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Phonetics Introduction Stf Edda

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Hanyu Pinyin …

Hanyu Pinyin
A brief Introduction to
Chinese Phonetics

Published in: Education

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  • 1. Hanyu Pinyin A brief Introduction to Chinese Phonetics
  • 2. 音节 Syllables • One syllable is one character wŏ 我 Běi jīng 北 京 Wŏ xuéxí hànyŭ 我 学习 汉语
  • 3. The structure of a syllable 声母: Initial 韵母: Final 声调: Tone 北京 Běi jīng Initial Final Tone B ei ˇ 北 J ing ˉ 京
  • 4. 声母 Initials
  • 5. 韵母 Finals
  • 6. 声调 Tones •− the 1st tone 55 high-level 一声 •∕ the 2nd tone 35 rising 二声 •∨ the 3rd tone 214 rising and 三声 falling •﹨ the 4th tone 51 falling 四声 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
  • 7. 声调 Tones • 网吧——王八 wǎng bā -wángba • 山西——陕西 shānxī --shǎnxī • 打算——大蒜 dǎsuàn --dàsuàn • 狮子——柿子 shīzi --shìzi
  • 8. 辨别四声 • 买 măi —— to buy 卖 mài —— to sell • 妈 mā 麻 má 马 mă 骂 mà • ( mother ) ( hemp ) ( horse ) ( abuse ) • 烟 yān 盐 yán 眼 yăn 燕 yàn • ( cigarette ) ( salt ) ( eye ) ( swallow ) • 一 yī 移 yí 椅 yĭ 义 yì • ( one ) ( to move ) ( chair ) ( meaning )
  • 9. 轻声 Light tone/neutral tone bàba father 爸爸 háizi child 孩子 dōngxi things 东西 huílai come back 回来 chángchang have a taste 尝尝
  • 10. 声调 Tones • 香港 台湾 上海 广州 深圳 宁波 北京 Xiānggǎng Táiwān Shànghǎi Guǎngzhōu Shēnzhèn Níngbō Běijīng • 太原 哈尔滨 天津 厦门 重庆 南京 Tàiyuán Hāěrbīn Tiānjīn Xiàmén Chóngqìng Nánjīng
  • 11. Zero Initials 零声母 • ōu zhōu Europe 欧洲 • ào yùn hùi Olympics 奥运会 games • ài 爱 love , to love
  • 12. -i • zi 孩子 háizi 汉字 hànzì 自己 zìjǐ • ci 生词 shēng cí 一次 yícì 辞职 cízhí • si 四次 sì cì 公司 gōngsī 自私 zìsī • zhi 一直 yìzhí 果汁 guǒzhī 报纸 bàozhǐ • chi 吃饭 chīfàn 迟到 chídào 游泳池 yóuyǒngchí • shi 老师 lǎoshī 三十 sānshí 小时 xiǎoshí
  • 13. the changes of 3rd tone ( 3rd tone 2nd tone) • ∨+ ∨= ∕+ ∨ hello nĭhăo ( níhăo ) 你好 shuĭguǒ ( shuíguǒ ) fruit 水果 very good hĕnhăo ( hénhăo ) 很好
  • 14. the changes of 3rd tone (3rd tone half 3rd tone) • ∨+ − 、 ∕ 、 ﹨、○ = ∨ + − 、 ∕ 、 ﹨、○ Notes : Half third tone is different with fourth tone. It begins lower. 好吃 taste good hǎochī 5 好人 good man hǎorén 4 好看 look good hǎokàn 3 2 喜欢 to like xǐhuan 1
  • 15. Changes of tone of “ 一” • the changes of the tone of yī “ 一” 一样 the same yīyàng —— yíyàng 一次( do sth ) for one time yī cì—— yícì 一起 together yīqǐ ——yìqǐ 一年 one year yīnián —— yìnián
  • 16. Changes of tone of “ 不” • the changes of the tone of bù “ 不” 不去 not go búqù bù —— bú 不错 fairly good búcuò bù —— bú 不客气 you are welcome búkèqì bù —— bú
  • 17. 拼写规则 Spelling conventions • 两拼法: read the initial first, and then combine the initial and the final with the tone as a whole together. • b + ā = bā b + á = bá b + ă = bă b + à = bà • p + āi = pāi p + ái = pái p + ăi = păi p + ài = pài • m + ān= mān m + án = mán m + ăn = măn m + àn = màn • f + āng = fāng f + áng = fáng f + ăng = făng f + àng = fàng
  • 18. 拼写规则 Spelling conventions • 三拼法: if the vowel sound has the middle sound, you may pronounce the Chinese word without any pauses by combining the consonant sound, the middle sound and vowel sound all together. • j + iā = jiā j + iá = jiá j + iă = jiă j + ià = jià • q + iē= qiē q + ié= qié q + iě= qiě q + iè= qiè • x + iān = xiān x + ián = xián • x + iăn = xiăn x + iàn = xiàn • zh + uān = zhuān zh + uán = zhuán • zh + uăn = zhuăn zh + uàn = zhuàn
  • 19. 拼写规则 Spelling conventions • 1. If the beginning of a final is “ i”, and there are no initials in front of it, we should add “y” or change “i” to “y”. • i → yi ia → ya ie → ye iao → yao iou → you • in → yin iou → you ian → yan iang → yang iong → yong
  • 20. Spelling conventions • 2. If the beginning of a final is “u”, and there are no initials in front of it, we should add “w” or change “u” to “w”. • u → wu ua → wa uo → wo uai → wai • uei → wei uen → wen uang → wang ueng → weng
  • 21. Spelling conventions • 3.   If the beginning of a final is “ü”, and there are no initials in front of it, we should add “y” in front of it and rid the two dots above “ü”. • ü → yu üan → yuan ün → yun
  • 22. Spelling conventions • 4.2 If the beginning of a • 4.1 If the “ü” with the final is “ü”, and with the initials like “ n, l”, the initials like “j, q, x”, we two dots cannot be can omit the two dots omitted. above the “ü”. • nü • jü → ju • qü → qu • lü • xü → xu
  • 23. Spelling conventions • 5.1  When we put a initial in front of the final “ iou”, we have to change the final to “iu”. • n + iou → niu • 5.2 When we put a initial in front of the final “ uei”, we have to change the final to “ui”. • k + uei → kui • 5.3 When we put a initial in front of the final “ uen”, we have to change final to “un”. • l + uen → lun
  • 24. Spelling conventions • When the syllables with the beginnings like “ a, o, e” connect with other syllables, we must use the mark ’ to separate them. • 西安 Xī’ān • 天鹅 tiān’é swan • 天安门 Tiān’ānmén • pí’ăo leather 皮袄 coat
  • 25. Congratulations to your first step for Chinese study!