Student’s Last Name 1
Organizational Development and Change
Today, there can be no doubt that climate change is real. Its ...
Student’s Last Name 2
local (including municipal) (Partington, 2007, p. 23). Naturally, just like within organizations,
st...
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consider it as a significant problem at all (Oreskes, 2007, pp. 66, 69; Rasmussen, 2012).
Additional...
Student’s Last Name 4
Meanwhile, the US has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless, now it aims at
cutting GHG emis...
Student’s Last Name 5
(Stern Review, 2006 as cited in Partington, 2007, p. 13). Still, it should be remembered, that cuts
...
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able to use the benefits of this approach, society should ensure organizational and financial
suppor...
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However, very often, various participants (also acting at different levels) do not have a
common vis...
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supermarkets (i.e. by offering recycling opportunities), etc. However, governments, as well as
other...
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and communities that are the least responsible for GHG emissions are the most vulnerable to
climate ...
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mitigation actions), project-level carbon credit activities, sector-based market approaches, and
no...
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References
Dreyfus, M., 2011. Facts win over rhetoric on China and climate change, The Sydney Morni...
Student’s Last Name 12
McDermott, M., 2011. 8 in 10 Americans Now Believe Global Warming Is Real – Majority Think
Humans T...
Student’s Last Name 13
Science Daily, 2011. Americans Believe Climate Change Is Occurring, but Disagree On Why.
Available ...
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Organizational development and change

  1. 1. Student’s Last Name 1 Organizational Development and Change Today, there can be no doubt that climate change is real. Its impacts and consequences are becoming more obvious and visible. Floods, hurricanes, and draughts hit different countries and smaller communities causing social and economic disruptions and losses. Therefore, the whole global community should unite its efforts to adapt to and mitigate the problem, while changing its approaches to the organization of various economic and social processes. According to the American Meteorological Society (2003, as cited in Oreskes, 2007, p. 69), as human activities contribute to global warming, “we have a collective responsibility to develop and undertake carefully considered response actions.” However, this is a steep path requiring time, stakeholder consensus, and assorted actions. Global warming influences various aspects of social and economic life, causing changes in agricultural productivity, coastal area damages, disruptions in health and water systems, vulnerability growth, investment and financial markets disruptions, and migration growth. These problems are accompanied by the risk of aggravation of such social problems (which nevertheless, are strongly connected to economy) as hunger, lack of water, and spread of climate sensitive diseases (Koirala and Bhatta, 2010, p. 12). Herewith, climate change can be considered in terms of organizational change and development, where the whole world is a big organization. Climate change management can be viewed as development: it requires the use of new approaches, changes in various processes, and improvement of different global and local systems functioning. Obviously, in order to implement the necessary changes and ensure organizational development (namely, effective global warming mitigation and adaptation), there should be effective leadership, management, and engagement of stakeholder groups of different levels – global, national, regional (i.e. states and provinces), and
  2. 2. Student’s Last Name 2 local (including municipal) (Partington, 2007, p. 23). Naturally, just like within organizations, strategic, tactical, and operational functions and activities should be divided among these groups of participants. For instance, international organizations (as well as national institutions) can determine climate change strategies (or strategic goals and objectives), while regional and local authorities can focus on tactical and operational tasks. However, at the global level, there is no unity regarding climate change strategy and policy, as well as a single coordinating body. There are many international, regional, and national organizations, involving both governmental (i.e. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, UNEP, etc.) and non-governmental institutions (e.g. Greenpeace), but neither of them is likely to impact the whole world and determine strategic objectives for all stakeholders. For instance, the Kyoto Protocol set emission cut goals for developed countries (Annex I countries), while developing countries (already major emitters) were omitted. Such a situation decreases the effectiveness of participants’ actions and global warming response. Also, there is no consensus regarding the strength of climate change impact, its future dynamics, or precise consequences for the whole globe. Therefore, different countries, communities, and organizations perceive the problem differently (recognize or resist it) and assume different response actions (in terms of focus, size, and involvement). For example, although virtually all climate scientists (including the American Geophysical Union or the American Meteorological Society) claim that global temperature is rising, climate is changing, and human activities are a significant cause, not all US citizens recognize climate change and view it as a significant threat. According to January 2012 Rasmussen Energy Update, 64% of Americans believe global warming to be a serious problem (though six years earlier only 56% of them recognized this), including 30% viewing it as a very serious threat, while 33% do not
  3. 3. Student’s Last Name 3 consider it as a significant problem at all (Oreskes, 2007, pp. 66, 69; Rasmussen, 2012). Additionally, 2011 Reuters/Ipsos poll indicates that 83% of US citizens recognize climate change and 71% of them believe that the problem is caused by human activities (at least, to some extent). Also, 71% of Americans claim that climate change should be of medium to very high priority for the President and Congress. Still, such an approach was rejected at the beginning of 2008 economic recession and the majority of Americans chose economic priorities. The same situation is around the world, as people are more concerned with current economic and social issues, rather than strategic ones. Moreover, global warming is viewed differently by the US major parties: 72% of Republicans and 92% of Democrats recognize the problem (Huffington Post, 2011; McDermott, 2011). Herewith, the first believe natural causes to be the main reason for climate change, while the second blame human activities for global warming (Science Daily, 2011). However, though there is no definite and single global strategy regarding climate change, countries strive to address the problem via their own national policies. So, governments should act as managers and leaders and suggest climate change plans and programs involving various tools and approaches to achieve the best results (Partington, 2007, p. 23). The EU member states are believed to be the most active in managing climate change. According to the Kyoto Protocol, the EU committed to cutting its GHG emissions by at least 20% of the 1990 levels by 2020 (though now it suggests increasing this goal to 30% in case other major emitters agree to make and meet their commitments). In order to achieve this goal, the EU encourages renewable energy use, develops energy efficiency mechanisms, supports carbon capture and storage technologies, provides adaptation strategies, and adopts various policies and measures within the European Climate Change Program (European Commission, 2010).
  4. 4. Student’s Last Name 4 Meanwhile, the US has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless, now it aims at cutting GHG emissions, improving energy use effectiveness, and increasing clean energy use (Murphy et al., 2009, p. 22). Partially, such a step is viewed as a way to increase US economic efficiency through the transition to a low carbon economy. In this context, it should be mentioned that during the 2008-2009 recession, the stimulus packages of G20 countries, as well as MDE states (major developing economies), contained environmental steps. The latter involved energy policies, which increase countries’ energy security and independence (Murphy et al., 2009, pp. 18-19) and thus, can benefit them economically. On the other hand, the participation of rapidly developing countries in climate change mitigation is of great importance. The reason is that some of them (namely, China, India, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa, South Korea, and Indonesia) create a growing amount of GHG emissions. By 2050, with the population of around 8 billion (of the total world population of 9.2 billion), these countries are believed to become responsible for most of the global emissions (Murphy et al., 2009, p. 2). Therefore, the MDE countries adopt national climate change plans or programs and take certain steps to tackle the problem. For instance, China included environmental issues in its 12th Five Year Plan and aims at cutting energy consumption and GHG emissions and increasing energy efficiency, alternative energy use, and forestation (Dreyfus, 2011). Meanwhile, Brazil expands hydroelectric power generation and implements the National Ethanol Program (Robinson, 2010). Also, Indonesian climate change plan addresses a variety of issues, i.e. water resources, coastal management, biodiversity and forest management, food security, health, infrastructure, emission sources, and industry and city emission management (Suryanti, 2009). On the whole, ignoring climate change is costly to the global economy, while dealing with the problem can be not as expensive as it may seem and in some cases, even make money
  5. 5. Student’s Last Name 5 (Stern Review, 2006 as cited in Partington, 2007, p. 13). Still, it should be remembered, that cuts in GHG emissions will not be able to stop global warming totally and at once. For instance, the IPCC claims that even if all emissions stopped, the temperature would have risen by 0.6°C in the 21st century due to the slow response of the ocean system. Therefore, climate change adaptation is of great importance (Partington, 2007, p. 20), especially for less developed countries. For example, Nepal provides a broad environmental policy to adapt to climate changes and mitigate their negative impacts. This policy involves the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, establishment of Ministry of Environment as a national authority for Clean Development Mechanism, creation of a Climate Change Network involving Nepalese government, NGOs, academicians, and other agencies, and establishment of Climate Change Council headed by Prime Minister. Also, at the state level, other ministries work to manage the problem, e.g. Ministries of Agriculture, Forests and Soil Conservation, Local Government, Housing and Urban Planning, Health, etc., as well as Department of Hydrology and Meteorology. Additionally, climate change activities in Nepal involve the preparation of the National Adaptation Program of Action, implementation of sectoral environmental programs, scientist and youth involvement (i.e. through youth conferences and university projects), and participation in international and cross-country projects (Koirala and Bhatta, 2010, p. 17). On the whole, sustainability should become the essence of social and economic development and global warming strategies should be incorporated in both national and local plans, budgets, and programs. In this context, local management of climate change issues is crucial, as local authorities are able to influence major emission sources and local climate risks. Herewith, they are closer to people, more flexible and adaptable, more accountable, and less bureaucratic, which increases management efficiency and enables proper control. However, to be
  6. 6. Student’s Last Name 6 able to use the benefits of this approach, society should ensure organizational and financial support at national and international levels (Martins and Ferreira, 2011, p. 6-8). An effective climate change policy should be multilateral and combine activities at governmental and customer (personal) levels. While governments establish industrial emission regulations, customers can consume wisely and save energy and power by increasing the effectiveness of their use. Also, governments should encourage the use of renewable energy sources and innovative technologies increasing energy efficiency. Additionally, they can set regulations and limits for fossil fuel retrieval, processing, and distribution, improve vehicle standards, and encourage the use of lower-emission technologies. Herewith, consumers can drive less, use renewable energy, and choose local food, also supporting organic agriculture and eating less meat. Naturally, governments can encourage lower-impact farming, as well as forest conservation, ecological use of biomass, and effective waste disposal. The latter will ensure that customers reduce, reuse, recycle, and compost various types of waste. Also, green building development requires proper standards and building plans from governments and more attention from customers (in terms of lightning and heating efficacy) (Partington, 2007, p. 19). Meanwhile, youth can get engaged into climate change policy through Adopt-an-MP campaigns (like in Canada and Australia), where young people can “adopt” local Members of Parliament to discuss climate change issues with them. Another option is cooperation between youth organizations (e.g. People and Planet in the UK) and MPs. Also, the use of blogs (i.e. It’s Getting Hot In Here) is good way to engage more participants (Partington, 2007, p. 24). Herewith, the involvement of vast stakeholder groups (including youth) requires inspiration, information sharing, leading and team building, team working and networking, planning and implementing actions, and ensuring continuous impact (Partington, 2007, p. 4).
  7. 7. Student’s Last Name 7 However, very often, various participants (also acting at different levels) do not have a common vision of the global warming problem and its management. Gardner, Dowd, Mason, and Ashworth (2009, p. 16) state that although climate change is viewed as a serious environmental threat, there is a lack of understanding of climate change nature, causes, and consequences among stakeholders. Global warming involves a significant level of uncertainty and its impacts are considered from a distant perspective, rather than local and current viewpoint (immediate impact). On the other hand, the solution of the problem requires the use of a strategic approach (even regarding current and local actions), rather than simply tactical responses. Additionally, the problem is accompanied by substantial skepticism regarding the reality and extensiveness of climate change, as well as proposed responses and their impacts. Finally, some participants may rely on external agencies to take full responsibility for the solution of the climate change problem, while ignoring their own contribution. So, there is a vital need to ensure that different stakeholder groups, including policy makers, governmental and public agencies, NGOs, businesses, local communities, customers, etc., have a common understanding of climate change issues. Therefore, several steps should be taken. First of all, the contextualization of the problem can help different stakeholders to become more aware. For example, practical and locally-relevant information on global warming increases participants’ attention and involvement. Also, knowledge gaps, skepticism, emotional reactions, and differences between participants should be addressed and uncertainty should be acknowledged and managed (preferably through risk management plans) (Gardner, Dowd, Mason, and Ashworth, 2009, pp. 17, 20-21). Additionally, society’s awareness of how everyone can add to the solution of the global warming problem and cutting GHG emissions should be increased. This can be realized not only through media, but also through schools, workplaces,
  8. 8. Student’s Last Name 8 supermarkets (i.e. by offering recycling opportunities), etc. However, governments, as well as other participants (businesses, NGOs, local communities, etc.), should take an active part in this process, as they can create respective infrastructure and provide other necessary conditions. Thus, all stakeholders should have proper knowledge and understanding of the climate change problem and this knowledge should be common and relatively full and objective. This fosters their motivation and engagement and helps to manage participants’ resistance. Still, many people get information on global warming from non-scientific sources and usually, this information presents the views of political or opinion leaders. Consequently, the understanding of the issue can be far from objective (Science Daily, 2011). Therefore, it is very important to ensure stakeholder access to the newest and quality information on the topic. Obviously, various forms of electronic communication (first of all, social media and crowdsourcing) should be used as a powerful means of vast stakeholder engagement and mass collaboration. This online engagement makes communication simpler, cheaper, and more convenient. Thus, it can help to raise participants’ awareness, understand climate change risks and response opportunities, share news and practical examples, and change stakeholder behavior (Westaway, 2011). Also, stakeholders should understand that climate change strategies can be beneficial both in long-term and short-term perspectives. For example, companies managing climate change are able to get a competitive advantage. Herewith, sustainability ratings help them not only to report their progress, but also to benchmark. For instance, the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) involves 3,000 organizations across the world to disclose their strategies on the management of greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, and water usage (Westaway, 2011). Resistance to global warming can be caused not only by the lack of information and understanding, but also by such a problem as climate justice. Countries (e.g. African countries)
  9. 9. Student’s Last Name 9 and communities that are the least responsible for GHG emissions are the most vulnerable to climate change effects (partially due to the lack of the necessary financial, technical, and other recourses). That is why adaptation to climate change requires a strong focus on social (including generation and justice aspects) and vulnerability risk reduction (Partington, 2007, p. 21). Additionally, countries that have relatively low expected damages from climate change and a relatively high cost of response actions are likely to be quite reluctant to take active part in the mitigation of the problem. These countries can be encouraged to participate in managing global warming issues through the use of financial transfers and international public funding, which is aimed at emission sources and markets omitted by other market-based financing tools and encouraging private investment. Another way to stimulate emerging economies to cut their emissions without hindering their growth is to set national and sectoral intensity targets (e.g. regarding emission levels per unit of output). Also, the strengthening of intellectual property rights and removal of trade barriers and barriers to foreign direct investment are believed to be able to stimulate stakeholder engagement (OECD, 2009, p. 7). Meanwhile, Murphy et al. (2009, p. 17) state that developing countries can be involved in climate change management through multilateral agreements, i.e. Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum, Methane to Markets Partnership, International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy, Climate Technology Initiative, etc. These agreements foster knowledge sharing and activity coordination. However, their non- binding nature decreases their effectiveness. Additionally, emerging economies can be encouraged through international R&D technology cooperation, SD-PAMs (sustainable development policies and measures), REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation), NAMAs (nationally appropriate
  10. 10. Student’s Last Name 10 mitigation actions), project-level carbon credit activities, sector-based market approaches, and no-lose or non-binding targets (Murphy et al., 2009, pp. 29-30). From an organizational point of view, in order to engage numerous and various participants and stakeholders, networks should be created (Martins and Ferreira, 2011, p. 9). Additionally, transorganizational development, which is considered to be an effective and useful tool of responding to various threats, including environmental ones, should be used. It relies on decentralized leadership and power, which is very important in the context of global warming management, as it is impossible and ineffective to centralize all the decisions, plans, or activities concerning climate change. Besides, national and local efforts are vital both on their own and in combination. That is why transnational strategies providing high global integration and local responsiveness should be involved. Naturally, the engagement of various countries assumes the use of cross-cultural management to ensure effective collaboration. Additionally, such a form of organizational development as global social change organizations should be used. Being globally-locally linked in structure, they ensure a cross-sectoral and multicultural approach. So, the management of climate change can be viewed as organizational change and development. Being a global, complex, and strategic problem, it requires the involvement of the whole world (including different countries, communities, and organizations), changes in various spheres of social and economic life (including industrial manufacturing, farming, consumption, education, etc.), and the use of a long-term and common vision. Obviously, in order to achieve effective cooperation, the views and actions of different participants should be assorted and special attention should be paid to ensuring proper information sharing and stakeholder engagement. Herewith, climate change management is likely to become a continuous process, as the impacts of global warming will be felt for a long time.
  11. 11. Student’s Last Name 11 References Dreyfus, M., 2011. Facts win over rhetoric on China and climate change, The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: <http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/blogs/the-dreyfus-files/facts- win-over-rhetoric-on-china-and-climate-change-20110401-1cnx6.html> [Accessed 28 Feb. 2012]. European Commission, 2010. What is the EU doing on climate change? Available at: <http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/brief/eu/index_en.htm> [Accessed 29 Feb. 2012]. Gardner, J., Dowd, A.-M., Mason, C., and Ashworth, P., 2009. A framework for stakeholder engagement on climate adaptation. CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship Working paper No. 3. Available at: <http://www.csiro.au/files/files/pph1.pdf> [Accessed 26 Feb. 2012]. Huffington Post, 2011. Climate Change Poll Finds More Americans Now Believe The Globe Is Warming. Available at: <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/09/16/climate-change-poll- american-global-warming_n_966214.html> [Accessed 25 Feb. 2012]. Koirala, M. and Bhatta, R., 2010. Communities Challenging Climate Change. Case studies from Nepal: communities’ understanding and adaptation for climate change. Katmandu: Community Radio Support Center (CRSC)/Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists (NEFEJ). Available at: <http://www.nefej.org/pdf/climate_change_book_final.pdf> [Accessed 24 Feb. 2012]. Martins, R. D’A. and Ferreira, L.C., 2011. Climate Change Policy and Action at the City Level in Brazil: Tales from Two Mega Cities. In: Colorado State University, Colorado Conference on Earth System Governance: Crossing Boundaries and Building Brides. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA 17-20 May 2011. Available at: <http://cc2011.earthsystemgovernance.org/pdf/2011Colora_0318.pdf> [Accessed 28 Feb. 2012].
  12. 12. Student’s Last Name 12 McDermott, M., 2011. 8 in 10 Americans Now Believe Global Warming Is Real – Majority Think Humans To Blame, Too. Available at: <http://www.treehugger.com/climate-change/8-in-10- americans-now-believe-global-warming-is-real-majority-think-humans-to-blame-too.html> [Accessed 24 Feb. 2012]. Murphy, D. et al., 2009. Encouraging Developing Country Participation in a Future Climate Change Regime. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Available at: <http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/developing_country_participation_in_climate.pdf> [Accessed 28 Feb. 2012]. OECD, 2009. Cost-Effective Actions to Tackle Climate Change. OECD Observer. Available at: <http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/1/40/43656443.pdf> [Accessed 26 Feb. 2012]. Oreskes, N., 2007. The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change: How Do We Know We’re Not Wrong? In: J.F.C. DiMento and P. Doughman, ed. 2007. Climate Change: What It Means for Us, Our Children, and Our Grandchildren (American and Comparative Environmental Policy), Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Ch. 4. Available at: <http://www.ametsoc.org/atmospolicy/documents/chapter4.pdf> [Accessed 25 Feb. 2012]. Partington, P.J., 2007. Climate Change. Youth Guide to Action. Toronto: TakingITGlobal. Available at: <http://tig.phpwebhosting.com/guidetoaction/Climate_Guide_to_Action_en.pdf> [Accessed 24 Feb. 2012]. Rasmussen Reports, 2012. Energy Update. 30% Say Global Warming A Very Serious Problem. Available at: <http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/current_events/environ ment_energy/energy_update> [Accessed 25 Feb. 2012]. Robinson, K., 2010. Brazil’s Global Warming Agenda. World Recourses Institute. Available at: <http://www.wri.org/stories/2010/03/brazils-global-warming-agenda> [Accessed 28 Feb. 2012].
  13. 13. Student’s Last Name 13 Science Daily, 2011. Americans Believe Climate Change Is Occurring, but Disagree On Why. Available at: <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110419101239.htm> [Accessed 27 Feb. 2012]. Suryanti, Y., 2009. Indonesia’s National Climate Change Action Plan and MRV. In: 18th Asia Pacific Seminar Architecture of an Effective Future Regime. Hanoi 2-3 March, 2009. Available at: <http://www.climateanddevelopment.org/ap-net/docs/18th_seminar/2- 5_Indonesia_Ms.YuliaSuryanti.pdf> [Accessed 28 Feb. 2012]. Westaway, R., 2009. Climate Change and Business: The Importance of Stakeholder Engagement and Communication. Environmental Leader. Available at: <http://www.environmentalleader.com/2011/01/04/climate-change-and-business-the-importance- of-stakeholder-engagement-and-communication/> [Accessed 26 Feb. 2012].

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