Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Forum Program
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Forum Program

1,534
views

Published on

FutureShoe International Forum Program - Bologna 2011

FutureShoe International Forum Program - Bologna 2011

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,534
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. INNOTECH calzatura personalizzata, su misura e produzione diretta customized and tailor-made shoes and direct production FORUM INTERNAZIONALE I N T E R N AT I O N A L F O R U M 18 Ottobre / October 2011 Fiera di Bologna ASSOMAC SERVIZI srl P.O. Box 73 PTB - Via Matteotti, 4/a - 27029 VIGEVANO - PV - ITALY Tel.: +39 0381 78883 - Fax: +39 0381 88602 - exhibition@assomac.it
  • 2. PROGRAM9,30 Registration9.40 Welcome Address10.00 INTRODUCTION (Gian Carlo CAINARCA - University of Genova) KEYNOTE SPEECH Product Customization, Personalization and Customer Centricity: Market Opportunities and Future Developments(Frank PILLER - RWTH Aachen University, Technology & Innovation Management Group at M.I.T.)10.40 Coffee Break10.50 ROUND TABLE (moderator Gian Carlo CAINARCA) Andrea CARIGNANO – SEAC02 CEO Digital Visualization Technologies for Product Personalization - the Ermenigildo Zegna Case Sergio DULIO – ASSOMAC The Role of Technology in Highly Flexible, Customized and One Off Production Siavash MAHADAVI – Digital Forming CEO Rapid Manufacturing: a New Industrial Revolution Bas POSSEN - CustoMax CEO Made to Measure and Personalized Shoes: Lessons Learnt and Experiences to Share12.30 Open Discussion13.00 CONCLUSION
  • 3. Program and DocumentationProf. Ing. Gian Carlo CAINARCA: Ordinary Professor ‐ Department of University of Genova 1987: Doctorate of Science of Industrial Innovation (University of Padua). 1982: Degree in Nuclear Engineering (Polytechnic of Milan). The scientific activity is developed mainly in the field of adoption and diffusion of technological innovations, focusing on information technology and computer‐based technologies. The issues addressed ranging from the study of the impact in the international relations of the factory in the organizational implications of employment and labor, and, in general terms, the development of human resources. He is currently Director of DOGE.I (Interdepartmental Centre for Research in Organizational and Managerial‐Economics Disciplines for Engineering), Faculty of Engineering of the University of Genoa and member dell AILG (Italian Association of Engineering and Management), of AIEL (Italian Association of Labour Economists), VAT (Association for the History and Business studies) and its scientific Committee and member of the scientific Committee of the Organisation & Development magazine.giancarlo.cainarca@unige.ithttp://www.dist.unige.it/cainarca/2
  • 4. KEYNOTE SPEECH Product Customization, Personalization and Customer Centricity: Market Opportunities and Future DevelopmentsProf. Frank T. PILLER Director of the Technology & Innovation Management Group at RWTH Aachen University, GermanyHe also is a founding faculty member and co‐director of the MIT Smart Customization Group atthe Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. Before, he worked at the MIT Sloan School ofManagement (2004‐2007) and TUM Business School (1999‐2004). He graduated summa cumlaude with a Ph.D. in Operations Management from the University of Wuerzburg, Germany in1999.His recent research focuses on innovation interfaces: How can organizations increase innovationsuccess by designing and managing better interfaces within their organization and with externalactors. This stream of research includes topics like value co‐creation between businesses andcustomers/users, strategies to increase the productivity of technical problem solving by openinnovation, and models to cope with contingencies of the innovation process.At RWTH Aachen, Frank Piller has established one of Europes largest research groups ontechnology and innovation management, supported by grants from the European Commission,the DFG, BMBF, and other institutions. He has consulted and delivered executive workshops formany Dax30 and Fortune500 companies. As an investor, member of the Board of Directors or as ascientific adviser of several technology companies, he transfers his research into practice.List of recent publications please refer to tim.rwth‐aachen.de/pillerPress reports about the work of Frank Piller & the RWTH‐TIM group:http://www.tim.rwth‐aachen.de/index.php?menu=presseDirect contact:USA: +1 617 326 3748 | Europe: +49 163 605 0276 | Skype: masscustom | piller@iimcp.orgWeb & Blog:tim.rwth‐aachen.de | open‐innovation.com | mass‐customization.blogs.comOffice Address:RWTH Aachen Technology & Innovation Management GroupLehrstuhl TIM, Kackertstrasse 15, 52072 Aachen, GermanyTel +49 241 809 3577, Fax +49 241 809 2367piller@tim.rwth‐aachen.de 3
  • 5. Program and DocumentationABSTRACTProduct Customization, Personalization and Customer Centricity: MarketOpportunities and Future DevelopmentsMass producers have traditionally offered a limited number of standard products because thecost of complexity make more tailored offerings too expensive. Of course, whenevercustomers are not getting exactly what they need, a business opportunity is created. Masscustomization addresses this opportunity by leveraging complexity to drive rather than brakeinnovation. We define mass customization as the development, production, marketing anddelivery of affordable goods and services with enough variety that nearly everyone findsexactly what they want. But while companies like Dell, BMW or MyMuesli appear to havecracked the code, reality has been harsh for other organizations. Indeed, few firms are actuallydeploying mass customization beyond experimentation, and in many cases it has simply failedto deliver on its promises. Let’s first try to understand what it takes to mass customize. While specific answersare clearly industry or product-dependent, a decade of studying mass customization has led usto three fundamental capabilities needed for a firm to mass customize: solution spacedevelopment, robust value chain design and choice simplification. Solution space development. First and foremost, a company seeking to adopt masscustomization needs to understand the idiosyncratic needs of its customers. This is in starkcontrast to the approach of a mass producer, which focuses on identifying “centraltendencies” among its customers’ needs. Indeed, a mass customizer needs to identify theproduct attributes along which customer needs most diverge. Once this is understood, the firmneeds to clearly define its solution space: what it is going to offer and the dimensions alongwhich the offering can be configured to meet individual customer needs. Robust process design. It is crucial that increased variability in customers’requirements does not lead to significant deterioration in the firm’s operations and supplychain. This can be achieved through a robust value chain design in which customizedsolutions can be delivered with near mass production efficiency and reliability. Choice navigation. Finally, the firm must be able to support customers in identifyingtheir own solutions, while minimizing complexity and burden of choice. When a customer isexposed to too many choices, the cognitive cost of evaluation can easily outweigh theincreased utility of having more choices. This is the “paradox of choice”: Having too manychoices actually reduces customer value, instead of increasing it. As such, offering moreproduct choices can lead customers to postpone or suspend their purchases, and, even moreworryingly, to classify the seller as difficult to deal with and hence undesirable. Our experience with companies in many industries revealed that many managers rejectmass customization on the simple basis that “it won’t work in my business.” This reactionresults from a perception of mass customization as an ideal, unachievable state. However, webelieve that pursuing it is akin to moving along a continuum whose limits are mass productionand mass customization. Mass customization, viewed this way, is therefore a process ratherthan a destination. Small steps can produce big results, even if the organization remains faraway from the “pure” ideal. As no firm can become a perfect mass customizer, the real question for mostcompanies revolves around how solution space development, robust value chain design andchoice simplification capabilities can be improved rather than perfectly achieved. Everycompany can do this, and add to strategic differentiation in the process.4
  • 6. Digital Visualization Technologies for Product PersonalizationDr. Andrea CARIGNANO: Vice Chairman SeacO2 ‐ Turin, Italy1998 graduated from the Polytechnic of Turin in engineering Aerospazionale2003‐present: Co‐Founder and CEO Seac02 Ltd.2007‐present: co‐founder 3Demotion s.r.l.2008‐present CEO 3Demotion Ltd.2006‐present Founder and member of the Board of Directors View conference Turin2010‐now a founding member of Reseau Entraprendre Michelin PiedmontParticipation in the Los Angeles Master UCLA MBA year 2004 and year 2008Winner of:2003 Winner of the Galileo Ferraris I3P2004 Best Company for Unicredit2005 Prize of the I3P Starup2006 Startup of the year award at the National innovatorsSeacO2Via San Francesco D’Assisi 2310121 TORINOandrea.carignano@seac02.it 5
  • 7. Program and DocumentationABSTRACTVirtual and augmented reality for the management of multi-channelcustomer experience in tailor-madeThe use of virtual technologies can efficiently manage the activities of pre-sale and after salesactivities of customized products. Technologies allow for virtual representations to showtailor-made products not yet built and configured to the same end user. It is production chainthat starts from the CAD world textiles and shoes to minimize the costs of building a frontend for sales and highest efficiency. 3D assets that are created digitally can be used indifferent channels automatically, with daily updates via cloud solutions.Particular importance is given in addition to user experience, guaranteeing to the consumerflexibility of customization offering, and the collection of analytical data on consumerpreferences. These data add value ad value to companies which can "trace" consumerpreferences and habits. The presentation will focused on technologies and will shown ascenario of possible future developments. Particular attention will be given to the opportunitypresented by the multi-channel, from POS web to mobile. Case histories will present in theworld of fashion footwear. http://www.seac02.it/6
  • 8. The Role of Technology in Highly Flexible, Customized and One Off ProductionIng. Sergio DULIO: Technology footwear expert ASSOMAC , Vigevano ItalyHe spent the first years of his professional career in the aerospace industry, workingabroad (Switzerland) and in Italy In 1984 he joins IBM as a member of the first technicalsupport team to the 3D CAD / CAM application CATIA; in the years spent with IBM heparticipates in many different projects aimed at the introduction of CAD / CAMtechnologies at various prestigious companies, like Ferrari, Fiat Avio, Perini Navi andmany others; he continues this experience in the digital world by funding, with otherpartners, one of the first Italian companies active in selling CAD / CAM services andsystems. At the end of the eighties (1988) he has the initial contact with the footwearworld; he starts by dealing with the introduction to the market of the first families ofshoe specific CAD / CAM applications, and then as an expert in the area of leather cutting,as part of the technical staff of ATOM, one of the leading companies in the field of shoemachinery.Besides being responsible for the development of the new families of dieless automaticleather cutting systems and of their introduction in some important companies (likeGucci), he starts his experience in the coordination of European research projects byleading ALCUT, a EUREKA initiative aimed at developing a new generation of water jetleather cutting systems. In 1996 he is appointed director of SINTESI (a researchconsortium with the National Research Council ITIA – CNR and a group of shoe machineryproducers among its members); in the next years he coordinates a very relevant threeyear research project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Scientific Research, that leads tothe development and installation of a highly automated shoe manufacturing pilot plant.In 2001 he is designated by ITIA (Institute of Industrial technologies and Automation ofCNR) as Technical Coordinator of the EUROShoE project, one of the largest EU fundedprojects in the footwear field, with 33 partners and a total budget of 17 million €, aimed atthe development of technologies for the design and manufacturing of customized shoes(Mass Customization paradigm).In 2003 he gets a contract with CNR – ITIA to organize, install and activate a Design andMass Customization Laboratory in Vigevano, where a Pilot Plant for the production ofcustomized shoes has been put in operation. He works as a technical consultant both forASSOMAC (Association of shoe machinery producers), as a coordinator of internationalprojects and of a technical initiative to develop a technical standard for data interchangebetween CAD systems and machines, as well as for ANCI (Italian association of footwearmanufacturers) in the area of research and innovation. 7
  • 9. Program and DocumentationABSTRACT The role of technology in highly flexible, customized, one off productionsThe production of customized goods (shoes in our case) poses the highest challenges to themanufacturing system in terms of basic technologies, process organization, monitoring andcontrol, planning and scheduling. It isn’t only a matter of being technically capable ofproducing the high variety of different models and styles, with the utmost variability that istypical of MTO and customized products, but to perform this task maintaining processefficiencies that approach those ones typical of mass production. This is in fact the goal:keeping manufacturing costs as low as possible so that the extra price the end consumer is dueto pay is minimum or, possibly, zero. Achieving these goals will eventually foster the adventof what we can call “real shoe mass customization”.In order to obtain that, some technological elements must be carefully selected andimplemented; firstly a digital approach in the design of the shoe models and in the generationof all the necessary information to initiate the manufacturing process. A CAD model of theshoe and of all its variants generates a wealth of data that can be used both to plan thesubsequent manufacturing phases and to control the machines. Accurate and complete CADmodels become essential when a totally bespoke shoe is to be produced.Secondly highly flexible and automated machines are needed for all the most important stepsof the production process, depending on the kind of construction adopted for the shoes.Programmability, high efficiency and a capability to automatically recall and execute theappropriate programs by identifying electronically the shoe to be produced are mandatoryrequirements for these machines.And finally a high level of process control, monitoring of the work in progress and tracking ofeach single order through the manufacturing process are again key aspects for a successfulimplementation ; this is true in particular when men and machines have to cooperate in ahighly demanding scenario of this kind. This also has an impact on the work organizationmodels and on their integration with the more technological aspects of the production processto be created.Machines and machine integration, software to control and monitor the manufacturingprocess, tracking systems and workflow organization actually define the “perimeter” of a“production system” with well defined performance, standards and capabilities that , insatisfying the highly demanding needs of one off, customized shoe production, can also moveforward footwear manufacturing in general terms.8
  • 10. Rapid Manufacturing: a New Industrial RevolutionDr. Siavash MAHADAVI: CEO Digital Forming, London‐ UKDuring his PhD in Evolutionary Robotics, Siavash Mahdavi developed software that wasable to design complex lattice structures which could be manufactured through additivemanufacturing (more commonly known as 3D Printing). He established WithinTechnologies, a software house that specialises in the development of software for themedical and aerospace industries in 2008. This technology has been used in theaerospace sector to design lightweight yet strong components while in the medicalsector, other software has resulted in the design and manufacture of complex porousstructures that are ideally suited to bone in‐growth into orthopedic implants.In 2008 he also launched Digital Forming, a company that is making use of 3D printing toenable the mass customisation of consumer products for high‐street brands. Bothcompanies were recently featured in the Economist in a cover story entitled "Themanufacturing technology that will change the world". 9
  • 11. Program and DocumentationAbstract Rapid manufacturing a new industrial revolutionDuring this lecture, Siavash Mahdavi will cover the state of the art in additive manufacturingwhilst diving into some exciting applications of this revolutionary design and manufacturingtechnique in footwear. He will also discuss the role of mass customisation of consumerproducts through new advances in software that will also open up consumers to becoming co-designers. http://www.digitalforming.com10
  • 12. Made to Measure and Personalized Shoes: Lessons Learnt and Experience to ShareDr. Bas POSSEN: CEO Customax, Amsterdam‐ The NetherlandsBas Possen is (co‐)founder of a number of companies in the field of mass customization and hasbeen working in this area for more than a decade. He currently is chief executive officer of PossenMade‐to‐Fit Fashion and CustoMax.Possen Made‐to‐Fit Fashion is the largest retailer in The Netherlands for mass customizedbusiness wear for ladies and gentlemen. In 1999 the company launched the world‐first fashionapplication of 2D and 3D body scanners in three pilot stores in The Netherlands as well as a‘mobile store’, a truck with a body scanner, sales room and coffee corner visiting corporateclients. After this launch many thousands of customers have been served with mass customizedfashion items.CustoMax is Europe’s largest mass customization network in fashion connecting both online andoffline consumers, retailers, multiple vendors of custom goods and their providers of fabrics andadditional materials on one single web based portal.CustoMax offers a complete ecosystem around mass customization in apparel and is built onthree fundaments for successful mass customization on a large scale: 1. One (online) market place for multiple vendors of customized fashion 2. Innovative end‐to‐end and integrated web based multi‐enterprise ERP system 3. Focus on distribution channels, user interfaces and marketing to end‐consumersBoth Possen Made‐to‐Fit Fashion and CustoMax are supported by the European Community andhave been or are lead partners in projects funded by the European Commission researchinginnovative mass customization concepts. The companies are often referred to in case studies andresearch on mass customization and Bas Possen delivered executive workshops in this field,amongst others for the University of California at Irvine and the MIT Sloan School of Managementin Boston, USA.Bas Possen comes from a family of fashion retailers and graduated in economics & businessadministration at the University of Maastricht in 1995, followed by a post‐graduate degree inauditing and accounting obtained in 1997.For almost six years (1994 – 1999) he worked as an international auditor and consultant forPricewaterhouseCoopers based in Amsterdam. In this period he advised medium to large nationaland international clients in Europe and the United States, building expertise in the areas of high‐tech (telecom, media, and e‐commerce) and financial services (banking and insurance). Duringthis period he also participated in a masters program for corporate treasury and finance at theLondon Business School in 1998 and 1999. 11
  • 13. Program and DocumentationAbstractTitle: How to run a successful MC shoe business? … about operational excellence, flexibility, happy customers and many, many orders!Highlights:• A decade of mass customization in the fashion and lifestyle industry; from being laughed at to a charming little concept for a niche market to a mass volume market and a new outlook for the European fashion and lifestyle industry.• Critical factor for success: the mindset of an industry (“no” is not an option).• Other basic conditions for MC success: o People that truly understand mass customization and what it takes. o Well equipped and connected production facilities and material providers. o A connected supply chain ensuring logistical reliability (one-piece flow logistics in a networked real-time infrastructure). o Attractive and fashionable product offerings. o Short delivery times. o Strong price points for each market segment (price competitiveness).• Conditions that make the difference: o Easy-to-use consumer interfaces for multi-product ordering (e.g. shoes, shirts, jeans, etc) in a multi-channel environment (e.g. in-store, web-store). o Cool and sexy ordering features for each interface (e.g. 3D configuration, style advice tools, virtual try-on). o Enhancing customer loyalty (e.g. fast and easy repeat orders, personalized offers, social media tools, group shopping).• Business models around customer centric eco systems – an important role for new intermediaries.• Successful examples from the fashion industry.• Cases of sneaker companies (Keds, Nike, Adidas) – focus on visualization.• Case of THE LEFT SHOE COMPANY – focus on innovation and fit.• Case of Fratelli Borgioli – focus on design, quality and fit.Summary:Lessons learned from a decade of mass customization business in the fashion andlifestyle industry and how they specifically might be applied to the footwear industry. "In general, bas.possen@customax.com too little use is made +31 20 408 48 87 (office) of the advantage, +31 6 536 111 78 (direct) that all people www.customax.com are different." Pilotenstraat 56 1059 CR Amsterdam The Netherlands12
  • 14. TechnologyPrint me a StradivariusHow a new manufacturing technology will change the worldTHE industrial revolution of the late 18th century academic and industrial niches. But likemade possible the mass production of goods, computing before it, 3D printing is spreading fastthereby creating economies of scale which as the technology improves and costs fall. A basicchanged the economy—and society—in ways that 3D printer, also known as a fabricator or “fabber”,nobody could have imagined at the time. Now a now costs less than a laser printer did in 1985.new manufacturing technology has emergedwhich does the opposite. Three-dimensional Just press printprinting makes it as cheap to create single itemsas it is to produce thousands and thus undermines The additive approach to manufacturing haseconomies of scale. It may have as profound an several big advantages over the conventional one.impact on the world as the coming of the factory It cuts costs by getting rid of production lines. Itdid. reduces waste enormously, requiring as little as one-tenth of the amount of material. It allows theIt works like this. First you call up a blueprint on creation of parts in shapes that conventionalyour computer screen and tinker with its shape techniques cannot achieve, resulting in new, muchand colour where necessary. Then you press print. more efficient designs in aircraft wings or heatA machine nearby whirrs into life and builds up exchangers, for example. It enables thethe object gradually, either by depositing material production of a single item quickly and cheaply—from a nozzle, or by selectively solidifying a thin and then another one after the design has beenlayer of plastic or metal dust using tiny drops of refined.glue or a tightly focused beam. Products are thusbuilt up by progressively adding material, one For many years 3D printers were used in this waylayer at a time: hence the technology’s other for prototyping, mainly in the aerospace, medicalname, additive manufacturing. Eventually the and automotive industries. Once a design wasobject in question—a spare part for your car, a finalised, a production line would be set up andlampshade, a violin—pops out. The beauty of the parts would be manufactured and assembledtechnology is that it does not need to happen in a using conventional methods. But 3D printing hasfactory. Small items can be made by a machine now improved to the point that it is starting to belike a desktop printer, in the corner of an office, a used to produce the finished items themselvesshop or even a house; big items—bicycle frames, (see article). It is already competitive with plasticpanels for cars, aircraft parts—need a larger injection-moulding for runs of around 1,000machine, and a bit more space. items, and this figure will rise as the technology matures. And because each item is createdAt the moment the process is possible only with individually, rather than from a single mould, eachcertain materials (plastics, resins and metals) and can be made slightly differently at almost no extrawith a precision of around a tenth of a millimetre. cost. Mass production could, in short, give way toAs with computing in the late 1970s, it is currently mass customisation for all kinds of products, fromthe preserve of hobbyists and workers in a few shoes to spectacles to kitchenware. 1
  • 15. By reducing the barriers to entry for intensive than standard manufacturing.manufacturing, 3D printing should also promoteinnovation. If you can design a shape on a The technology will have implications not just forcomputer, you can turn it into an object. You can the distribution of capital and jobs, but also forprint a dozen, see if there is a market for them, intellectual-property (IP) rules. When objects canand print 50 more if there is, modifying the design be described in a digital file, they become muchusing feedback from early users. This will be a easier to copy and distribute—and, of course, toboon to inventors and start-ups, because trying pirate. Just ask the music industry. When theout new products will become less risky and blueprints for a new toy, or a designer shoe,expensive. And just as open-source programmers escape onto the internet, the chances that thecollaborate by sharing software code, engineers owner of the IP will lose out are greater.are already starting to collaborate on open-sourcedesigns for objects and hardware. There are sure to be calls for restrictions on the use of 3D printers, and lawsuits about howThe jobless technology existing IP laws should be applied. As with open- source software, new non-commercial models willA technological change so profound will reset the emerge. It is unclear whether 3D printing requireseconomics of manufacturing. Some believe it will existing rules to be tightened (which coulddecentralise the business completely, reversing hamper innovation) or loosened (which couldthe urbanisation that accompanies encourage piracy). The lawyers are, no doubt,industrialisation. There will be no need for rubbing their hands.factories, goes the logic, when every village has afabricator that can produce items when needed. Just as nobody could have predicted the impact ofUp to a point, perhaps. But the economic and the steam engine in 1750—or the printing press insocial benefits of cities (see article) go far beyond 1450, or the transistor in 1950—it is impossible totheir ability to attract workers to man assembly foresee the long-term impact of 3D printing. Butlines. the technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches. Companies, regulators andOthers maintain that, by reducing the need for entrepreneurs should start thinking about it now.factory workers, 3D printing will undermine the One thing, at least, seems clear: although 3Dadvantage of low-cost, low-wage countries and printing will create winners and losers in the shortthus repatriate manufacturing capacity to the rich term, in the long run it will expand the realm ofworld. It might; but Asian manufacturers are just industry—and imagination.as well placed as anyone else to adopt thetechnology. And even if 3D printing does bring from the print edition | Leaders - The Economist -manufacturing back to developed countries, it Feb 10th 2011may not create many jobs, since it is less labour- 2
  • 16. 3D printingThe printed worldThree-dimensional printing from digital designs will transform manufacturing and allowmore people to start making thingsFILTON, just outside Bristol, is where Britain’s known in industry as “additive” manufacturing (asfleet of Concorde supersonic airliners was built. In opposed to the old, “subtractive” business ofa building near a wind tunnel on the same cutting, drilling and bashing metal). The additivesprawling site, something even more remarkable process requires less raw material and, becauseis being created. Little by little a machine is software drives 3D printers, each item can be“printing” a complex titanium landing-gear made differently without costly retooling. Thebracket, about the size of a shoe, which normally printers can also produce ready-made objects thatwould have to be laboriously hewn from a solid require less assembly and things that traditionalblock of metal. Brackets are only the beginning. methods would struggle with—such as the gloveThe researchers at Filton have a much bigger pictured above, made by Within Technologies, aambition: to print the entire wing of an airliner. London company. It can be printed in nylon, stainless steel or titanium.Far-fetched as this may seem, many other peopleare using three-dimensional printing technology to Click to manufacturecreate similarly remarkable things. These includemedical implants, jewellery, football boots The printing of parts and products has thedesigned for individual feet, lampshades, racing- potential to transform manufacturing because itcar parts, solid-state batteries and customised lowers the costs and risks. No longer does amobile phones. Some are even making producer have to make thousands, or hundreds ofmechanical devices. At the Massachusetts thousands, of items to recover his fixed costs. InInstitute of Technology (MIT), Peter Schmitt, a a world where economies of scale do not matterPhD student, has been printing something that any more, mass-manufacturing identical itemsresembles the workings of a grandfather clock. It may not be necessary or appropriate, especiallytook him a few attempts to get right, but as 3D printing allows for a great deal ofeventually he removed the plastic clock from a 3D customisation. Indeed, in the future some seeprinter, hung it on the wall and pulled down the consumers downloading products as they docounterweight. It started ticking. digital music and printing them out at home, or at a local 3D production centre, having tweaked theEngineers and designers have been using 3D designs to their own tastes. That is probably aprinters for more than a decade, but mostly to faraway dream. Nevertheless, a new industrialmake prototypes quickly and cheaply before they revolution may be on the way.embark on the expensive business of tooling up afactory to produce the real thing. As 3D printers Printing in 3D may seem bizarre. In fact it ishave become more capable and able to work with similar to clicking on the print button on aa broader range of materials, including computer screen and sending a digital file, say aproduction-grade plastics and metals, the letter, to an inkjet printer. The difference is thatmachines are increasingly being used to make the “ink” in a 3D printer is a material which isfinal products too. More than 20% of the output of deposited in successive, thin layers until a solid3D printers is now final products rather than object emerges.prototypes, according to Terry Wohlers, who runsa research firm specialising in the field. He The layers are defined by software that takes apredicts that this will rise to 50% by 2020. series of digital slices through a computer-aided design. Descriptions of the slices are then sent toUsing 3D printers as production tools has become the 3D printer to construct the respective layers. 3
  • 17. They are then put together in a number of ways. engineer on the EADS project. The parts his teamPowder can be spread onto a tray and then is making are more svelte, even elegant. This issolidified in the required pattern with a squirt of a because without manufacturing constraints theyliquid binder or by sintering it with a laser or an can be better optimised for their purpose.electron beam. Some machines deposit filaments Compared with a machined part, the printed oneof molten plastic. However it is achieved, after is some 60% lighter but still as sturdy.each layer is complete the build tray is lowered bya fraction of a millimetre and the next layer is Form follows functionadded. Lightness is critical in making aircraft. A reduction of 1kg in the weight of an airliner will save around $3,000-worth of fuel a year and by the same token cut carbon-dioxide emissions. Additive manufacturing could thus help build greener aircraft—especially if all the 1,000 or so titanium parts in an airliner can be printed. Although the size of printable parts is limited for now by the size of 3D printers, the EADS group believes that bigger systems are possible, including one that could fit on the 35-metre-long gantry used to build composite airliner wings. This would allow titanium components to be printed directly ontoAnd when you’re happy, click print the structure of the wing.The researchers at Filton began using 3D printers Many believe that the enhanced performance ofto produce prototype parts for wind-tunnel additively manufactured items will be the mosttesting. The group is part of EADS Innovation important factor in driving the technologyWorks, the research arm of EADS, a European forward. It certainly is for MIT’s Mr Schmitt,defence and aerospace group best known for whose interest lies in “original machines”. Thesebuilding Airbuses. Prototype parts tend to be very are devices not constructed from a collection ofexpensive to make as one-offs by conventional prefabricated parts, but created in a form thatmeans. Because their 3D printers could do the job flows from the intention of the design. If thatmore efficiently, the researchers’ thoughts turned sounds a bit arty, it is: Mr Schmitt is a former artto manufacturing components directly. student from Germany who used to cadge time on factory lathes and milling machines to makeAircraft-makers have already replaced a lot of the mechanised sculptures. He is now working onmetal in the structure of planes with lightweight novel servo mechanisms, the basic building blockscarbon-fibre composites. But even a small airliner for robots. Custom-made servos cost many timesstill contains several tonnes of costly aerospace- the price of off-the-shelf ones. Mr Schmitt says itgrade titanium. These parts have usually been should be possible for a robot builder to specifymachined from solid billets, which can result in what a servo needs to do, rather than how it90% of the material being cut away. This swarf is needs to be made, and send that information to ano longer of any use for making aircraft. 3D printer, and for the machine’s software to know how to produce it at a low cost. “This makes manufacturing more accessible,” says Mr Schmitt.To make the same part with additivemanufacturing, EADS starts with a titaniumpowder. The firm’s 3D printers spread a layer The idea of the 3D printer determining the form ofabout 20-30 microns (0.02-0.03mm) thick onto a the items it produces intrigues Neri Oxman, antray where it is fused by lasers or an electron architect and designer who heads a researchbeam. Any surplus powder can be reused. Some group examining new ways to make things atobjects may need a little machining to finish, but MIT’s Media Lab. She is building a printer tothey still require only 10% of the raw material explore how new designs could be produced. Drthat would otherwise be needed. Moreover, the Oxman believes the design and construction ofprocess uses less energy than a conventional objects could be transformed using principlesfactory. It is sometimes faster, too. inspired by nature, resulting in shapes that are impossible to build without additive manufacturing. She has made items fromThere are other important benefits. Most metal sculpture to body armour and is even looking atand plastic parts are designed to be buildings, erected with computer-guided nozzlesmanufactured, which means they can be clunky that deposit successive layers of concrete.and contain material surplus to the part’s functionbut necessary for making it. This is not true of 3Dprinting. “You only put material where you need Some 3D systems allow the properties andto have material,” says Andy Hawkins, lead internal structure of the material being printed to be varied. This year, for instance, Within 4
  • 18. Technologies expects to begin offering titanium Both EOS and Stratasys, a company based inmedical implants with features that resemble Minneapolis which makes 3D printers that employbone. The company’s femur implant is dense plastic-deposition technology, use their ownwhere stiffness and strength is required, but it machines to print parts that are, in turn, used toalso has strong lattice structures which would build more printers. Stratasys is even trying toencourage the growth of bone onto the implant. print a car, or at least the body of one, for KorSuch implants are more likely to stay put than Ecologic, a company in Winnipeg, whose boss, Jimconventional ones. Kor, is developing an electric-hybrid vehicle called Urbee.Working at such a fine level of internal detailallows the stiffness and flexibility of an object tobe determined at any point, says SiavashMahdavi, the chief executive of WithinTechnologies. Dr Mahdavi is working on otherlattice structures, including aerodynamic bodyparts for racing cars and special insoles for a firmthat hopes to make the world’s most comfortablestiletto-heeled shoes.Digital Forming, a related company (where DrMahdavi is chief technology officer), uses 3Ddesign software to help consumers customisemass-produced products. For example, it is Jim Kor’s printed the model. Next, the caroffering a service to mobile-phone companies inwhich subscribers can go online to change the Making low-volume, high-value and customisedshape, colour and other features of the case of components is all very well, but could additivetheir new phone. The software keeps the user manufacturing really compete with mass-within the bounds of the achievable. Once the production techniques that have been honed fordesign is submitted the casing is printed. Lisa over a century? Established techniques areHarouni, the company’s managing director, says unlikely to be swept away, but it is already clearthe process could be applied to almost any that the factories of the future will have 3Dconsumer product, from jewellery to furniture. “I printers working alongside milling machines,don’t have any doubt that this technology will presses, foundries and plastic injection-mouldingchange the way we manufacture things,” she equipment, and taking on an increasing amount ofsays. the work done by those machines.Other services allow individuals to upload their Morris Technologies, based in Cincinnati, was oneown designs and have them printed. Shapeways, of the first companies to invest heavily in additivea New York-based firm spun out of Philips, a manufacturing for the engineering and productionDutch electronics company, last year, offers services it offers to companies. Its first intentionpersonalised 3D production, or “mass was to make prototypes quickly, but by 2007 thecustomisation”, as Peter Weijmarshausen, its chief company says it realised “a new industry wasexecutive, describes it. Shapeways prints more being born” and so it set up another firm, Rapidthan 10,000 unique products every month from Quality Manufacturing, to concentrate on thematerials that range from stainless steel to glass, additive manufacturing of higher volumes ofplastics and sandstone. Customers include production parts. It says many small andindividuals and shopkeepers, many ordering medium-sized components can be turned fromjewellery, gifts and gadgets to sell in their stores. computer designs into production-quality metal parts in hours or days, against days or weeksEOS, a German supplier of laser-sintering 3D using traditional processes. And the printers canprinters, says they are already being used to build unattended, 24 hours a day.make plastic and metal production parts bycarmakers, aerospace firms and consumer- Neil Hopkinson has no doubts that 3D printing willproducts companies. And by dentists: up to 450 compete with mass manufacturing in many areas.dental crowns, each tailored for an individual His team at Loughborough University has inventedpatient, can be manufactured in one go in a day a high-speed sintering system. It uses inkjetby a single machine, says EOS. Some craft print-heads to deposit infra-red-absorbing ink onproducers of crowns would do well to manage a layers of polymer powder which are fused intodozen a day. As an engineering exercise, EOS also solid shapes with infra-red heating. Among otherprinted the parts for a violin using a high- projects, the group is examining the potential forperformance industrial polymer, had it assembled making plastic buckles for Burton Snowboards, aby a professional violin-maker and played by a leading American producer of winter-sportsconcert violinist. equipment. Such items are typically produced by plastic injection-moulding. Dr Hopkinson says his 5
  • 19. process can make them for ten pence (16 cents) A customised futureeach, which is highly competitive with injection-moulding. Moreover, the designs could easily be How would this translate to manufacturing? Mostchanged without Burton incurring high retooling obviously, it changes the economics of makingcosts. customised components. If a company needs a specialised part, it may find it cheaper and quickerPredicting how quickly additive manufacturing will to have the part printed locally or even to print itsbe taken up by industry is difficult, adds Dr own than to order one from a supplier a long wayHopkinson. That is not necessarily because of the away. This is more likely when rapid designconservative nature of manufacturers, but rather changes are needed.because some processes have already movedsurprisingly fast. Only a few years ago making Printing in 3D is not the preserve of the West:decorative lampshades with 3D printers seemed Chinese companies are adopting the technologyto be a highly unlikely business, but it has become too. Yet you might infer that some manufacturingan industry with many competing firms and sales will return to the West from cheap centres ofvolumes in the thousands. production in China and elsewhere. This possibility was on the agenda of a conference organised byDr Hopkinson thinks Loughborough’s process is DHL last year. The threat to the logistics firm’salready competitive with injection-moulding at business is clear: why would a company airfreightproduction runs of around 1,000 items. With an urgently needed spare part from abroad whenfurther development he expects that within five it could print one where it is required?years it would be competitive in runs of tens if nothundreds of thousands. Once 3D printing Perhaps the most exciting aspect of additivemachines are able to crank out products in such manufacturing is that it lowers the cost of entrynumbers, then more manufacturers will look to into the business of making things. Instead ofadopt the technology. finding the money to set up a factory or asking a mass-producer at home (or in another country) toWill Sillar of Legerwood, a British firm of make something for you, 3D printers will offer aconsultants, expects to see the emergence of cheaper, less risky route to the market. Anwhat he calls the “digital production plant”: firms entrepreneur could run off one or two sampleswill no longer need so much capital tied up in with a 3D printer to see if his idea works. Hetooling costs, work-in-progress and raw materials, could make a few more to see if they sell, andhe says. Moreover, the time to take a digital take in design changes that buyers ask for. Ifdesign from concept to production will drop, he things go really well, he could scale up—withbelieves, by as much as 50-80%. The ability to conventional mass production or an enormous 3Dovercome production constraints and make new print run.things will combine with improvements to thetechnology and greater mechanisation to make 3D This suggests that success in manufacturing willprinting more mainstream. “The market will come depend less on scale and more on the quality ofto the technology,” Mr Sillar says. ideas. Brilliance alone, though, will not be enough. Good ideas can be copied even more rapidly withSome in the industry believe that the effect of 3D 3D printing, so battles over intellectual propertyprinting on manufacturing will be analogous to may become even more intense. It will be easierthat of the inkjet printer on document printing. for imitators as well as innovators to get goods toThe written word became the printed word with market fast. Competitive advantages may thus bethe invention of movable-type printing by shorter-lived than ever before. As with pastJohannes Gutenberg in the 15th century. Printing industrial revolutions, the greatest beneficiariespresses became like mass-production machines, may not be companies but their customers. Buthighly efficient at printing lots of copies of the whoever gains most, revolution may not be toosame thing but not individual documents. The strong a word.inkjet printer made that a lot easier, cheaper andmore personal. Inkjet devices now perform a from the print edition | Briefing - The Economist -multitude of printing roles, from books on demand Feb 10th 2011to labels and photographs, even though traditionalpresses still roll for large runs of books,newspapers and so on. 6
  • 20. MANUFACTURING & MATERIALS INNOVATION WF IS MASS CUSTOMISATION OF FOOTWEAR REALISTIC? SERGIO DULIO S hoe making is a fairly traditional business, despite the challenges that were on the way and demonstrated the new manufacturing technologies, widespread feasibility of a ‘consumer centric’ process flow from sale to changes in markets and evolutions in consumer design and manufacturing. Books were written on the attitudes and preferences that have appeared over the years specific topic of footwear and MC, while at every gathering of and, in particular, more recently. Indeed, there have only the Mass Customisation and Personalisation Congress since been a few truly radical changes in terms of manufacturing it began in 2011, there were sessions specifically dedicated to approach or organisation and business models. The concept it. Despite all that happened during those ten years, mass of mass customisation (MC) is one of them and, potentially, a customisation for footwear is not here yet. most exciting one. The idea first appeared in 1992 in a book by Joe Pine CONSUMER CENTRICITY called ‘Mass Customisation: the New Frontier in Business What exactly do we mean by mass customisation? There Competition’. No one took any steps to turn it into a reality, are two basic parts to the concept: consumer centricity and however, until the early years of the new millennium. At that efficiency of production. One well known definition in fact time CAD systems were at the top of their development, claims that it means manufacturing a product based on the process automation and flexibility were the key words in individual requirements of a specific customer with near shoe manufacturing and new technologies appeared to allow mass production efficiency and, therefore, at a cost little the scanning of body parts in order to produce accurate different from that of a standard product. That is a serious digital models of them. Since then, much has changed. and challenging claim to make. The huge EUROShoE project, funded by the European The consumer centricity aspect particularly refers to the Commission, explored market sensitivity to this new way of way in which consumers participate in the various processes selling and producing shoes, tackled the major technological from design to manufacture of their shoes. In the case of a18
  • 21. IS MASS CUSTOMISATION OF FOOTWEAR REALISTIC? BENEFITS OF MASS CUSTOMISATION DRAWBACKS OF MASS CUSTOMISATION Greater individual satisfaction Consumer pays a higher price CONSUMER Easier to find the product and size desired Consumer must wait for the product Improved comfort from better fitting shoes They don’t see, touch and feel the product Consumer talks to supplier Issues regarding ownership of biometric data Consumer feels producer cares PRODUCER Manufacture only what is already sold New negotiations with retailers required No inventories at point of sale Process becomes more complex Reduced or no discounted sales Potentially higher product costs Less space needed so less costs for retailer Requires reorganisation of processes Producer knows its consumers Greater consumer satisfaction and fidelity Higher added value in the sold productpersonalised product, they certainly have a more active role technologies involved frightens companies off. Having saidthan would normally be the case with a mass produced one that, however, what might be a major obstacle for a welland therefore expect to be the centre of attention. This, established company could easily become a motivatinghowever, no longer appears to be enough and Joe Pine has factor for newcomers and innovative start-ups to actuallyrevised his original theory on personalisation by introducing base their business model on such an original approach.two further concepts. First, that of ‘experience’ to emphasise how the time EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTIONspent by a consumer in the store should be perceived and This is the second element that mass customisation reliesremembered as a memorable experience that completes the on. It is well known that individuality goes against economiesfinal feeling of owning a pair of shoes specifically designed of scale, requiring highly flexible processes and organisationsand made for them. Satisfying their interests and tastes is not capable of handling the diversity of every single order comingenough, the purchase needs to become an experience in in. In an industry predominantly geared to volume production,which the atmosphere, the manner in which it takes place, maintaining low extra costs with batch sizes of one pair hasthe content (even in terms of entertainment) of the been the goal of research and development work bytechnologies that are at work in the process, all play a universities and technology suppliers alike. Many of the majorrelevant role. Pine has refined this into a theory that speaks technical stumbling blocks have now been resolved andof an actual new economy based on such an experience in technologies are available that, if correctly applied, preservehis book The Experience Economy: World is Theatre and cost efficiency more or less independent of batch size. DespiteEvery Business a Stage. all this, two other factors still cause companies to hesitate. Second, today’s consumer also looks for authenticity in Changing the way things are done and processes arethe products purchased, involving transparency of content, organised in traditional shoemaking companies is always avisibility of processes involved, obvious quality, totalattention to their individual needs and a desire foruniqueness. This is the minimum threshold shoemakers haveto reach in order to truly capture the attention of customersand, at this level, requires wide knowledge of their behaviourand a total change in the way they deal with the end user.Furthermore, it also calls for a dramatic change as to whomthey consider to be their customers: no longer retailers butthe end users of their products. MC in fact re-establishes the consumer/producerrelationship that was lost as shoemaking developed from acraft activity into an industrial one. This implies benefits anddrawbacks for both the consumer and the producer. The keyto success is to find the right balance whereby the benefitssurpass the drawbacks for both parties. The table above liststhe most important benefits and corresponding drawbacksfor both producer and consumer. MC is also a structural transformation in theconsumer/producer relationship which not all companiesare prepared for. In many cases, the radical mind-shift Choosing a shoe that both appeals and fits well can be arequired let alone the investment in new organisation or dilemma. 19
  • 22. WORLD FOOTWEAR MAY/JUNE 2011 Figure 1 – Current market for MC footwear. CREDIT: SERGIO DULIO difficult task. As briefly mentioned earlier, it is not just the recommendations for companies on how to use MC in order financial investment that may be required but very often the to pursue customer centric strategies. Although not all the change in mindset that moving from a rigid, batch-oriented contents of the study are directly applicable to the footwear set-up to a highly responsive and flexible one entails. It industry, it does contain a valuable set of definitions to means switching from manufacturing chains to lean cells, highlight how MC differentiates from mass production. from analogical to digital process control, from a push to a pull production model and, as we have said, change-over • Product features are identified by individual customers costs are often considered to be too high. • Product design carried out at point of sale by individuals The second impediment is the need for standard mass • Market presentation allows individual choice options production and one for customised products to coexist in the • Variations come from individual customers ideas same factory. This is especially true for conventional • Customer needs are defined by individuals within defined companies that want to explore MC while, at the same time, boundaries retaining their position in the traditional market which would • Customer involvement occurs at point of sale be a necessity in at least the early stages of any MC project. The main problem they would face is how to run single unit A word of warning however: identifying the specific orders on the same production lines used for their standard features and design of footwear by customers is a very footwear, making sure that the first are delivered to customer delicate issue due to the complexity of the task and the high specification and on time, while not disturbing the on-going skill required to perform it in a consistent manner. output of the second. Whilst an existing dedicated sample Nevertheless, the potential of allowing an end user to ‘play’ line would certainly help, the typical short and frequent with the design or, at least, certain predefined elements in development cycle for new products and collections might order to add uniqueness to their customisation remains not leave sufficient spare capacity. almost totally unexplored. It could in fact become a powerful A combination of these two factors has created lever for a widespread, consumer-pushed adoption of MC. A something of a deadlock and is the main reason mass lack of appropriate end user oriented design tools and customisation has not spread in the footwear industry. determination on the part of shoe manufacturers has, until Traditional companies with an established market access, now, relegated it to a mere vision for the future. solid product positioning and, moreover, an adequate production capacity, are reluctant to take on the additional CURRENT POSITION costs of a change to MC. New entrants and start-ups on the As things stand, the state of adoption of MC for footwear is other hand which realise the possible potential and are clearly shown in Figure 1. The typical price/market size pyramid already geared to operate in a consumer centric scenario, is set against a ‘customisation level’ that mainly refers to how lack the manufacturing capacity to serve their customers and much of a shoe is actually designed and manufactured to the struggle to find suppliers willing and able to support them. individual requirements of the end user. At the low end of the scale are mass produced shoes with no degree of customisation. FUTURE OF PRODUCTS At the highest end we have fully bespoke footwear for which all A study by the Forrester Group in March of this year the elements of the shoe and, in particular the last, follow the contains an interesting survey on the subject of whether MC biometric data of the customer’s feet and their aesthetic can really be considered as the ‘future of products’. It requirements. Between these two extremes, we have shoes contains examples and case studies leading to a set of aesthetically personalised that are closer to the lower end as foot20
  • 23. WORLD FOOTWEAR MAY/JUNE 2011 biometrics are totally ignored. Towards the upper end, we find best matched-fit shoes where aesthetic customisation is combined with foot and last dimensional data matching so that the closest available fit is provided. We can see from all this that the highest level of customisation is typically offered by a new generation of hand- shoemakers, whom we can call ‘digital cobblers’ and who use modern digital technology to produce truly bespoke shoes at prices of €1,000 ($1,500) or more. It is therefore clear that at the apex of the triangle there will only be a few wealthy customers. A little lower down, we find the ‘affordable luxury’ category where the level of customisation offered is lower (typically best matched fit and aesthetics), as is a selling price which a relatively larger number of consumers can afford. A recent study conducted by a team of students at the Polytechnic of Milan School of Management indicated that if the price of MC shoes stayed between €400 ($580) and €600 ($940), almost 17% of those interviewed would buy customised shoes. Significantly, their average age was between 40 and 55. The vast majority of consumers at the base of the triangle buying at up to €150 ($220) per pair are either totally excluded or have to live with low levels of customisation typically centred on a choice of colours, materials and aesthetic details, but without any of the benefits in terms of fit and comfort typical of the higher levels. Modern laser foot scanners are accurate and consistent. CREDIT: CALZOLERIA RIVOLTA – MILAN It is worth noting that major sports shoe brands including Nike, adidas, Reebok and Asics are there, together with some less-known but very active start-ups. Big brands such as these A KEY QUESTION certainly have the potential to boost MC. However, although it This, brings us back to the question as to how MC can is almost impossible to obtain reliable sales figures, those that reach a mass market in order to offer the greatest possible they currently generate through customised offerings must be benefit to the highest number of consumers? There are two well below full potential and justify our initial statement that ways in which this might happen: ‘democratisation’ and ‘long the mass market remains largely untouched by MC and its very tail effect’. real benefits of fit and comfort. Democratisation refers to a situation in which a greater What all these cases have in common and also represents number of big brands, beyond just the sports shoe sector, probably the most relevant differentiation factor with regard to move to MC and exploit it at various levels to lower the cost mass production is that whatever the level of customisation, of customised products such that the concept reaches as far all these shoes are strictly made to order; they are neither in as possible down the economic value chain. In order to the shop or even in stock at the factory until the client chooses assess how realistic this possibility might be, we must the one he likes and places an order. A great challenge for the consider several factors, the first being the market. Does one vendor but a major advantage, as we will see, from other exist for this kind of product/service combination and, if so, standpoints. how big is it? Strangely enough there are no recent quantitative studies on this subject. The only specific data was gathered during the EUROShoE project in 2001. This suggested the ‘20/20/20 rule’, namely that if the end price of customised shoes could be held to within 20% more than the price for a normal pair of the same shoes and delivery time was no more than 20 days, almost 20% of consumers questioned would be prepared to buy them. The numbers would need to be updated and might now be possibly even more favourable. Converting this into actual pairage potential and revenues achieved bearing in mind the higher selling price and higher margins for producers could then yield a volume in excess of 100 million pairs per year, worth well over $14 billion for Many bespoke shoemakers use digital technology. Europe alone. While this is an educated guess, it is still CREDIT: CALZOLERIA RIVOLTA – MILAN appealing enough to warrant further consideration.22
  • 24. IS MASS CUSTOMISATION OF FOOTWEAR REALISTIC? The second point is better foot measurement. For theconcept of selling shoes based on the true biometric data ofthe individual customer to spread to a mass market, lowcost, consistent and easy to use foot measuringtechnologies must become widely available to the public.Modern foot scanning machines are technically almostperfect. What is missing is a way to make them available inevery shoe store or wherever a convenient Internetconnection is available such that anyone can go and havetheir feet measured. It is an intriguing scenario that lends itself to a series ofadditional considerations that would be worth an in-depthdiscussion for which is no room here. While it cannot besaid that this possibility is really around the corner,movements in its direction are evident. The combinedeffect of market appreciation and a widespread availabilityof foot measurement systems could be a trigger for brandsto move towards MC and bring its potential benefits to themass market. The long tail effect is discussed in a book by ChrisAnderson and can be summarised as a situation in whichthe combined value of all the millions of items sold in onlysmall quantities equals or exceeds that of the few sold inmillions. So, could it come about that the niche markets inwhich customised footwear is found today–such as formalmen’s shoes, casual men’s and women’s, trendy women’sshoes and various specialist sports shoes–grow in numbersuch that variety and pairage sold increased to a pointwhere it rivalled mass produced footwear? It would beworth carefully analysing these various niches as there is afeeling that potential numbers might be more thanexpected and that this growth could turn out to be morethan mere anticipation.THE ENVIRONMENT A final and, perhaps unexpected, benefit that couldarise from the mass adoption of MC and footwear is itsimpact on the environment. In the final chapter of MassCustomisation and Footwear Myth, Salvation or Realitypublished by Springer in 2007, the authors could onlymake a relatively short analysis of the energy wastedevery year in shoes unsold, cancelled, destroyed andtransported from faraway manufacturing units to theirfinal destination markets. The topic was recently revisited by a doctorate studentin Europe, who found some very interesting comparisonsbetween mass produced and customised footwear in termsof energy usage and carbon footprint. Anyone reading thenumbers would be surprised at the amount of energy thatcould be saved and emissions reduced if we only producedwhat consumers really wanted and in the right quantity.Moreover, short supply chains and production plants closeto destination markets would also have a positive impact onthe overall carbon footprint of the entire process. Awidespread awareness of such a situation could perhapsbecome the single most powerful driver for a new era of MCin footwear. 23
  • 25. FINAL PROGRAMThe 2011 World Conference on Mass Customization,Personalization, and Co-Creation (MCPC 2011)Business Seminar, November 16-17, 2011Innovation & Research Conference, November 17-19, 2011Conference Venue: San Francisco Airport Marriot Hotel & Conference CenterConference Host: Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation, University of California, Berkeleymcpc2011.com | twitter: #mcpc2011The MCPC Conference consists out of two program elements:• The "Research and Innovation Conference" is a research and application-focused interactive forum. Presentations are organized in parallel track and provide an in-depth discussion of all topics of the conference theme. Special showcase sessions and showcase symposia offer a focused perspective on themes and talks especially relevant for management practitioners.• The "Business Seminar" provides an innovative platform for managers doing mass customization and open innovation as the core of their business. The seminars foremost idea is to connect managers in peer-to-peer interaction to foster an intense discussion, facilitated by presentations from industry leaders and the seminar faculty. Host: Academic Co-Sponsors: Garwood Center for MIT Smart Technology & Innovation Advanced Corporate Innovation Customization Group Management Group Manufacturing Institute Sponsors and Partners of the MCPC 2011 1