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СИНТАГМАТИЧЕСКАЯСЕМАСИОЛОГИЯД. Атемасова, Г. Запаренко741 гр.
3 ТИПА СООТНОШЕНИЯ ЗНАЧЕНИЙ:Фигурысовмещения(Figures ofCooccurance)Фигуры речи(Figures ofSpeech)Фигурытождества(Figures ofIdentity)Фигурынеравенства(Figures ofInequality)Фигурыпротивоположности(Figures of Contrast)СоотношениепротивоположныхзначенийСоотношениетождественныхзначенийСоотношениеразличающихсязначений
ФИГУРЫ РЕЧИ (FIGURES OF SPEECH)Фигуры тождестваФигуры неравенстваФигурыпротивоположности
ФИГУРЫ ТОЖДЕСТВА :(FIGURES OF IDENTITY) Сравнение Синонимы-заменители
СРАВНЕНИЕ (SIMILE) My face looks like a wedding-cake left outin the rain. Good coffee is like friendship: rich andwarm and strong. She dealt with moral problems as a cleaverdeals with meat.
СИНОНИМЫ-ЗАМЕНИТЕЛИ(SYNONYM REPLACEMENTS) He brought home numberless prizes. He toldhis mother countless stories every night abouthis school companions. She told his name to the trees. She whispered itto the flowers. She breathed it to the birds.
ФИГУРЫ НЕРАВЕНСТВА:(FIGURES OF INEQUALITY) Синонимы-уточнители Нарастание Разрядка Каламбур Зевгма
СИНОНИМЫ-УТОЧНИТЕЛИ(SPECIFYING OR CLARIFYING SYNONYMS) Relax? I cant relax! Nor can I yield, relent,or . . . Only two synonyms? Oh my! Imlosing my perspicacity! Miss Tox escorted a plump, rosy-cheeked,wholesome, apple-faced young woman.
НАРАСТАНИЕ(GRADATION, CLIMAX) I am sorry, I am so very sorry, I am so extremelysorry. What difference if it rained, hailed, blew, snowed,cycloned? I am the way, the truth, and the life.
РАЗРЯДКА (ANTICLIMAX) The holy passion of Friendship is of so sweet and steadyand loyal and enduring a nature that it will last through awhole lifetime, if not asked to lend money. The Grand Tour has been a tradition of newly richcountries ever since young British aristocrats took to theContinent in the eighteenth century, picking uplanguages, antiques, and venereal disease. Not only is there no God, but try getting a plumber onweekends.
КАЛАМБУР (PUN) A boy answers the phone. The caller asks, "Whereare your parents?""They aint here!""Come on, son. Wheres your grammar?""My gramma aint here neither. Shes gone tochurch!“ Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana.
ЗЕВГМА (ZEUGMA) She arrived in a taxi and a flaming rage. He carried a strobe light and the responsibility forthe lives of his men. She lowered her standards by raising her glass,her courage, her eyes and his hopes.
ФИГУРЫ ПРОТИВОПОЛОЖНОСТИ:(FIGURES OF CONTRAST) Оксюморон Антитеза
ОКСЮМОРОН(OXYMORON) oxymoronic expressions: act naturally, randomorder, original copy, criminal justice, old news, awfulgood, student teacher, deafening silence, definitepossibility, terribly pleased, ill health, loose tights,small crowd, clearly misunderstood. How is it possible to have a civil war? The best cure for insomnia is to get a lot of sleep. A yawn may be defined as a silent yell.
АНТИТЕЗА (ANTITHESIS) Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing. We must learn to live together as brothers orperish together as fools.
The book has a power, so to speak, a veryexceptional power; in fact, one may saywithout exaggeration it is the most powerfulbook of the month. ‘Did you hit a woman with a child?’’No, sir! I hit her with a brick!’ We were partners, not soul mates, twoseparate people who happened to besharing a menu and a life.
The more acute the experience, the lessarticulate its expression. When he lifted me up in his arms I felt I hadleft all my troubles on the floor beneath melike gigantic concrete shoes. He has seen the ravages of war, he hasknown natural catastrophes, he has been tosingles bars. We have to believe in free will. We have nochoice.