Principles of language assessment

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    Thank you Ms. Astrid, it really helps me
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  • 1. PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT Astrid Paola Parada caballero
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  My first impression when I read the title of the chapter was that it will be probably boring, however, as I continued reading I realized that to design a good test depends on some principles such as practicality, reliability, validity, authenticity and washback .I have to say that all of these terms were unknown up to this moment to me and that made continue reading, because I consider that ones of the most important issues in assessing students starts in the fact that tests are not welldesigned and well-implemented partly because we as a teachers don’t have the knowledge to do it and partly because we believe that assessment is not as important as teaching.  there is a brief interpretation of some concepts that I found interesting during my reading activity.
  • 3. FIVE CARDINAL CRITERIA FOR “TESTING A TEST” PRACTICALITY RELIABILITY AUTHENTICITY VALIDALITY WASHBACK
  • 4. PRACITICALITY  An effective test is practical when it fits the following requirements:  It isn’t excessively expensive.  It says within appropriate time constrains.  It is relatively easy to administrate  It has a scoring/ evaluation procedure that is specific and time –efficient. Well- planned procedures before a test implementation is crucial to avoid not only delays in giving Ss' the results but also in avoiding Ss' misunderstandings and confusions that may affect their final score.
  • 5. RELIABILITY  consistent  Dependent  A reliable test is:  Factors that contribute to the unreliability of a test: Rater Reliability: Human errors, subjectivity and preferences may affect the scoring process. Inter- Rater Reliability: two o more scorers yield inconsistent scores of the same test. Intra-rather Reliability: It happens due to the unclear scoring criteria, fatigue, preferences towards some students or simply careless by the teacher. Student-related Reliability: Temporary illness, fatigue, a “bad day", anxiety, and other physical or psychological factors, which make an “ observed” score differ from one’s true score Test Administration Reliability: I refers to the conditions( environment, photocopies quality, amount of light, desks and chairs) in which the test is administrated. Test Reliability: If a test id too long, testtakers may become fatigued by the time and can be adversative affective by the presence of a clock.
  • 6. VALIDITY  It is the most complex and important criterion of an effective test.  Validity is when the assessment results are appropriate, meaningful, and useful in terms of purpose of the assessment.  How is the validity of a test established? 1. Content-related Evidence: If you can clearly define the achievement that you are measuring there is validity. Direct test involves the test-takers in actually performing the target task. Indirect test is a combination between direct and indirect test. 2. Criterion-related Evidence: It means that the specific classroom objectives measured have ben reached. 2 Categories: i. concurrent validity: If the results are supported beyond the assessment itself. ii. Predictive validity: It is important in the case of placement tests, language aptitude tests etc. 4. Consequential Validity: It includes all 3. Construct-related Evidence: It is any the consequences of the test, including accuracy in measuring criteria, its impact on preparation of test-takers, its effect on the learner and its interpretation etc. theory, hypothesis, or model that attempts to explain observed phenomena in our universe of perceptions. 5. Face Validity: It can be empirically tested by a teacher or even by a testing expert because it is based on the subjective judgment of the examinees who take it.
  • 7. AUTHENTICITY  Authenticity in a test in when a task is likely to be enacted or represented in the “real world”.  In a test, authenticity may be present in the following way:      The language in a test is as natural as possible. Contextualized items Not in isolation. Meaningful topics for the learner. Organization. Real –world tasks.
  • 8. WASHBACK  It refers to effects the tests have on instruction in terms of how students prepare for the test. It is also about how Ss' can identify their strengths and weekends. Teachers can suggest strategies for helping Ss' as part of the guiding process. Feedback is very important for Ss' improvement.