The declaration of independence
The United States of America is probably the most powerful country in the world
nowadays. ...
and so on. The final repeated solemnly declared, that the North American colonies become
"free and independent states" ......
Recognizing the need of joint action led to the convening of 1th Continental Congress,
which lasted from 5 September to 26...
eliminate other remnants of feudalism. Political power passed to the hands of the national
bourgeoisie and planters.
Colon...
should be noted that the delegation of New York did not participate because of lack of
necessary powers.
Committee of five...
The value of the "Declaration" went beyond a single country. It was a sign that feudal
rights can be eliminated. Instead p...
Works cited
Declaration of Independence. 17 May, 2012, <http://www.history.com/topics/declaration-of
independence>
The Dec...
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The declaration of independence

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The declaration of independence

  1. 1. The declaration of independence The United States of America is probably the most powerful country in the world nowadays. However, this current status would be impossible without gaining its independence in 18th century. This work is going to be devoted to the declaration of independence. Of course this document is just a tremendous fact in the country’s history. It has become culmination of its fight for independence and respect for human rights. “When armed conflict between bands of American colonists and British soldiers began in April 1775, the Americans were ostensibly fighting only for their rights as subjects of the British crown. By the following summer, with the Revolutionary War in full swing, the movement for independence from Britain had grown, and delegates of the Continental Congress were faced with a vote on the issue. In mid-June 1776, a five-man committee including Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin was tasked with drafting a formal statement of the colonies' intentions. The Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence--written largely by Jefferson--in Philadelphia on July 4, a date now celebrated as the birth of American independence” (Declaration of Independence). The text of the "Declaration of American Independence" can be divided into three parts. In the first one natural rights of every person are recorded, "all men are created equal," since birth they are endowed with "certain inalienable rights, among them - Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." Along with human rights, right of any nation is also justified. The right to form their own government, 'the responsibility of ensuring and protecting human rights is probably the most important among them. If a government is not able to provide the mentioned rights people can change it. It is even their duty. The second part, which is about two-thirds of the text - is twenty seven specific accusations against the King of England, particularly in abuse of power, violation of laws, creating obstacles to emigration to North America, the increasing exploitation of the colonies
  2. 2. and so on. The final repeated solemnly declared, that the North American colonies become "free and independent states" ... and further stated that newborn country considers themselves free from any obligations to the English crown, which they tear from its political relations and have all rights and powers to declare war and conclude peace, to seek allies to develop foreign trade and generally do everything that independent countries can do. Thus, the "Declaration of American Independence" did not only proclaimed the birth of a new independent state, but declared the new most advanced at that time, ideas and concepts, as well as a wide range of human rights. Later, part of the Declaration of Independence became a part of the United States Constitution, adopted September 17, 1787, and as rightly pointed out by the authors of the fundamental work "The History of the United States", "it was the oldest written constitution, which still operates. Under the U.S. Constitution the country became one of the largest democracies of all time ". In order to understand the role of this document in the country’s history we have to look at the preconditions of the document. UK policy contradicted the objective course of development of colonies and the drafting of a new nation. Metropolitan systematically suppressed the development of colonies, sought to save them as a source of cheap raw materials and market for industrial goods. Elevation of the liberation movement contributed to the politicization of the colonists, creating patriotic organizations, the most popular among them were "Sons of Freedom." A step towards a more active resistance was the "Boston massacre" in 1770. Cohesion forces in the colonies contributed to the "Liaison Committee", which led the transition from the boycott of British goods to acts of resistance. One of these acts was the "Boston Tea Party" in 1773. The British Parliament answered by the adoption of a series of "repressive acts" in 1774.
  3. 3. Recognizing the need of joint action led to the convening of 1th Continental Congress, which lasted from 5 September to 26 October 1774 in Philadelphia and adopted a "Declaration of Rights and Complaints" and suspension of trade relations with Great Britain. The critical situation in the colonies prompted Britain to take decisive action against the rebels. The first blood was shed April 19th, 1775 at Lexington and Concord. It was a start of the famous war for Independence. We are not going to talk about this war, since it is not a task of this paper. We should just say that the Declaration of Independence is the result of the war. The day of adoption of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, is celebrated in the United States as Independence Day. The Declaration was the first official document in which the colonies were called "United States of America". September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia, I Continental Congress was called. Congress sent a letter to the King, where demanded the abolition of laws that violate the interests of the colonies, and declared a boycott of British goods until the complete abolition of discriminatory acts. But as the English Parliament and King George III rejected the demands of Congress, armed conflict between the two parties was inevitable. The foundation for further integration was formed at the II Congress that decided to organize joint military action. Desire to fight until complete separation from the mother country was matured during the war. May 15, 1776 Samuel Adams officially authorized the formation of independent states from England. Constitution of the states expanded democratic rights of the population. Bill of Rights proclaimed freedom of speech, conscience, assembly, personal inviolability, etc. It should be added that the adoption of new constitutions marked a significant step. These documents destroyed privileges of landed aristocracy, forbidden to charge a fixed rent and
  4. 4. eliminate other remnants of feudalism. Political power passed to the hands of the national bourgeoisie and planters. Colonies declared themselves republics, states, and July 1, 1776 the legislative assembly of Virginia adopted the so-called Virgin declaration of rights, which was the first declaration in the history of the American people. This declaration covers all range of ideas, justify separation from England and formation of a democratic republic. The most important thing in the Second Continental Congress was adoption of the Declaration of Independence of the United States. Draft Declaration instructed to prepare a commission of five members of Congress - Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston. However, the power to create a draft Declaration was passed to the hands of Thomas Jefferson, who 17 days (from 11 to 28 June) was working on its text. Project of Jefferson with minor editorial amendments of J. Adams and B. Franklin was given as Congress' Declaration of Representatives of the United States to General Congress June 28. July 19 Congress changed the name of "unanimous Declaration of thirteen united States of America." Discussion of the draft Declaration began in early July and lasted three days. During discussion it was amended an item, which condemned slavery and the slave trade. With A few phrases and words were replaced in the text. Words have been replaced by more acceptable in some cases more accurate and less emotional. The declaration was approved on July 2. In the evening of July 4 Declaration was certified by the signatures of the President of Congress John Hancock and Secretary C. Thomas. From 56 signatures 13 belonged to merchants, 8 – to planters, 28 – to lawyers, and 7 – to the members of different professions. It
  5. 5. should be noted that the delegation of New York did not participate because of lack of necessary powers. Committee of five representatives of the colonies: John Adams (John Adams of Massachusetts), Benjamin Franklin (Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania), Thomas Jefferson (Thomas Jefferson of Virginia), Robert Livingston (Robert R. Livingston of New York) and Roger Sherman (Roger Sherman of Connecticut) was created to write the text of the Declaration. July 19, 1776 Congress ordered that the declaration was "duly rewritten in big letters on parchment under" unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States of America "and signed by all members of Congress." For primary, printed version, approved July 4, calligraphic copy was established. The signing ceremony played on parchment of the Declaration were held August 2, 1776, when after John Hancock have signed another 55 people. John Dickinson, John Jay and RR Livingston refused to sign the Declaration. However, their signatures placed Brakton K. and E. Ratledzh who spoke against it before, and R. Morris, who considered it premature. A number of signatures (T. Makkin, M. Thornton) came much later on August 2. 11 The news about unanimous adoption of the Declaration of all the colonies - the United States reached King George III of Great Britain on September 10. To conclude we would like to say the following. The Declaration of Independence not only explained the reasons which prompted the Americans to separation from the mother country. It was the first ever document that proclaimed the principle of sovereignty as the basis of government. The Declaration was not only the "birth certificate" of the new state, but also recognized monument of American literature.
  6. 6. The value of the "Declaration" went beyond a single country. It was a sign that feudal rights can be eliminated. Instead power of kings - the power of the people, instead of class privileges - equality of rights, instead of the monarchy - republic. To achieve independence, the American people had to long bloody war with Britain. But in 1783 Britain recognized the independence of the United States. During the war years and shortly after the U.S. had ended with the remnants of feudalism, landowners, aristocrats expelled from the country abolished slavery whites and Negroes in Northern states (where there were few) were free. Authorities in the country passed into the hands of the bourgeoisie North and South planters. In the U.S., was a bourgeois revolution - the first American Revolution. But in the southern states remained enslaved blacks, and this led eventually to civil war - the second American Revolution.
  7. 7. Works cited Declaration of Independence. 17 May, 2012, <http://www.history.com/topics/declaration-of independence> The Declaration of Independence. 17 May, 2012, <http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/>

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