Definition• Human Development is the scientific study the patterns of growth and change that occurs throughout life• Two Types of Change:• 1.Quantitative change refers to physical growth like progress in height or weight.• 2. Qualitative change refers to the change of function of an organ, resulting to improve efficiency and accuracy.
Aspects of HumanDevelopment• 1. Physical development - changes in the body structure and motor skills.• 2. Perceptual development - development of sensory capacities such as the changes in the seeing and hearing abilities of infants.
Aspects of HumanDevelopment• 3. Cognitive or Intellectual development - change in mental abilities, learning capacity, memory, reasoning thought processes and language.• 4. Personality and Social development - changes in self-concept, gender identity and one’s quality of interpersonal relationship.
8 Stages of Development • 1. Prenatal stage • 2. Infancy (0-2 years old) • 3. Early childhood (3-6 years old) • 4. Middle childhood (7-12 years old) • 5. Adolescence (13-19 years old) • 6. Young adulthood (20-35 years old) • 7. Middle adulthood (36-49 years old) • 8. Late adulthood/Old age (50 years old- Death)
Process of Development Heredity is the transmission of traits from parents to offspring Every 28 days a female ovulates and releases an egg cell to fallopian tube. At the height of copulation the male parent releases sperm cells (300-500 million) inside the female’s vagina. The healthy sperms are programmed to swim and seek out the egg cell and fertilize it.
Process of Development Out of the millions of sperms, only about 50 of them will be able to come close to the egg cell The sperms will release enzyme that dissolves the jelly- like coating of the egg cell. Meanwhile, the egg is no passive participant; it actually embraces the lucky sperm cell. To avoid penetration by more than one sperm, the egg produces brief electrical shocks on its surface (lasting about 30 seconds) followed by a hard protein coat.
Process of Development The sperm cell is held down on the egg’s membrane, while the coat rises above it, pushing all the other sperms away. The egg pulls the sperm inside itself, and moves its nucleus to meet that of the sperm.
Process of Development Fertilization, the union of the egg and the sperm, produces a single cell that is called the zygote, which contains 23 chromosomes (strands of genetic material) contributed by the sperm and 23 chromosomes contributed by the egg. Chromosomes are made up of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), each segment of the DNA is a gene, the basic unit of heredity.
Process of Development These 46 chromosomes provide programming for inherited characteristics like blood type, height, skin color, and so forth. The 46 chromosomes align in pairs (23 pairs). The first 22 pairs are called autosomes, while the 23rd pair are called sex chromosomes, they will determine the sex or gender of the developing baby.
Process of Development All eggs and 50% of all sperm cells contain x sex chromosomes, while only the remaining 50% the sperm cells have a y sex chromosome. A zygote with xx chromosome will become female and a zygote with xy chromosome will become a male.
Process of Development There are two types of genes, the dominant genes, which carry dominant traits (the stronger one), and recessive genes which carries recessive traits (the weaker one). Incomplete dominance occurs when the dominant trait was not able to cover up the recessive trait.
Process of Development Codominance happens when two different dominant traits coexist in the offspring, as in the case of a combination of blood type A and blood type B, which results to having blood type AB. Some traits are called sex-linked traits. These traits only appear in a particular gender (males)
Process of Development Examples of such are: baldness, hemophilia and colorblindness, all manifested by the male population. The genetics cluster of traits that you have, and are observable from the outside is your phenotype. Your total Genetic make up, observable and not, is your genotype.
Kinds of Twins• 1. Identical or Monozygotic Twins – Twins that developed from a single zygote that split. They look alike because they share almost the same genetic make up.• 2. Fraternal or Dizygotic Twins – Twins the developed from the simultaneous union of 2 pairs of egg and sperm cell. They do not share the same genetic make up and may be of different gender, one male, one female.
Sex Chromosome Disorder• Klinefelter’s Syndrome (XXY)• - Occurs when a genetic male has an extra x chromosome• - Abnormal testes, no sperm production, reduced testosterone production• - Tall, poor muscular development, enlarged breasts
Sex Chromosome Disorder • Superfemale Syndrome (XXX) • - Intellectually deficit females • - Appears quite normal • Supermale Syndrome (XYY) • - Taller than normal males • - Below average intelligence
Autosomal Abnormalities• Down’s Syndrome (trisomy 21)• - An extra sex chromosome appeared in the 21st pair of autosomes• - Mentally retarded• - Sloping forehead, protruding tongue, short limbs, flattened nose, oriental in appearance
Autosomal Abnormalities• Edward’s Syndrome (trisomy 18)• - An extra sex chromosome appeared in the 18th pair of autosomes• - Abnormally small mouth, malformed ears, elongated skull, clenched hand, short breast bone• - With congenital heart disease
Autosomal Abnormalities• Patau’s Syndrome (trisomy 13)• - An extra sex chromosome appeared in the 13th pair of autosomes• - Defects of eye, nose, lips, ears and forebrain• - Having one eye at extreme cases• - Has more that the normal number of fingers or toes
Autosomal Abnormalities Other congenital defects (like congenital blindness, heart disease) may be a result of maternal diseases (like malaria, chicken pox, German measles), malnutrition, alcohol, smoking, emotion problems, pills, drugs, endocrine irregularities and blood incompatibilities. Collectively, these environmental forces that hinder the healthy development of an unborn child are called teratogens.
Teratogens Rubella (German Measles) – Blindness, deafness, heart abnormalities Syphilis – mental retardation, physical deformities, maternal miscarriage Addictive drugs – low birth weight, addiction to the drug, possible death from withdrawal Smoking - premature birth, low birth weight and length
Teratogens Alcohol – mental retardation, low weight, small head, limb deformities Radiation from X-rays – Physical deformities, mental retardation Inadequate diet – reduced brain growths, low weight and length Being your than 18 – premature birth, increased incidence of Down syndrome Being older than 35 - increased incidence of Down syndrome
Assumptions About theStages of Human Development Behaviors at a given stage are organized around a dominant theme or a coherent set of characteristics. Behaviors at one stage are qualitatively different from the behaviors at an earlier or later stage. All children go through the same stages in the same order, but may vary in pace.
Prenatal Development 1. Germinal Stage (Fertilization – 2 weeks) - Rapid cell division - By the end of the stage, the fertilized egg becomes a blastocyst (about the size of a pinhead) and plants itself in the wall of the uterus.
Prenatal Development 2. Embryonic Stage (end of 2 weeks – 2 months) - Major body systems and organs develop. - Organism becomes vulnerable to environmental influences. - Most likely occurrences of chromosomal abnormalities.
Prenatal Development 2. Embryonic Stage - 1st month – Measures quarter of an inch - 2nd month – As big as an adult’s smallest toe; back bone formed; legs and arms begin to form; facial features take shape.
Prenatal Development 3. Fetal Stage (end of 2 months – Birth) 3rd month – 3” ; 25 grams; Assumes human form; large head; starts bone formation (teeth buds, nails); genital becomes more recognizable. 4th month – 13.5 cm.; 120 grams; about the size of a small orange; broad face, eyes widely separated; capable of swallowing and kicking; nails/eyebrows start to grow.
Prenatal Development 5th month – 7.3”; 440 grams; vital organs developed; more frequent movement. 6th month – 9”; 1.75 lbs.; large head, lean body; with skin wrinkles; skin pink in color; fine downy hair (lanugo) cover the body; eye brows, eye lashes visible. 7th month – 10.6”; 1.36 kg.; can open eyes; can stretch and kick; skin is red and wrinkled.
Prenatal Development 8th month – 12.2”; 5lbs.; fat begins to store in the body; lungs fully developed; head/body are proportionate; assume position for delivery. 9th month – 14.2” ; 7lbs.; redness and wrinkles fade; downy hair disappears.
We as newborns come equipped with reflexes ideally suited for our survival. We as newborns, prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness; we turn our heads on the direction of human voices; we gaze longer at a drawing of a face-like image than at a bull’s-eye pattern. Capabilities of a Newborn
We prefer to look at objects 8 to 12 inches away, which just happen to be the approximate distance between a nursing infant’s eyes and a mother’s. Capabilities of a Newborn
Within days of birth, our brain’s neural networks were stamped with the smell of our mother’s body; thus, a week-old nursing baby, placed between a gauze pad from its mother’s bra and one from another nursing mother will usually turn toward the smell of it own mother. Capabilities of a Newborn
At three weeks, if given a pacifier that sometimes turns on recordings of its mother’s voice and sometimes that of a stranger’s. An infant will suck more vigorously when it hears its now-familiar mother’s voice. Capabilities of a Newborn
Reflexes are unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli They are critical for survival Rooting reflex – turning one’s heads towards things the touch their cheeks Reflexes
Sucking reflex – infants suck things that touch their lips Gag reflex – reflex to clear the throat Startle reflex – a series of movements in which an infant flings out the arms, fans the fingers, and arches the back in response to sudden noise Reflexes
Babinski Reflex – a baby’s toes fan out when the outer edge of the sole of the foot is stroked Grasping Reflex Infants lose these primitive reflexes after the first few months of life; replaced with more complex an organized behaviors. Reflexes
Theories of Development • Theory • “An organized set of ideas that are designed to explain development.” • Essential for developing predictions about behavior. • Predictions result in research that help to support or clarify the theory
Major Theoretical Perspectives onHuman Development • A. Psychodynamic: • 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • Psychoanalytic • Observations and notes that he made about life histories of his mentally disturbed patients • Hypnosis, free association, dream analysis • We have goals or motives that must be satisfied
Major Theoretical Perspectives onHuman Development • A. Psychodynamic: • Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • Instincts, Goals and Motives • Human behavior is energized by psychodynamic forces • Psychic (mental) energy
Major Theoretical Perspectives onHuman Development • A. Psychodynamic: • 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • Biological Instincts • Eros ( life instinct) – helps the child to survive; directs life sustaining activities such as respiration, eating, sex and the fulfillment of all other bodily needs • Thanatos (death instinct) – set of destructive forces present in all human being ex. arson, murder, war, masochism
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • A. Psychodynamic: • 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • 3 Components of Personality • Id (pleasure principle) – serve the instincts by seeking objects that will satisfy them; seeking immediate gratification of instinctual needs
Major Theoretical Perspectives onHuman Development • A. Psychodynamic: • Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • 3 Components of Personality • Ego (reality principle) – find realistic ways of gratifying the instinct; block the id’s irrational thinking; ability to delay gratification • Superego (moral principle) – represents the ideal and strives for perfection rather than for pleasure or reality
Major Theoretical Perspectives onHuman Development • A. Psychodynamic: • 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • a. Oral Stage (0-1) – reflects the infant’s need for gratification from the mother. An infant’s eating, sucking, spitting, and chewing do not only satisfy hunger, but also provide pleasure.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • A. Psychodynamic: • 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • b. Anal Stage (2-3) – reflects the toddler’s need for gratification along the rectal area. During this stage, children must endure the demands of toilet training.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment• A. Psychodynamic:• 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages• c. Phallic Stage (4-5) reflects the preschooler’s gratification involving the genitals. Children at this stage gratify their sex instinct by fondling their genitals and developing an incestuous desire for the opposite sex parent.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment• A. Psychodynamic:• 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages• c. Phallic Stage• Oedipus Complex – sexual attachment of a male child to his mother – Electra Complex – sexual attachment of a female child to her father. The girl envies her father for possessing a penis and wishes he would share with her the valued organ that she lacks.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • A. Psychodynamic: • 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages • d. Latency Stage (6 to puberty) – sexual desires are repressed and the entire child’s available libido is channeled into socially acceptable outlets such as schoolwork and vigorous play that consume most of the child’s physical and psychic energy
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment• A. Psychodynamic:• 1. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages• e. Genital Stage (Puberty – onwards) – is characterized by the maturation of the reproductive system, production of sex hormones, and a reactivation of the genital zone as an area of sensual pleasure.
SIGMUND FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT EROGENOUS CRITICAL FIXATIONS MANIFESTED IN STAGE ZONE EVENT ADULT BEHAVIOR (if conflicts in a (Sexually particular stage is not resolved) excitable zone in the body)Oral Stage (0-1 year Mouth and lips Feeding If the child was abruptly weaned, heold) may manifest alcoholism, smoking, fondness of kissing, oral sadism. If the child was oversatisfied with oral pleasures, he may become, gullible and overdependent.Anal Stage (2-3 years Anus Toilet Training If the child experienced toiletold) training too early, he may become controlling, over organized or stubborn. If the child experienced toilet training too late, he become, sloppy, impulsive, or disorganized.
SIGMUND FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT EROGENOU CRITICAL EVENT FIXATIONS MANIFESTED IN ADULT STAGE S ZONE BEHAVIOR (if conflicts in a particular stage is (Sexually not resolved) excitable zone in the body)Phallic Stage Genitals Gender identification. If the issues during the phallic stage are(4-6 years old) For boys, they develop sexual desire not resolved, the person may have towards the mother and a desire to problem with interpersonal relationships eliminate his competition, the father. This is called Oedipus complex. Boys as well as dealing with authority figures. become afraid of the father retaliation They may also become uncertain about and develops Castration anxiety. their sexual identity. Then they seek to become or identify with their fathers. For girls, they begin with a strong attachment to their mother but realize that boys have penis and girls don’t have. They blame the mother of this inferiority, and develop Penis envy. Their love is transferred to the father who has the sex organ she wants. This is called Electra complex. But, they still must avoid the mother’s disapproval and so they identify with their mother.
SIGMUND FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT EROGENO CRITICAL EVENT FIXATIONS MANIFESTED IN STAGE US ZONE ADULT BEHAVIOR (if conflicts in (Sexually a particular stage is not resolved) excitable zone in the body)Latency This is a period of Peace; most sexual impulses lie dormant. The(6-12 conflict in the earlier stage resolved or not will be repressed (forgotten).years old)Genital Genitals The quality of relationships and degree of fulfillment andStage (13 contentment that the person experiences during this longyears old stage are tied directly to the success the person has atonwards) resolving conflicts during the earlier stages.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment• A. Psychodynamic:2. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages• Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)• Autonomy vs. Shame and Guilt (1-3)• Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)• Industry vs. Inferiority (6-Puberty)• Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)• Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)• Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)• Integrity vs. Despair (Late Life)
ERIK ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOSOCIAL CRISIS IF CRISIS IS IF CRISIS IS NOT STAGE RESOLVED… RESOLVED…1. Trust vs. The infant needs The person develops The person will growMistrust physical/psychologic the virtue of hope and mistrusting. (0-2 years al care and a healthy optimism.old) sense of attachment.2. Autonomy The child’s desire to The person develops The person becomesvs. Doubt be in control and the virtue of will. constricted and afraid (2-3 years assert independence. of new experiences.old) He may also engage in power struggle against authority.
ERIK ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENTPSYCHOSOCIAL CRISIS IF CRISIS IS IF CRISIS IS NOT STAGE RESOLVED… RESOLVED…3. Initiative The child starts to The person The person becomes doubtful ofvs. Guilt socialize with develops the virtue his capacity to discover the (3-6 years other children of initiative, sense world. He may get into fight forold) though play. Play, of purpose, not cooperating. in turn, becomes direction and the primary learns the value of medium of cooperation. exploring the world.4. Industry The child The person The person wallows in feelings ofvs. Inferiority engages to more develops the virtue inferiority. (6-12 years serious hobbies of competence.old) and becomes more competitive.
ERIK ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOSOCIAL CRISIS IF CRISIS IS IF CRISIS IS NOT STAGE RESOLVED… RESOLVED…5. Identity vs. This stage coincides the The person develops The person becomesIdentity period of adolescence. the virtue of fidelity; diffused and manifestConfusion The person needs to being able to commit to incongruence or (13-19 Years discover his uniqueness, values, organizations, inconsistency in hisold) feel a sense of and people. behavior. belongingness, and integrate various roles into a single, consistent individual.6. Intimacy vs. The person looks for The person develops The person will floatIsolation intimacy in heterosexual the virtue of from one partner or (20-39 years relationship. commitment and mutual job to another ,and fellold) devotion; the ability to isolated. sacrifice and compromise.
ERIK ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENTPSYCHOSOCIAL CRISIS IF CRISIS IS IF CRISIS IS NOT STAGE RESOLVED… RESOLVED…7. Generativity The person feels the need The person develops The person will feelvs. Self- to guide and pass on what the virtue of stagnant, resist the truthAbsorption he has learned to the generativity, and about getting older, and (40-65 years younger generation, value wisdom over relive youthful fantasies.old) through mentoring or physical prowess. teaching. He assesses if he has made the right decisions in their life.8. Integrity vs. The person experiences The acquires the The person lives theDespair decline in physical health. sense of wholeness remainder of his life in (66 years old He wants to know if he or integrity and the despair.onwards) had lived well. virtue of wisdom.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • B. Learning Theory • Concentrates on how learning influences behavior. • Emphasizes the role of experience. • Stresses the influence of consequences on behavior. • Recognizes that people learn from watching others.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • B. Learning Theory • 1. Waston’s Behaviorism • Learning determines our behavior. • Experience is sufficient to explain the course of development.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • B. Learning Theory • 2. B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning • The consequences of a behavior determine whether it will be repeated. • A pleasant consequence increases the chance a behavior will be repeated. • An unpleasant consequence decreases the chance a behavior will be repeated.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • B. Learning Theory • 2. B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning • Positive Reinforcement - A pleasant consequence that increases behavior. • Negative Reinforcement - Strengthening a behavior by removing or avoiding an unpleasant condition. • Punishment - An unpleasant consequence that decreases the frequency of a behavior.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • B. Learning Theory • 3. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory • Observational Learning, or Imitation • People learn by watching others. • Imitation is more likely when subject of observation is seen as smart, popular, or talented. Imitation is more likely when subject of observation is rewarded for the behavior
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • C. Cognitive-Developmental Theory • Emphasizes the development of the thought processes as we mature. • Two approaches to the development of cognition: • We develop our thinking in stages (Piaget, Kohlberg).
Major Theoretical Perspectives onHuman DevelopmentC. Cognitive-Developmental Theory• 1. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory • Children gradually learn more about how the world works by little “experiments” in which they test their understanding. • Cognitive development consists of stages in which children’s understanding of their surroundings become increasingly complex and accurate.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • C. Cognitive-Developmental Theory 1. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory 2. a. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years) • The Child interacts with the world through sensation and movement. • Develops the ability to hold a mental representation of objects.
Major Theoretical Perspectives onHuman Development• C. Cognitive-Developmental Theory 1. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory • b. Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years) • Develops the ability to use symbols, such as numbers and words, to represent objects. • Egocentric: understands the world only from his own perspective.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • C. Cognitive-Developmental Theory 1. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory – c. Concrete Operational Thought (7 years to early adolescence) • Can use logic and reasoning • Cannot accurately consider the hypothetical
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment • C. Cognitive-Developmental Theory 1. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory – d. Formal Operational Thought (Adolescence and beyond) • Thinks abstractly. • Deals with the hypothetical and speculation
JEAN PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT SENSORIMOTOR 0 –2 years•explores world as little experimenters and develop schemas throughthe senses and motor activities.•Discovers relationships between their actions and consequences.•An important concept acquired at this stage is object permanence:before 8 months, the baby will stop searching for an object if it iscovered (out of sight, out of mind), but around 8 months, baby willreadily physically search for the hidden object, indicating that he orshe has already has a mental representation of the object- this isobject permanence
JEAN PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PRE-OPERATIONAL 2 – 7 years•on top of object permanence, ability for symbolic thinking emerges; seen fromthe child’s use of symbolic play and use of language.•Use of language/words as symbol for things particularly has criticalimportance.•Implications for play: better to let child play with unstructured materials to helpfacilitate his/her symbolic thinking.•Child has still several limitations:1.ego-centrism – inability to consider another person’s point of view.2.animism – all things are living or animated and capable of intentions, feelingsand consciousness.3.inability to decenter – inability to focus on simultaneous thoughts at the sametime.4.Inability for conservation concepts – inability to follow transformationsmentally.
JEAN PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT CONCRETE OPERATIONAL 7 – 11 years•less egocentric: can now imagine other person’s point ofview; now aware that events outside the self have causesoutside the self.•Thinking begins to be more logical but still limited toconcrete experience, i.e., can make logical judgmentsbased on stimuli that are present to the sense.•Can perform more operations, e.g. counting, classifyingand thus can better understand the principles ofconservation.
JEAN PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT FORMAL OPERATIONAL 11 years onwards•hypothetical deductive reasoning develops; can now reason logicallyand deal with abstractions, not just concrete things.•Capacity for abstractions enables person to use and understand, forinstance, algebraic signs and metaphorical speech.•Able to consider all variables and possibilities simultaneously, makehypotheses, and solve problems by tackling these possibilitiessystematically.•Use of the pendulum problem to test formal operational thinking.
Major Theoretical Perspectives on HumanDevelopment C. Cognitive-Developmental Theory • 2. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development • Based on Piaget’s ideas of cognitive development. • Described the development of moral thinking through stages of increasing maturity.
LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONINGLevel / Stage of Primary Typical Moral ReasoningMoral Reasoning MotivationPreConventionalMoralityStage 1: The Primary A person must be obedient to powerful authorityPunishment at motive for because of fear of punishment.Obedience action is the Ex. The husband must not steal the drug because heOrientation avoidance of would be punished. punishment Actions areStage 2: motivated by The act is moral if it satisfied an important need ofReward the desire for the person or some family member.Orientation rewards Ex. He should steal the drug because his wife needs it and he isn’t doing any harm to the druggist. He can pay him pay.
LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONINGLevel / Stage Primary of Moral Typical Moral Reasoning Motivation ReasoningConventionalMoralityStage 3: Good The child A moral action is one that causes others cause toBoy/Girl strives to approve.Orientation avoid the disapproval of Ex. He should steal the medicine because society others (As expects a husband to help his wife. He is only distinct from doing something that is natural for a loving avoidance of husband to do. punishment)
LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONING Level / Stage Primary of Moral Typical Moral Reasoning Motivation ReasoningConventionalMoralityStage 4: An act is Moral people are those who do their duty in orderAuthority always wrong to maintain the social order.Orientation / if it violates aAuthority- rule or does Ex. He should steal the drug because of people areMaintaining harm to others allowed to be selfish and greedy, our civilization willMorality break down. But he must pay the druggist back and must be punished because people can’t take the law into their own hands.
LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONINGPost –ConventionalStage 5: Social The individual is able to Society has rules and both theContract recognize that laws are individual and society must fulfill theirOrientation / subjective, that they are parts of the contract.Morality of Contract not worshipped inand Democracy themselves but are Ex. Before you say that stealing is relative to the group. wrong, you should consider that the Laws exist only because law should not allow the druggist to we agree about them (The keep secret a life-saving formula. In Aspect of Social this case, it seems reasonable for Contract). Inasmuch as him to steal the drug. the person respects the rules of the other group, however, he or she still steps in if what at stakes is a non-negotiable value (Life and Liberty)
LAWRENCE KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL REASONINGPost –ConventionalStage 6: Ethical Individuals are concerned Society’s rules are arbitrary.Principle with upholding their Different people may interpret themOrientation / personal principles, and in different ways. The ultimate judgeMorality of the person no longer of whether something is moral is aIndividual makes an appeal to person’s own conscience.Principles of society. Morality is just aConscience matter of the person’s Ex. He must steal the medicine conscience regardless of because if his wife died he could what the society says. never forgive himself. When a choice Hence, the person may must be made between disobeying a sometimes feel it law and saving a life. The higher necessary to deviate from principle of saving a life must prevail. rules when the rules conflict with moral principles.