1960s –  There are at least 4 other common strategies many of which include high intensity elements at the very start of the training year
    • Traditional Linear Periodization (General > Specific)
    • Constant Loading Strategies (Bondarchuck)
    • German Wave Loading Strategies
    • Complex Vertical Integration
    • Traditional implementation of GPP •  Loading strategy –  To prepare some systems, high intensity work is required for effective adaptation •  Tendon stiffness •  Nervous system •  Take Home Messages –  If implemented correctly, exercises of all classifications can be used following a rest period –  Many ‘preparatory’ training methods require high intensity to stimulate adaptation –  The progression does not necessarily have to start with low intensity/high volume. However, volume and intensity will probably increase to some degree during the GPP
    • Traditional implementation of GPP •  Take Home Messages –  If implemented correctly, exercises of all classifications can be used following a rest period –  Many ‘preparatory’ training methods require high intensity to stimulate adaptation –  All power/speed events involve high intensity and this must be prepared for using appropriate high intensity methods –  The progression does not necessarily have to start with low intensity/high volume. However, volume and intensity will probably increase to some degree during the GPP
    • DO WE NEED TO A GENERAL PREPARATION PHASE? General Preparation Phase
    • Do we need a General Preparation Phase? •  Immediately following a rest period some elements of training will need to be adapted while the appropriate systems are reconditioned •  The affects of DOMS and other ‘conditioning risks’ need to be considered and training adjusted appropriately •  Exercises from all classifications can be used if employed cautiously •  Intensity and volume should be considered relative to the adaptation you wish to induce •  If you like the idea of a having a GPP then use it but don’t be bound by traditional dogma about what it entails
    • GUIDELINES FOR GPP… The General Preparation Phase
    • 4 Steps to Creating a GPP 1.  Analyse your problem 2.  Where are you going? 3.  What route will you use to get there? 4.  How long will it take?
    • Analyse your problem •  What athletes are you coaching? –  Developing ‘Event Group’ athletes •  Broad spectrum of training across numerous events. Emphasise skills for general athleticism and event specific training (ADM) –  Mature senior ‘Event Specialist’ athletes •  Focused training on a single or closely related events* *Only IF they have already developed the fundamental skills (JD)
    • Where are you going? •  Plan backwards –  What’s the first ‘real session’ you want them to do? –  What will they need to do to be ready for this? –  What are the capable of now? •  Join the dots… •  How long will that take? That’s your GPP!
    • What route are you taking? •  What’s your strategy for organising the training? •  Event Group Athletes –  Consider Complex Vertically Integrated Training (Tschiene) •  For Event Specialist Athletes –  Build your programme around a ‘popular model strategy’ for your event group •  S&H: Vertical Integration (Tschiene) •  Jumps: Vertical Integration (Tschiene) •  Throws: Constant Loading / Wave Loading •  Endurance: Vertical Integration or Linear Periodization
    • How long will it take? •  Different training methods require different adaptation times –  The higher the absolute intensity the shorter the adaptation period –  So endurance work takes longer, explosive/speed takes shorter •  The length of the GPP should be matched to the timeframe for adaptation you are trying to create.
    • COMMON MISTAKES… General Preparation Phase
    • Guidelines / mistakes to avoid •  When introducing a new stimulus be conservative •  Provide enough time for the athlete to adapt to each new stimulus •  Progress your training gradually and avoid sudden changes in: –  Loading –  Exercise selection (bleed in new exercises) –  Surface selection •  Take your time to reach your goal.
    • The first week •  Day 1: Teach the athletes the warm up > go home –  It doesn’t matter how little you do they will get DOMS! •  Day 2: –  Teach them the first step in your progression at each level of the ECH •  Day 3: –  Assess soreness –  Repeat day 2 but practice them a few times (25% volume) •  Day 4: –  Assess soreness –  Repeat but at 50% volume •  Day 5: –  Assess soreness –  Repeat but at 75% volume
    • An alternative structure… •  Day 1: Do a normal session •  Day 2: Do a normal session •  Day 3: Athlete too sore to complete session •  Day 4: Athlete too sore to train •  Day 5: Athlete too sore to train •  Day 6: Rest •  Day 7: If you are lucky they can do something but then pull out… •  Day 8: They probably have a minor injury!
    • TAKE HOME MESSAGES General Preparation Phase
    • GPP and the next 3 months •  We all have preconceived ideas about what we should do at certain times of the training year. Are these assumptions logical? •  Do these assumptions apply equally to developing and senior athletes? –  For developing athletes – skills & event specific technique –  For senior athletes / event specialists – preparation that is specific to the demands of the event and their individual athleticism •  Your GPP should prepare the athlete for the training you intend to do afterwards. Logically, the GPP will probably include low doses of specific high intensity work.
    • GPP and the next 3 months •  You need to be cautious when starting back training after a period of rest to allow those adaptations that have been lost to be re- established •  Avoid sudden changes in: –  Loading –  Exercise selection –  Surface selection •  If the athlete has had several weeks off consider an introductory period of extremely light and infrequent training for the first 1-2 weeks.
    • Do you need a General Preparation Phase? •  If you want to call your initial training after a period of rest the ‘General Preparatory Phase’ that’s fine! •  BUT don’t assume you must adopt traditional ideas regarding implementation •  Traditions are example solutions not ‘THE’ solution •  Your plan for each athlete in the next 3 months should be a solution to their specific needs – not someone else's! –  Don’t assume anything –  Observe the challenges and create YOUR OWN ROAD MAP –  Respond to what you observe and don’t be afraid to change