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The Indian Experiences in Enviromental Management (spoken)

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Ananthakrishna SAHASRANAMAN …

Ananthakrishna SAHASRANAMAN
Technology for Sustainability International Forum - Bologna 2011

Published in: Technology
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  • 1. INNOTECH – TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABILITY – INTERNATIONAL FORUM – THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT A. Sahasranaman Vice Chairman Chennai Environmental Management Company of Tanners Chennai, India 20 October 2011 Bologna, Italy THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT - TANNING INDUSTRY IN INDIA • Processes about 3000 tonnes of raw material per day, more than 80% sourced domestically , 80% from raw to finish, rest from semi processed to finished leather • Four main concentrations – Tamil Nadu in South India (50%), Kolkata in east india (18%), kanpur in central India (20%) and jullunder in north india(7%), rest of india(5%) • • Industry populated by small enterprises, processing less than 5 tonnes per day, share of large enterprises in output is less than 40% Contd...
  • 2. THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT - TANNING INDUSTRY IN INDIA • Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP) established to treat waste discharged by SMEs at 19 locations, 14 in Tamil Nadu. • CETPs account for treating more than 85% waste water generated • Total waste water generated estimated at 100,000 cubic meter per day Contd... LOCATION OF TANNERIES IN AND AROUND INDIA
  • 3. THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- EFFLUENT DISCHARGE NORMS • Separate norms for different recipients ‐ surface discharge, marine discharge, irrigation and public sewer • Main norms are BOD, suspended solids, pH, chlorides, hexavelent chromium, total chromium, sulphides, oil and grease • Norms similar to global norms • Total dissolved solids (2100 ppm), chlorides (1000 ppm) and sulphates (1000 ppm) applicable for all recipients, except marine discharge. Contd... THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- EFFLUENT DISCHARGE NORMS • Conventional treatment systems capable of meeting all norms, except total dissolved solids, sulphates and chlorides • Operating cost of conventional treatment systems range between Euro 0.50 to 0.80 per cubic meter Contd...
  • 4. THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- DISCHARGE NORMS IN DIFFERENT CLUSTERS • Norms vary from cluster to cluster • Calcutta leather complex at Kolkata, East India, has allowed marine discharge as treated waste water joins a stream which meets backwaters of the sea about 60 km downstream • Kanpur ‐ Jajmau CETP (capacity: 36000 cubic meter) treats domestic and tannery waste in the ratio of 3:1, so TDS norms in tannery waste not insisted on Contd... THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- DISCHARGE NORMS IN DIFFERENT CLUSTERS • Other clusters in Kanpur and Jullunder prescribe surface discharge norms, but TDS, chlorides and sulphates norms not insisted on at present • Tamil Nadu has directed establishment of ‘zero discharge treatment systems’ due to acute ground water shortage and progressive contamination of soil and ground water by excessive tds/chlorides • • 14 CETPs and about 130 ETPs have gone for ZLD systems Contd...
  • 5. THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- TAMIL NADU EXPERIENCE • AEDOL, Ambur has established three ZLD systems covering 4 CETPs for treating 7300 cubic meter of waste water at a capital cost of Euro 20 million. • Two CETPs established ZLDs at Perundurai (1000 cum) and Melvisharam (600 cum) at a total cost of Euro 3 million‐ both operational • • CEMCOT in the process of establishing 6 zld systems covering 7 CETPs for processing 13500 cubic meter at a total cost of Euro 30 million Contd... THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- TAMIL NADU EXPERIENCE • ZLD systems consist of: conventional treatment, reactivator clarifier, dual media filter, ultrafiltration, organic scavenger, two stage reverse osmosis, recovered water storage and distribution amongst tanneries, reject evaporation in multiple effect evaporators, safe disposal/utilisation of recovered salt. • 100% recovery achieved, as condensate of evaporator + additional steam injected make up for loss in process • Contd...
  • 6. ZLD Systems 11 TYPICAL CETP SCHEME MECHANICAL SCREEN DISTRIBUTION CHAMBERFLASH MIXEREQUALISATION TANK CLARIFLOCCULATOR SECONDARY CLARIFIER AERATION FLASH MIXER SECURED LANDFILL POLYELECTROLYTE LIME ALUM FILTER PRESS/CENTRIFUGE PUMPING STATIONSCONVEYANCE SYSTEM RECEIVING SUMP FLOCCULATOR TERTIARY CLARIFIER Treated Effluent FINE SCREEN PRE‐TREATMENT IN TANNERIES ZLD Systems 12 TYPICAL RO SCHEME REACTIVATOR CLARIFIERFLASH MIXER MULTIGRADE FILTER PE SODA ASH ALUM FILTER PRESS/CENTRIFUGE RECOVERED WATER FOR REUSE TREATED EFFLUENT FROM CETP UF FEED TANK ULTRA FILTER NEUTRALISATION TANK HCL OS FEED TANK ORAGANIC SCAVENGER RO FEED TANK RO‐1 DEGASSIFIER RO‐2REJECT STORAGE TANK MULTI EFFECT EVAPORATOR CENTRIFUGE DRIED SALT FOR DISPOSAL
  • 7. Parameter Unit Typical value obtained after treatment stage Raw effluent After primary After Seconda ry After Tertiary After UF After OS (RO feed) RO perme ate RO reject pH --- 8.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 Turbidity NTU 850 220 120 30 2 - - 2 TDS mg/l 16000 15500 15500 16000 16000 16000 350 65000 TSS mg/l 4200 150 100 30 -- -- -- -- COD mg/l 4750 2100 450 350 325 125 -- 525 BOD mg/l 1100 800 25 10 6 2 -- 30 Total hardness mg/l 1600 1500 1400 450 425 420 1 1700 Chloride mg/l 9500 9100 9100 9400 9500 9400 110 40000 CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER THROUGH ZLD SYSTEMS EFFLUENT TREATMENT UNITS IN INDIA EQUALISATION TANK MECHANICAL SCREEN AERATION TANK FILTER PRESSES
  • 8. ZERO LIQUID DISCHARGE SYSTEM UNITS OPERATING IN INDIA TERTIARY TREATMENT RO SKIDS ULTRAFILTERS RO ROOM VIEW ZERO LIQUID DISCHARGE SYSTEM UNITS OPERATING IN INDIA MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATORS SALT PRODUCED FROM EVAPORATOR OVERHEAD TANK FOR RECOVERED WATER
  • 9. THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- COST DETAILS • Capital cost per cubic meter (upgradation of existing conventional treatment + UF/RO + evaporator + recovered water distribution ) works out to Euro 2500 • Operating cost works out to Euro 2.5 to 3.0 per cubic meter • Components of operating cost: power (40%), chemicals (10%), manpower (8%), steam (22%), replacement cost(5%), capital cost repayment(15%). Cost of salt disposal not mentioned, as it is hoped that the salt can be recovered as a self sustaining activity • Contd... THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- COST DETAILS • Operating cost is 3.5 to 4 times that of conventional treatment • Technological solution available at a cost • Can the industry sustain itself at this cost? Contd...
  • 10. THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- SOLID WASTE • Estimated daily output of solid waste in India: 1600 tonnes • By and large converted into byproducts • • Raw trimmings and fleshings converted into glue or animal protein, small quantity as dog chews • • Shavings are used for making leather board • Contd... THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- SOLID WASTE • Hair and wool used for making rough blankets • Enzymatic digestion of chrome shavings / biomethanation of fleshings and sludge demonstrated but not yet adopted commercially • Unused solid waste dumped in the secure land fill, separate enclosure Contd...
  • 11. SOLID WASTE UTILISATION IN INDIA GLUE UNIT BIOMETHANATION LEATHER BOARD FLESHING RENDERING UNIT THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT- ISSUES FACED • Mode of disposal / use of mixed salt recovered from zld systems • Secure landfill consumes huge areas • Safe utilisation of sludge containing only trivalent chromium ? • How to conserve cost of operation and management? • Highlighting unique achievements in environment management to secure better recognition and price? • Suggestions welcome

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