Stfp Bruxelles Feb19_2009

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Intercultural training on Bruxelles, 19 Feb 2009

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Stfp Bruxelles Feb19_2009

  1. 1. A Word Of Warning – This is not a Scientific Subject This is a full version of the presentation which includes all European countries represented in the group
  2. 2. What is your opinion about the following statements? –  “Handling cultural differences is just a matter of common sense” –  “We are rapidly becoming one world culture: in the global village of today, culture does not matter much” –  “We are all one corporate culture here, it doesn’t matter if you come from France, Germany or China – everyone gets treated the same”
  3. 3. Culture is moving higher up the world agenda as a major challenge in business and politics
  4. 4. What is Culture?
  5. 5. Cultural Conditioning •  Cultural values and beliefs originate from a country’s history, religion, physical environment and language •  They impose themselves on our behaviour •  Our minds are conditioned at an early age •  Values and beliefs are extremely stable over time
  6. 6. Consequence These values and beliefs in turn affect: –  Our outlook and world view –  Our actions –  Our understanding –  Our communication style –  Our listening style –  Our attitude to authority and leadership –  Our motivation factors –  Our concept of space and time –  Our body-language –  Etc…
  7. 7. Layers of Culture National Regional Educational Professional Gender Class Religious Generational Ethnic Corporate Personal
  8. 8. Stereotyping (or generalisation) •  A valuable tool but: (i) it must be consciously held (ii) it should be descriptive rather than evaluative (iii) it should be managed
  9. 9. The Categorisation of Cultures
  10. 10. © 1998, 2007 Richard D Lewis
  11. 11. © 2001 Richard D Lewis © 2001 Richard D Lewis
  12. 12. Human Mental Programming Communication Patterns Listening Habit s
  13. 13. Human Mental Programming – USA –
  14. 14. National Communication Patterns – USA –
  15. 15. Listening Habits – USA –
  16. 16. Human Mental Programming – English –
  17. 17. Celtic Britons - Values and Core Beliefs - •  In common with English Traditional, humorous, fair play, love of debate, understatement, - inventive, supports underdogs •  Diverging - Not so insular, not so diplomatic, not so casual, empathize with many foreigners, less coded speech, no snobbery •  Extra qualities Poetic, artistic, fond of music and singing, emotional, nationalistic, - focused, hard-headed, tendency towards idealism, generous, friendly
  18. 18. Celtic Britons - Values and Core Beliefs - •  Particularly Scots - Thrifty, Independent, proud, strong sense of separate identity and traditions, energetic, romantic •  Particularly Welsh - Friendly, cosy, rustic, simplifying, anxious to preserve the Welsh language, love choirs, rugby, see themselves as true Britons •  Particularly Irish - Tendency towards fatalism, chauvinistic, Catholic, story-tellers, elastic truth (blarney)
  19. 19. Celtic / Irish / Northern English Comparison Celtic Irish Northern English Poetic Exaggerate Hard-headed Romantic Changeable Friendly Excitable Charming Very humorous Artistic Not class conscious Good singers Generous Good story-tellers Very open Some emotion Open / Displays feelings Better linguists than Southerners Not-so-insular Anti-snob Humorous Show happiness but not sadness Not class conscious Hate red tape Punctual (except Irish) Individualistic Good linguists / Talkative
  20. 20. National Communication Patterns – UK –
  21. 21. British Coded Speech (1) What is said What is meant Hm….interesting idea What a stupid suggestion You could say that I wouldnʼt We must have a meeting about Forget it your idea We shall certainly consider it We wonʼt do it Iʼm not quite with you on that That is totally unacceptable one I disagree I agree, up to a point
  22. 22. British Coded Speech (2) What is said What is meant Remind me once more of your I wasnʼt listening last time strategy We must wait for a politically Forget it correct time to introduce this It has lots of future potential Itʼs failed He works intuitively Heʼs completely disorganised Heʼs our best golfer We keep him out of the office Let me make a suggestion This is what Iʼve decided to do
  23. 23. Listening Habits – UK –
  24. 24. Human Mental Programming – Germany –
  25. 25. National Communication Patterns – Germany –
  26. 26. Listening Habits – Germany –
  27. 27. Human Mental Programming – France –
  28. 28. National Communication Patterns – France –
  29. 29. Listening Habits – France –
  30. 30. Human Mental Programming – Italy –
  31. 31. National Communication Patterns – Italy –
  32. 32. Listening Habits – Italy –
  33. 33. The Protestant/Catholic divide Protestant values –  Honesty, truth, transparency –  Justice, rule of law, discipline –  Freedom of speech, of worship –  Equality for women –  Work ethic (work = success = money) –  Egalitarianism –  Punctuality, neatness, cleanliness –  Tidy public spaces, civil order –  Early Puritanical precepts gradually liberalising and splitting into many sects and credos
  34. 34. The Protestant/Catholic divide Catholic values –  There is only one true church –  Strict dogma and ritual –  Hierarchical society –  Strong leaders, great power distance –  Nepotism in business –  Use of key people rather than officialdom –  Close personal relationships –  Relaxed attitude to time –  Liberal view of sin (confessions) –  Philosophical view of truth
  35. 35. Human Mental Programming – Spain –
  36. 36. National Communication Patterns – Spain –
  37. 37. Listening Habits – Spain –
  38. 38. Human Mental Programming – Netherlands –
  39. 39. National Communication Patterns – Netherlands –
  40. 40. Listening Habits – Netherlands –
  41. 41. Human Mental Programming – Belgium –
  42. 42. National Communication Patterns – Belgium –
  43. 43. Listening Habits – Belgium –
  44. 44. Human Mental Programming – Austria –
  45. 45. National Communication Patterns – Austria –
  46. 46. Listening Habits – Austria –
  47. 47. Human Mental Programming – Poland –
  48. 48. National Communication Patterns – Poland –
  49. 49. Listening Habits – Poland –
  50. 50. Human Mental Programming – Czech Republic –
  51. 51. National Communication Patterns – Czech Republic –
  52. 52. Listening Habits – Czech Republic –
  53. 53. Human Mental Programming – Romania –
  54. 54. National Communication Patterns – Romania –
  55. 55. Listening Habits – Romania –
  56. 56. Human Mental Programming – Bulgaria –
  57. 57. National Communication Patterns – Bulgaria –
  58. 58. Listening Habits – Bulgaria –
  59. 59. How about China?
  60. 60. Human Mental Programming – China –
  61. 61. National Communication Patterns – China –
  62. 62. Listening Habits – China –
  63. 63. Horizons
  64. 64. German – Chinese Horizons
  65. 65. Italian – Chinese Horizons
  66. 66. Chinese – UK Horizons
  67. 67. Leadership Styles
  68. 68. Leadership Styles •  Managers in L/A cultures will: –  Demonstrate and look for technical competence –  Place facts before sentiments, logic before emotion –  Be deal oriented, with a view to immediate achievement and results •  Managers in M/A cultures will: –  Rely on their eloquence and ability to persuade –  Use human force as an inspirational factor –  Complete human transactions emotionally •  Managers in Reactive cultures will: –  Will dominate with knowledge, patience and quiet control –  Display modesty and courtesy –  Create a harmonious atmosphere for teamwork –  Be paternalistic
  69. 69. Leadership style
  70. 70. Leadership style - USA - - UK -
  71. 71. Leadership style – Italy –
  72. 72. Leadership style – Spain –
  73. 73. Leadership style – Netherlands –
  74. 74. Leadership style – Belgium –
  75. 75. Leadership style – Poland –
  76. 76. Leadership style – Czech Republic –
  77. 77. Leadership style – Romania –
  78. 78. Leadership style – Bulgaria –
  79. 79. How About China?
  80. 80. Leadership style – China –
  81. 81. Language of Management
  82. 82. Language of Management – USA –
  83. 83. Language of Management – Germany –
  84. 84. Language of Management – UK –
  85. 85. Language of Management – France –
  86. 86. Language of Management – Italy –
  87. 87. Language of Management – Spain –
  88. 88. Language of Management – Netherlands –
  89. 89. Language of Management – Belgium –
  90. 90. Language of Management – Poland –
  91. 91. Language of Management – Czech Republic –
  92. 92. Language of Management – Romania –
  93. 93. Language of Management – Bulgaria –
  94. 94. How About China?
  95. 95. Language of Management – China –
  96. 96. Motivation
  97. 97. Motivating Factors •  Linear-active –  Money, career challenge, word-deed correlation, punctuality, reliability, result-orientation, speed •  Multi-active –  Words, persuasion, warmth, compassion, feelings, personal approach, development of relationships •  Reactive –  Protection of “face”, building of trust, modesty, patience, respect, courtesy, avoidance of confrontation
  98. 98. Motivating Factors – China Key: Humility, giving face •  Show compassion for Chinese difficulties. It will pay off •  Praise their inventiveness and economic achievements •  Show respect, especially to elders •  Find your “rank” and behave accordingly •  Learn all you can about Guanxi •  Preserve harmony by saving face for everybody on all occasions •  Know and respect Confucian values •  Be careful how you look at the concept of truth, The Chinese do nor believe in absolute, scientific truth
  99. 99. Motivating Factors – China Avoid: •  Showing anger or appearing upset •  Rushing Chinese business partners •  Boasting •  Ignoring anyone brought into your presence •  Rejecting a Chinese proposal out of hand. When you negate someone’s idea, you negate the person •  Discussing the topic of human rights, Taiwan or Tibet
  100. 100. Motivating Factors – Germany Key: Indicating trust, demonstrating solidity •  Germans are generally punctual, organised and efficient. You must match these qualities •  When Germans criticise your actions, it is to help you avoid making mistakes. Accept their criticism as being constructive •  Give serious answers to serious questions •  Be well prepared •  They like consensus •  Say what you mean •  Respect privacy at all times •  Remember to shake hands a lot and use proper greetings on meeting and departing
  101. 101. Motivating Factors – Germany Avoid: •  Displaying too much eccentricity •  Meeting them head on if you see their position is diametrically opposed to yours •  Interrupting unfinished tasks or giving Germans too many tasks simultaneously •  Falling into the trap of oversimplifying. Germans often see Americans and some others as naïve •  Overdoing small talk. Germans like facts, figures, reliable information
  102. 102. Motivating Factors – UK Key: Don’t rock the boat •  Business and making money are serious matters, but one should always try to look casual about it •  One should be competitive, but not tread openly on others’ toes. There are unwritten rules about fair play •  Statements and actions should be low key. Everything should seem to be under control •  Sentiment, emotion and open criticism should be avoided in public •  Be prepared to read between the lines •  Remember that there are many types of Brits
  103. 103. Motivating Factors – UK Avoid: •  Being sentimental, emotional and openly critical in public •  Boasting about your connections •  Talking too much; on the other hand don’t lapse into silence too often •  Looking too serious or always taking things literally •  Pressing them if they become (suddenly) vague; they are probably stalling, so take another route
  104. 104. Motivating Factors – France Key: Sharing visions, praising France •  Speak some French •  Be logical at all times, but show flexibility •  Respect privacy and maintain formality •  Show that you appreciate the French point of view, even if it differs from your own •  In a working relationship, the French are not initially generous, but they will respond quickly to generosity from your side •  Be willing to discuss topics at length •  Be as imaginative and lively as you can
  105. 105. Motivating Factors – France Avoid: •  Expressing strong opinions until you know their position •  Prolonged silences; they do not like them •  American-style, bottom-line focus, quick deals, opportunistic wheeling and dealing •  Sarcasm or irony
  106. 106. Motivating Factors – Italy Key: Share personal details, praise families •  Confide in them as much as you can. Be human at all times •  They may reveal much of their private life to you. Listen sympathetically •  Be prepared, in principle, to grant any personal favour they may ask you •  They must feel that you are part of their in-group and they part of yours •  Strive to be communicative. Contact them often •  Be willing to share Italian conspiracies •  Accept quickly a change of heart or mind on their part
  107. 107. Motivating Factors – Italy Avoid: •  Brusqueness and lack of delicacy •  Insensitive remarks •  Lack of appreciation of Italian thoughtfulness •  Reference to crime, corruption, the Mafia •  Reference to Italy’s proclivity for changing governments
  108. 108. Motivating Factors - Belgium Key : The ability to compromise •  Show a certain amount of conservatism •  Show you know how to achieve solutions through compromise •  Adopt a gradualist approach to problems in general •  Demonstrate intellectual humility •  In most situations resolve things through common sense •  Show flexibility if deadlock threatens •  Be enthusiastic about Europe •  Acknowledge Belgium’s economic achievements in spite of her small size
  109. 109. Motivating Factors – Belgium Avoid : •  Too much dogma •  Criticising the Monarchy •  Direct confrontation •  Discussion of politics (it is complicated) •  Any sign of temper •  Being over-opinionated •  Discussion of religious or language issues
  110. 110. Motivating Factors – Spain Key : Protect Spanish honour and integrity •  Human relations count far more than logic or efficiency •  Always impute the best motives. Unlike Italians, they are touchy about personal honour and nationalism •  Let them speak at length •  Win their loyalty by listening well •  Socialise as energetically (and as late) as possible •  Show some knowledge of Spanish history •  Influence them by personal appeal, not rules, regulations or deadlines •  Remember there are several Spains
  111. 111. Motivating Factors – Spain Avoid: •  Confusing mañana behaviour with laziness •  Allowing any Spaniards to lose face in your presence •  Paying too much personal attention to Spanish ladies. The men are unreasonably jealous! •  Referring to Spanish lack of punctuality, slowness, political or regional instability, violence or general inefficiencies or weaknesses. It is counterproductive
  112. 112. Motivating Factors – Netherlands Key: Respect individual rights •  Show that you are fully aware of (and admire) their incredible achievements •  Speak a little Dutch with them and be humorous. Dutch humour is jocular and earthy rather than witty •  Show some frugality. Dutch people dislike extravagance •  Never waste their time. Dutch people are industrious and you should try to match their diligence and work rate •  Indulge in give-and-take, this gets them going •  Be frank and open about most things. Indulge in give-and-take •  Always show you are punctual, rational, precise and egalitarian •  Be informative, informed and well prepared
  113. 113. Motivating Factors – Netherlands Avoid: •  Wasting their time •  Jokes or strong opinions about religion •  Too much charisma; the Dutch are basically conservative •  Pushy tactics; the Dutch are skeptical
  114. 114. Motivating Factors - Poland Key: Love and help Poland •  Poles will do just about anything for a visitor who clearly demonstrate a love of Poland •  Be courteous at all times •  Get a feeling for Polish romantic nationalism. Support it •  Be humorous and drink with them when you can •  Compliment them on their lavish hospitality •  Enter into eager debate with them, concentrating on positive issues •  In business, Poles are impressed by hard facts, but are also interested in your feelings about them •  Appreciate Polish high standards of education and artistry
  115. 115. Motivating Factors - Poland Avoid: •  Being too direct, especially if there is a negative element involved •  Being too serious about issues •  Any form of bad manners •  Appearing only result-oriented •  Infringing on anyone’s rights •  Risky comments that might be seen as offensive
  116. 116. Motivating Factors – Romania Key: Respect the Romanian “difference” •  Acknowledge Romania’s historical and linguistic position •  Speak a few words of Romanian •  Admire the beauty of their language, scenery, churches and monasteries •  Show you are willing to help them in their difficulties •  Read between the lines to divine their wishes and aspirations •  Elicit information indirectly •  Indulge in small talk and politics, but do not “intervene” •  Accept their lavish hospitality and reciprocate soon •  Understand that business and social life are intertwined
  117. 117. Motivating Factors – Romania Avoid: •  Praising Hungarians and their qualities •  Aggressive questioning •  Brusque behaviour •  Causing anybody to lose face (they are very sensitive) •  Any reference to the country’s backwardness, inefficiency and corruption
  118. 118. Motivating Factors – Bulgaria Key: Praise their potential. Be open and friendly •  Demonstrate your appreciation of Bulgaria’s resilience during half a millennium of Turkish domination, preserving its language and religion •  Show your appreciation of the fact that the Cyrillic alphabet was created by Bulgarians •  Remember that Bulgaria, an ally of Germany, did not allow the Bulgarian Jews to be deported during WW2 •  Recognise that Bulgarians are well educated and well informed •  Listen to their complaint about problems and difficulties, but don’t offer advice or solutions. Demonstrate your confidence that they can sort things out
  119. 119. Motivating Factors – Bulgaria Avoid: •  Comparing them to Serbs and Romanians •  Being too enthusiastic about Turkey •  Talking about communist times, unless you wish to praise their survival skills and the lessons they have learned
  120. 120. Motivating Factors – Czech Key: Be steady, calm and loyal •  Show inventiveness and look for solutions with them •  Discuss things calmly. Be rational but flexible •  Maintain a certain amount of formality; use academic titles with new acquaintances •  Be chivalrous. Shaking hands is important •  Demonstrate tolerance •  Share their love of music and theater •  Enjoy their (original) humour •  Steadiness, morality and loyalty are important
  121. 121. Motivating Factors - Czech Avoid: •  Disrespectful body language or slouching •  Being ostentatious •  Praising Slovaks too much
  122. 122. Golden Rules
  123. 123. Golden Rules for Interacting with Linear-Active People (1) •  Talk and listen in equal proportions •  Do one thing at a time •  Be polite but direct •  Partly conceal feelings •  Use logic and rationality •  Interrupt only rarely •  Stick to facts •  Concentrate on the deal •  Prioritise truth over diplomacy •  Follow rules, regulations, laws •  Speech is for information
  124. 124. Golden Rules for Interacting with Linear-Active People (2) •  Maintain word-deed correlation •  Complete action chain •  Stay results-oriented •  Stick to agenda •  Compromise to achieve deal •  Respect officialdom •  Respect contracts and written word •  Reply quickly to written communication or e-mails •  Restrain body language •  Look for short-term profit •  Be punctual
  125. 125. Golden Rules for Interacting with Multi-Active People (1) •  Let them talk at length •  Reply fully •  Be prepared to do several things at once •  Be prepared for several people talking at once •  Display feelings and emotion •  People and feelings are more important than facts •  Interrupt when you like •  Truth is flexible and situational •  Be diplomatic rather than direct •  Speech is for opinions •  Be gregarious and socialising
  126. 126. Golden Rules for Interacting with Multi-Active People (2) •  Think aloud •  Complete human transactions •  Digress from agenda and explore interesting ideas •  Seek and give favours with key people •  Remain relationship-oriented •  Spoken word is important •  Contracts may often be renegotiated •  Reputation is as important as profit •  Overt body language and tactility •  Accept unpunctuality
  127. 127. Golden Rules for Interacting with Reactive People (1) •  Good listening is important •  Do not interrupt •  Do not confront •  Do not cause anyone to lose face •  Do not disagree openly •  Suggestions, especially criticism, must be indirect •  Be ambiguous, so as to leave options open •  Statements are promises •  Prioritise diplomacy over truth •  Follow rules but interpret them flexibly •  Speech is to promote harmony
  128. 128. Golden Rules for Interacting with Reactive People (2) •  Share as much as you can •  Utilise networks •  Talk slowly •  Do things at appropriate times •  Don’t rush or pressure them •  Observe fixed power distances and hierarchy •  Show exaggerated respect for older people •  Go over things several times •  Face-to-face contact is important •  Work hard at building trust •  Long term profit is preferable •  Be punctual

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