MDG INDONESIA: STATUS AND THE WAY FORWARDEndah Murniningtyas-National Development Planning Agency Widyono – University of Indonesia Presented at the UN-DESA UN-ESCAP MDG Workshop Bangkok, 20-22 August 2008
OUTLINEI. MDG AND THE NATIONAL POLICYII. THE STATUSIII. THE WAY FORWARD
I. MDG AND THE NATIONAL POLICY• MDGs are not new to Indonesia. Since the development program existed, program towards “MDGs” target had been implemented.• Example: food, family planning and health, education and other basic needs programs packaged in the Five-Year Development Programs (REPELITA).• Intensive efforts to balance between economic and social program started in the 5th and 6th Five-Year Development Plan (Repelita), in 1990.• Significant progress are achieved, but the financial crisis in the late 90s was a downturn in the economic and social status• In the early 2000, the government started to take shape on various basic policy in the national development progress is experienced, with different external and internal challenge globalisation, democratization and decentralization.
MAINSTREAMING MDG INTO THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN 3 Development Agenda 2004-2009MDG & other 1. PeaceInternational conventions 2. Justice and democracy RPJP 2005-2025 3. People Welfare: a.Reducing poverty and unemployment b.Improving quality of HR RPJMN c. Improving Quality of Environment and (5Y) natural resource management d.Infrastructure Improvement Strategic Plan PRSP Sectoral Program Annual Development Plan (RKP) Regional Program National Budget Program Local Gov Budget Implementations 5
MDG GOAL AND THE PROGRAMNo. MDG GOALS THE PROGRAM1 Poverty Poverty reduction programs Hunger Food Security Program2 Basic Education 9Y compulsory education3 Gender and Women Mainstreaming of gender issue into all dev. Empowerment Program4 Child Mortality Health program: infant, early childhood, nutrition etc5 Maternal Health Program for Pregnant woman6 HIV Aid, Malaria & others HIV Aid and communicable deseases7 Environment Water and sanitation program, climate change (mitigation-adaptation, alt energy), clean environment, REDD, CDM.8 Global Partnership In various sectors.
III. THE WAY FORWARD1. BETTER REACHING2. IMPROVE COVERAGE3. IMPROVE QUALITY OF IMPLEMENTATION.
Better reaching1. Poor HH Data - 20052. Use the same data for program targetted to poor HH/individu:a. Rice subsidyb. Health insurancec. Scholarship – 9y education, etc3. Data imporvement and updating4. Local implementations
POOR HH DATA1. 14 CHARACTERISTICS2. DRAWN FROM ANNUAL HH SURVEY (SUSENAS)3. USE AS BASIC INFORMATION FOR POVERTY PROGRAM
3 CLUSTERS OF INTEGRATED POVERTY REDUCTIONS POVERTY REDUCTION COMMUNITY MICRO AND SMALLSOCIAL WELFARE AND PROTECTION EMPOWERMENT ENTERPRISE PROGRAM PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT MINIMUM BASIC COMMUNITY CAPACTY OF MICRO, NEEDS: TARGETTED CAPACITY, ABILITY SMALL ENTERPRISE FOR POOR TO ENGAGE TO AND ENABLING HOUSEHOLDS REDUCE POVERTY ENVIRONMENT 11
BETTER IMPLEMENTATIONS COORDINATING TEAM FOR POVERTY REDUCTION (TKPK) TASK FORCE ON TASK FORCE ONSOCIAL WELFARE NAT. TASK FORCE ON COMMUNITY MICRO AND SME & PROTECTION EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM PROGRAM PROGRAM 12
PRO-POOR PLANNING AND BUDGETINGUNDERSTANDINGPOVERTY:•SITUATION PRO-POOR•CAUSES MENURUNNYA•INDICATORS AND PLANNING KEMISKINANMAP AS: AND BUDGET DANDETECTIONS, FORMULATIO MENINGKATNYTARGETTING N APROGRAM , KESEJAHTERAMONITOR OUPUT ANAND IMPACT MASYARAKAT POOR PEOPLE AND STAKEHOLDERS’ PARTISIPATION 13
Expectation from this workshop1. Methodology to measure micro status at the HH and/or individual level assess and identify causes, sources2. Methodology to measure “significance and/or quantify impact of programs to the poor people/HH progress, weaknesses and “room for improvement” and new ways for a more effective program3. MACRO-MICRO policy connections. THOSE ALL WILL BE USEFUL FOR “MDG ROADMAP” FORMULATION.
Goal 1: Eradicating Extreme Poverty and HungerTarget 1: Halve, between 1990-2015, the proportion whose income is less than $1 per dayNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status 1 Poverty (US$ 1per day) 20,6% 7.5% 10.0% Standard too achieved low1a Poverty (National) 15.1% 16.6% 7.5% High but Need to declining work hardTarget 2: Halve, between 1990-2015, the proportion who suffer from hungerNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status 2 Poor Nutrition 6.3% 8.8% 3.3% Slowly Need to increasing work hard
Goal 2: Achieving Universal Basic EducationTarget 3: Ensure that by 2015 children everywhere boys and girls alike will be able to complete basic educationNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status 3 Basic Education 88,7% 94.7% 100% Steadily as Participation increasing targeted3a Secondary Education 41.9% 66.5% 100% Slowly as Participation increasing targeted3b Proportion of Student who 62.0% 74.7% 100% Slowly as Completed Basic Educ. increasing targeted3c Illiteracy for people age 96.6% 99.4% 100% Steadily as 15-24 increasing targeted
Goal 3: Promoting Gender Equality and Empowering WomenTarget 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all level of education no later than 2015No Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status4a Ratio of girl enrolled in 100.6% 100% 100% Much achieved Basic Education improvement4b Ratio of girl enrolled in 101.3% 99.4% 100% Much as Secondary Education improvement targeted 4c Ratio of girl enrolled in 98.0% 100% 100% Much achieved Tertiary Education improvement4d Ratio of girl enrolled in 85.1% 102.5% 100% Much achieved Higher Education improvement4e Ratio of Illiteracy Women 97.9% 99.9% 100% Much as aged 15-24 improvement targeted 4f Contribution of women in 29.2% 33.0% 50% Relatively Need to wage occupation Stagnant work hard
Goal 4: Reducing Child MortalityTarget 5: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990-2015, the under-five mortality rateNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status5a Under-five mortality rate 81 40 32 Much as per 1,000 improvement targeted5b Infant mortality rate per 57 32 19 Much as 1,000 improvement targeted
Goal 5: Improving Maternal HealthTarget 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990-2015, the maternal mortality ratioNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status6a Maternal mortality rate per 390 307 110 New data not Need to 100,000 available work hard6b Birth helped by trained 40.7% 72.4% (indicator) Much nurse improvement 6c Married women aged 15- 50.5% 57.9% (indicator) Relatively 49 using contraception stagnant – new data not available
Goal 6: Combating HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and other DiseasesTarget 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reserve the spread of HIV/AIDSNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status 7 HIV and AIDS prevalence 0.1% Combating Increasing Need to the spread work hardTarget 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reserve the incidence of malaria and other major diseasesNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status 8a Case of Malaria per 1,000 8,5 (indicator) Slowly declining 8b Tuberculosis prevalence per 786 262 (indicator) declining Need to 100,000 work hard
Goal 7: Ensuring Environmental SustainabilityTarget 9: Integrate the principle of sustainable development into national policies and programmes and to reserve the loss of environmental resourcesNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status9a Forested coverage area 60.0% 49.9% Protected Chronic Need to deforestation work hard9b Protected land area 26.4% 29.5% Protected Steadily increasing 9c Ratio Energy 1,5 95.3 kg oil (indicator) Steadily Consumption to GDP eq/$1,000 increasing9d CO2 Emission 2,536 1,34 Lessen Increasing- kg/cap metric New data ton/cap not available9e CFC Consumption 7,815 2,763 Lessen Slowly declining9d Biomass usage 70.2% 47.5% (indicator) Slowly declining
Goal 7: Ensuring Environmental Sustainability (Cont.)Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitationNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status10a Proportion of population 38.2% 52.1% 67.0% Steadily As having access to clean increasing targeted water10b Proportion of poplation 30.9% 68.0% 65.5% Achieved having good sanitationTarget 11: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the life of slum dwellersNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status11 Proportion of certain land 87.7% 84.0% (indicator) Slowly As right declining targeted
Goal 8: Establishing Global Partnership for DevelopmentTarget 12: Develop monetary and trading systems that are open, based on rules, predictable and non-discriminativeNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status12a Ratio of Export-Import to 44.4% (indicator) GDP12b Ratio of Bank’s Credit 61.6% (indicator) and SavingTarget 15: Handle Developing Countries’ Debts thru national and international effort to manage sustainable debt in the long runNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status13a Ratio of foreign debt to 44.9% (indicator) Steadily GDP declining13b Ratio of debt to state 26.0% (indicator) Steadily budget declining
Goal 8: Establishing Global Partnership for DevelopmentTarget 16: Cooperate with other countries to develop and implement strategies to create a good and productive employment for young aged peopleNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status16 Unemployment aged 15- 25.4% (indicator) Steadily 24 increasingTarget 18: Cooperate with private sector in using new technology, particularly ICTNo Indicator 1990 2007 Target Note Status18a Household having 11.2% (indicator) Steadily telephone increasing18b Household having mobile 24.6% (indicator) Steadily phone declining18c Household having 4.4% (indicator) Steadily computer declining18d Household having 4.2% (indicator) Steadily access to the internet declining