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  • 1. Running head: NUTRITION FOR THE CANCER PATIENT Nutrition for Cancer Patients Name Professor Course Date 1
  • 2. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 2 Abstract Background Nutrition occupies a central position in cancer management, therapy and prevention. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have estimated that, close to 35% of human cancers have close relationship with nutrition. This means that appropriate nutrition can prevent and protect against cancers, and prevent further progression of the cancer. Objective This article aims at availing literature that will contribute to the demonstration of the latest dietary recommendations that have the capabilities of preventing or altering cancer. The paper aims at achieving this by describing how nutrition is affected by cancer and therapy. It also highlights the foods that an individual with cancer should consume or avoid, and the various foods that have detoxifying properties. The paper will also establish foods that aid the body to recuperate and prevent further cancer growth. Methodology The paper will utilize numerous academic resources and sources for the literature. Databases such as NCBI, PubMed and Medline, were used together with medical journals and research articles in the field of cancer and nutrition. Keywords used include cancer, nutrition, cancer and nutrition, effects of nutrition on cancer and effects of cancer on nutrition, and nutrition that can protect, prevent or halt cancer.
  • 3. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 3 Results The selected articles, journals and databases gave varying results on the topic. The literature from the sources was extremely informative and helpful in completing the paper. Each source gave varying degrees of information on aspects of nutrition and cancer. Conclusion The analysis of the sources demonstrated that nutrition has immense roles in cancer. Nutrition occurs in various aspects, but it mainly involves palatable foods. The information collected shows that nutrition can help protect, prevent and halt the progression of cancer.
  • 4. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 4 Introduction In cancer management, diet or nutritional requirement plays an immense role. Nutrition occurs as a crucial aspect for cancer patients during treatment and management. Cancer patients should have knowledge of the appropriate foods to consume as they cope with their situation. This is because nutrition plays an immense role in providing the body with energy, essential elements and support or strength. Appropriate nutrition is required for cancer patients because the treatment and illness may affect the patient’s appetite. Cancer and its treatment have the ability to affect the body’s tolerance to foods and nutrients because it interacts with nutrition immensely. This means that the body requires manageable nutrition during cancer treatment and management. As a result, the patient is required to understand nutritional requirements in cancer, the interaction of nutrition with cancer and the effects of nutrition on cancer (Mokdad, Marks, & Stroup, 2004). This information will help the patient when deciding what to eat, and nutritional selection. As a result of the role of nutrition in cancer, research and studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of certain nutritional elements in cancer. This has resulted to advanced and modern nutritional interventions that can alter or prevent the progression of cancer in the body. In this case, therefore, it is vital to develop an understanding of the nutritional effects during therapy and the nutritional requirements during cancer. It is also significant to have an understanding of foods and nutrients that can detoxify the body and aid in recovery or prevention of cancer.
  • 5. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 5 Methodology This literature review targets at explaining how nutrition is affected by cancer and therapy. The literature review will also address the nutrition that is required by cancer patients and the effects of various nutritional requirements on cancer. Medical journals were reliably used because of their high reliability. Also, medical databases such as PubMed and Medline were used in the study. The conditional keywords were cancer, nutrition and nutritional effects on cancer. The literature review is based on 15 sources. In the process of locating the 15 useful sources, other sources were disregarded because they did not dwell on the topic at hand. The studies incorporated in the evaluation were either conducted in United States or China. Inclusion Criteria Age – above 30 years old Language – must be English. Year of the source- 2000-2012 Type of study: limited to cohort study, case-control study, nonrandomized trials with historical or concurrent controls, time series, cross-sectional studies and case reports. Gender: male and female Subject: humans Sample group size: sample greater than 7 Ethnicity: any
  • 6. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 6 Exclusion Criteria Language – medical journals published in other languages not English. Age – individuals, not in adulthood. Year – before and including articles from 2000 Subject: not humans Sample size: less than 7. Results What Should Be Consumed During Cancer? Flavonoids Have anti-cancer agents Breast, kidney, lung, leukemia Catechins Antioxidant properties Breast, kidney, leukemia, lung, prostate Vitamin C and E Inhibit the growth of cancers Neck, lung, kidney, breast Combination of catechins and Protects against radiation Breast, kidney, lung, flavonoids damage, and inhibits the leukemia progression of the cell cycle during mutations.
  • 7. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT Fibers Have detoxifying effects 7 Colon, rectum, pharynx, oral, breast, stomach cancers Have anti cancer effects, they Colon, rectum, pharynx, up-regulate the immune system Mushrooms oral, breast, stomach cancers Flax seeds Reduce established tumor load Breast, kidney, lung, leukemia, Colon, rectum, pharynx, oral, stomach cancers Binds polycyclic aromatic Colon, rectum, pharynx, hydrocarbons and other toxins Chlorophyll oral, breast, stomach cancers Protective capabilities against Cruciferous vegetables Most of the common cancers Selenium cancers Potent anti-cancer agents Hodgkin’s lymphoma What Should Not Be Consumed During Cancer? Carbohydrates Lead to deregulation of Colorectal cancers
  • 8. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 8 sugars, contribute to hyperinsulinemia Low fibers Lost anti-oxidant capabilities Rectal cancers Red meat Posses heterocyclic amines Colon and colorectal cancers, breast cancers Foods That Help the Body to Detoxify Carrots Provide nourishments to Stomach and spleen cancer blood, eliminate toxins Kelps Aid in defecation Leukemia and arteriosclerosis Edible fungus Clean the gastro intestinal Gastrointestinal cancer tract Expels toxins and accelerate Liver, lungs and stomach metabolism cancer Balsam pear Remove toxins from the body Cervical and breast cancers Leech Promote effective digestion Liver and spleen cancer Cucumber
  • 9. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 9 Foods That Help the Body to Recover From Cancer Proteins Ensure speedy recovery by Most cancers facilitating body repair, stability and recovery Fibers Help the body to deal with Most cancers chemotherapy Cancer Cancer or malignant neoplasm describes diseases that allow unregulated division and growth of cells. During cancer, cells are conferred with an ability to grow and divide uncontrollably. This results to the formation of malignant tumors that continuously invade the body, mostly assuming strategic positions in various organs. Cancers have the ability to multiply to different areas of the body, in distant places from where the neoplasm occurred (Calle, Rodriguez, Walker, & Thun, 2003). This is facilitated by the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is essential to comprehend that not all tumors have cancerous properties or capabilities. This means that some tumors cannot invade neighboring tissues or grow and divide uncontrollably. These tumors cannot also spread to other bodily parts. Medical studies and research identified 20 different cancers that can affect the human body. The determination of the causes of cancer can be a complex process and undertaking. However, different causative agents exist, and they have been identified. Interestingly, foods and
  • 10. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 10 nutrients can also lead to the formation of malignant cells. Cells have the ability of performing metabolism. Therefore, the metabolism of a nutrient to an undesirable product has the capabilities of triggering malignant or benign tumors. For instance, during the metabolism of proteins, incomplete metabolism may occur, leading to the formation of an undesired amino acid (Hursting, Lavigne, Berrigan, & Perkins, 2003). Amino acids are vital components of the DNA, and the incorporation of the amino acid into the DNA, could confer the cell with cancerous properties. Other elements or factors that can lead to cancer include tobacco, certain infections and radiations, obesity, environmental pollutants and inadequate physical exercise. These elements can combine with genetic faults present in the gene or damage the gene leading to cancer. Studies have also shown that close to 10 percent of cancers can be entirely hereditary. Cancers can be detected in different ways, including the presence of symptoms and signs, medical imaging or screening tests. The detection of a possible cancer is followed by diagnosis using microscopic examinations of the tissue sample suspected to be cancerous. Cancer can be treated or managed by using different interventions such as radiation, chemotherapy, surgery or therapy. The chances of therapy success and surviving the disease vary with the location and cancer type. This also varies with the progression of the disease during the commencement of intervention (Michels, & Ekbom, 2004). Cancer affects individuals of different ages, including children. Interestingly, the risks of developing cancerous tissues increase with the progression of age. This is because of the increased interaction with cancer causing agents as age progresses. In 2010, cancer caused 15% of human deaths globally. These rates are expected to increase with humanity’s progression of age and the mass change in lifestyle.
  • 11. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 11 Therapy is of immense importance in this case because of its interaction with nutrition. Various therapeutic interventions are used in managing cancer. The primary cancer management options include surgery, palliative care, and chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The choice of the applicable option depends on the location, grade and cancer type. This will also depend on the health and welfare of the patient, in addition to the patient’s wishes. Surgery has been used as a primary cancer management and treatment option. This option has been applied in, isolated cancers, and it plays an immense role in prolongation or palliation of survival. Surgery occurs as a definitive diagnosis, which requires the staging of the tumor (Augustin, Gallus, Bosetti, & Jenkins, 2003). Localized surgery attempts to remove the cancer together with the lymph nodes. Chemotherapy is a useful option in therapy, and it can be combined with surgery to increase its effectiveness. Chemotherapy is effective or useful in different cancers including testicular, breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. It is also effective in lung and ovarian cancers therapy. Chemotherapy is based on different single or combinations of drugs that can halt or treat the cancer. The effectiveness of this intervention depends on the toxicity of the chemical agent to other tissues. Radiation as a treatment option for cancer involves the use of ionizing radiation in improving or treating cancer. The radiation used in cancer treatment can be from internal or external sources. Radiation can be used in combination with chemotherapy or surgery in some instances, but in neck or head cancer, it is used alone. Alternative treatments for cancer exist, and they include healthcare systems, products and practices that do not comprise conventional medicine. Complementary medicine refers to substances and methods used with conventional medicines. Alternative medicine is the usage of compounds instead of conventional medicine (Slattery, Boucher, & Potter, 2002). Most alternative and complementary medicines have been tested and studied extensively. Palliative care refers to approaches that target the management of
  • 12. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 12 cancer symptoms. This aim at reducing the emotional, physical and spiritual distress associated with cancer. This approach does not aim at killing or eliminating the cancer cell, but rather, it aims at making the patient feel better. Nutrition in Cancer Nutrition refers to the provision of cells with the necessary materials for progression or life. The provision of the necessary nutrient requirements to the body or cells could alleviate or prevent cancers. Nutrients are obtained from the diet, which is determined by the palatability of the foods. Nutrition for cancer patients is determined by the diet of the cancer patient. Poor diets for cancer patients could lead to dangerous effects and may lead to further injury of the cells. Nutritional deficiency for cancer patients is not desirable because it may lead to further complications such as deficiency diseases, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, osteoporosis and diabetes. A combination of these diseases with cancers could have disastrous effects on the cancer patient. An understanding of nutrition helps in understanding the nutritional consequences and challenges that may affect a cancer patient. Nutritional elements trigger physiological and metabolic responses in the body. This occurs through the ability of the nutrients to trigger the various metabolic pathways present in the body. This results to metabolism and sequences of biochemical pathways that lead to cellular changes (Bostick, Potter, & McKenzie, 2004). It is vital to understand that the body of a cancer patient does not respond to diets and nutrients in a normal fashion. This arises because the cells of cancer patients, especially in affected tissues, respond rapidly to different nutritional situations. These cells require adequate nutrients for their progressive division and growth.
  • 13. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 13 The human body comprises of chemical components in varying degrees. In the presence of a cancer, the chemical components are usually disproportional to that of a normal human. These components include water, carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, nucleic acids and elements such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, zinc and magnesium among others. These components occur in combination and various forms to form hormones, vitamins, hydroxyapatite and phospholipids among others. These components, elements and compounds occur in the body as ingested, digested and absorbed substances that circulate the body to feed or enrich the cells. In cancer, nutritional status and requirements of the body need to consider the state of the body (Frazier, Willett, Colditz, 2004). The chemical composition of the body in the presence of cancer varies significantly, and it could be above or below the required standards. In such a state, the body could either require additional nutrients to manage the deficiency or minimum nutrients to ensure the cancer cells do not receive their nutritional requirement. Nutrients can be grouped into 6 classes, which are fats, proteins, carbohydrates, water, vitamins and minerals. These classes of nutrients can further be grouped into essential or non essential nutrients depending on the body’s requirements and the role of the nutrient in the body. Macronutrients include carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and the micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. The macronutrients avail structural materials to the body and energy. Micronutrients perform support roles in the body (Frazier, Willett, Colditz, 2004). Fibers are required in the body, especially in the presence of cancer for biochemical and mechanical purposes. In the presence of cancers, micronutrients play immense roles in protecting and functioning as antioxidants and detoxifiers. Other micronutrients include phyto-chemicals and
  • 14. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 14 antioxidants. It has been observed that macronutrients contribute significantly to the progression of cancerous cells in the body. Diet and cancer There exists a direct association of diet and nutrition with cancer. Estimates indicate that close to 40% of cancer death could be associated with dietary factors. Close to 85% of cancers are related to environmental factors with 40% of these cancers being related to dietary factors. Numerous dietary recommendations have been proposed that could alter the progression of cancer, prevent cancer development or manage cancer. However, most of these recommendations exist in the absence of scientific evidence. The leading dietary factors for cancer include alcohol and obesity (Michaud, Liu, Willett, 2002). A diet that has low vegetables and fruits, and high in red meat has been implicated in cancer. Studies have shown that the consumption of coffee could lower the risk for liver cancer. Evidence shows that consumption of processed or red meat could increase the risk for breast, pancreatic or colon cancer. This is attributed to the presence of carcinogens in foods prepared at high temperatures. Therefore, dietary or nutritional recommendations for altering, preventing or managing the progression of cancer mainly comprise of fruits, vegetables, fish and whole grains. It has also been recommended that individuals should reduce their intake of animal fat, red meat and refined sugar.
  • 15. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 15 Nutritional Requirements in Cancer Flavonoids Catechins and flavonoids fall in a class of nutrients that confer bitterness in food. Research has shown the two to emerge as probable anticancer agents. These nutrients can be obtained from chocolate, black and green tea, grapes and wine. Catechins have powerful antioxidant properties that enable them to inhibit the growth of cancer. Evidence shows that catechins have immeasurable potentials than vitamins C and E in inhibiting the growth powers of cancers. A combination of catechins and flavonoids has been shown to have an ability of protecting cells from radiation induced damage (Holmes, Liu, Hankinson, 2004). They also inhibit cell cycle progression during mutations. Garlic, onions, leeks and shallots have high amounts of flavonoids. These foods also have quantities of selenium, vitamin C and sulfur compounds, which in combination can increase metabolic removal of carcinogenic chemicals, lowering the potentials of cells to turn cancerous. Reducing Risk Factors Scientific evidence indicates that foods high in fibers have immense potentials of reducing the risks for cancer. Studies have shown that fibers reduce the risk for colon, rectum, breast, pharynx, oral and stomach cancers. Numerous other studies have shown that carotenoids immensely diminish the risk for cancer, especially lung cancer (Fung, Giovannucci, Stampfer, 2003). These studies have shown that the carotenoids have the capabilities for protecting against the cancer even after considering smoking. Vitamin C, found in fruits, especially, citrus fruits and fortified foods, has been shown to provide significant protection against cancer.
  • 16. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 16 Individuals at risk of cancer are advised to consume lean diets because they are believed to lower the risk for cancer. Tomatoes, mushrooms, calcium, saponins, sausage tree and licorice are believed to protect, suppress or prevent some of the cancerous tumors. It is advisable for individuals to eat diets that are rich in vegetables because they have components that can prevent the activation of genes that cause cancers (Fung, Giovannucci, Stampfer, 2003). Research is still ongoing on the efficiency of mushroom and their extracts in cancer treatment. However, clinical trials have indicated significant potentials and beneficial effects of mushrooms on cancers and cancerous cells. Mushrooms Studies on mushrooms have shown them to have anticancer effects. This is linked to their capabilities in up-regulating the body’s immune system. Some of the mushrooms known to have these abilities include Reishi and maitake among others. Research postulates that the compounds and chemical components in medicinal mushrooms carry the capabilities of up-regulating the immune system and conferring the cell with anticancer potentials (Holmes, Liu, Hankinson, 2004). This compounds and chemical components have been identified as a combination of betaglucans and polysaccharides. Beta-glucans have biological response modifying capabilities that activate the body’s immune system. Flax Seeds This seeds provide all the essential nutrients including dietary fibers, lignans and omega fats. The lignans in this seeds can be metabolized to enterodiol and enterolactone in the digestive tract, conferring estrogenic activity. It has been proven that flax seeds are potent sources of
  • 17. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 17 phytoestrogens. Studies have shown that flax seeds have direct effects on cancer (Holmes, Liu, Hankinson, 2004). The Lillian Thompson’s study at the Toronto University showed that flax seeds have the potentials of reducing established tumor load. This ability lies with the lignan fractions of the flax seeds. The lignan fraction of flax seeds contains a compound known as SDG, which has immense capabilities of reducing metastasis. Cruciferous Vegetables These vegetables contain sulforophane, which is a potent anticancer agent. Studies by the Nurses’ Health Study showed that high intake of these vegetables led to 33% lower risk of having non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Broccoli sprouts have high levels of concentrated sulforophane that originates in the seeds of these vegetables (Holmes, Liu, Hankinson, 2004). Prospective studies in China showed that men taking high amounts of these vegetables had 35% reduced risk of developing lung cancer. Selenium This is a mineral element with immense anticancer properties. Extensive studies on this element have shown the element to have potent protective capabilities against most of the cancers. The Arizona Cancer Center in 2010 listed some of the functions and capabilities of selenium in the body. This mineral appears in the active site of most enzymes, which catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions. The presence of this mineral in the active site of these enzymes facilitates antioxidant reactions, which discourages the formation of cancer cells (Holmes, Liu, Hankinson, 2004). A crucial enzyme in the human body, P450 may be induced by selenium to
  • 18. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 18 detoxify the body of some of the carcinogenic molecules. Selenium can be obtained from vegetable sources such as Brazil nuts, legumes and whole grains. Chlorophyll This is a component of green colored plants, which performs light collection functions. This component and its derivatives are extremely efficient in binding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are carcinogenic products from incomplete combustions in the body. These components can also bind heterocyclic amines, aflatoxin and hydrophobic compounds that have extreme cancer forming capabilities. Biochemical studies have shown that chlorophyllcarcinogen complexes are not easily absorbed by the body, and they are easily excreted through feces (Holmes, Liu, Hankinson, 2004). The Qidong University in China is conducting studies on the chemo protective and anti carcinogenic effects of chlorophyll in Qidong, China. This study aims at identifying the abilities of chlorophyll in reducing liver cancer cases resulting from exposure to aflatoxin. Preliminary results from the study have shown that chlorophyll has the capabilities of reducing liver cancer by 55%. This led to suggestions that chlorophyll bound to the cancer inducing aflatoxin, reducing its carcinogenic effects. Foods That Should Be Avoided in Cancer Interestingly, 35% of cancers that affect humans can be prevented or managed through dietary interventions. Nutrient sparse foods including refined flour and concentrated sugar products coupled with obesity contribute to impaired glucose metabolism. People at risk of cancer, or those with cancer should avoid foods high in calories. This has been confirmed in two ways. The first shows the increase of risk factors for cancers or malignancies with obesity and
  • 19. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 19 the second shows the protective nature or eating low calories foods. Studies in 2011 showed that obesity and overweight were responsible for 14% of cancer cases and 16% of cancer deaths in U.S. This was observed in a number of cancer cases including breast, cervical, uterus, ovary and prostate cancer (Giovannucci, Stampfer, Willett, 2010). A 2011 study by the Washington Cancer Center showed that 90,000 of cancer cases and associated deaths could be through the maintenance of normal body weight. Carbohydrates Excessive carbohydrates should be avoided by cancer patients or people hoping to protect against the condition. Refined sugar has high amounts of calories and low nutrients. This has an equivalence of junk foods. Unrefined sugar such as cane juice and honey also has high amounts of energy, and it has a likelihood of having the same effects as refined sugar. Foods such as refined wheat flour lack the bran and wheat germ meaning, 78% of the fiber in these products has been removed together with other elements such as vitamins and minerals, in various proportions. Refined flour and concentrated sugar products comprise a large portion of an American’s diet. Scientific evidence associates high glycemic load and diet with cancer. This association is evident in the consistent increased risk with endometrial, colon, ovarian, digestive tract and colorectal cancers (Giovannucci, Stampfer, Willett, 2010). The Nurse’s Health Study has clearly shown that diabetes has an association with colorectal cancers. Other studies by the association also show that extreme deregulation of glucose metabolism increases the risks for cancer. Therefore, foods that contribute to hyperinsulinemia should be eliminated and avoided in cancer protective or managing diets. These foods include refined flour and sugar products.
  • 20. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 20 Low Fibers Eggs, meat and dairy products, do not have the necessary fiber content. Therefore, diets high in refined grains and animal products have dietary fiber removed during processing (McLaughlin, Schuman, Wacholder, 2004). There is a correlation between fiber intake and rectal cancer, as shown in a study; in California U.S.A. Red Meat This has been implicated in rectal and colon cancer. A Medline Study in 2006 showed the relationship between diets that contain red meat with colorectal and colon cancer (McLaughlin, Schuman, Wacholder, 2004). Recent meta-analysis studies have associated processed and red meat with colorectal cancer. Heterocyclic amines formed in grilled foods and meat have been correlated and associated with breast cancer during a case-control study carried out in U.S. Foods That Can Help the Body to Detoxify During metabolism and biochemical processes, the body comes about numerous toxins. The body also carries out numerous biochemical processes that lead to the production of byproducts, especially the biochemical processes involved in the metabolism of proteins. An accumulation of these toxins in the body leads to toxicity, which could be cancerous to the body (McLaughlin, Schuman, Wacholder, 2004). Therefore, foods are required that could help the body detoxify or eliminate these toxic substances. These foods include cucumbers, carrots, edible fungus, leech, mung beans, mushrooms, pig blood, balsam pear and honey.
  • 21. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 21 Carrots have an ability of effectively providing nourishment to the blood, eliminating toxins. They also have an ability of improving the functions of the spleen, and protecting the stomach. Carrots contain immense carotene, pectin and vitamin A. The pectin and vitamins in carrots effectively combine with mercury, decreasing the potency of the ions to cause cancerous cells. This also decreases the density of mercury ions and helps the body to eliminate the ions. Foods such as kelp can help the body to effectively eliminate toxins and alleviate inflammations and toxins associated with body inflammations. Kelp also improves the defecation processes, which are immensely required for the body to facilitate detoxification. A malfunctioning defecation or excretory system means there is an accumulation of bodily by-products and toxins. Kelp contains abundant carotenes, coarse fibers, calcium, vitamins and iodine. The iodine in kelp is particularly effective in decreasing blood pressure facilitating filtration of toxic substances from the blood through the blood vessels (Kato, Shore, Riboli, 2003). This prevents against arteriosclerosis and leukemia. Middle aged men are advised to eat kelps to improve the functionality of kidneys and prostates. This has the potential of decreasing the risk for the two cancers; kidney and prostate cancer. Edible funguses have immense capabilities of clearing toxins. They clean the intestines, stomach and function in enabling thrombosis. The pectin in edible fungus has the capabilities of collecting digestive by-products from the digestive tract, and removing them from the body. Cucumber effectively clears excessive metabolism heat, which could accelerate or cause cancer. Cucumbers also have the ability to expel toxins and accelerate metabolism. They also improve the functions of essential organs such as the stomach, liver, heart and lungs. Cucumber contains high amounts of vitamin C, which can detoxify the body of skin cancer causing agents. Balsam
  • 22. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 22 pears effectively remove toxins from the body through the functions of an active protein that has cancer resisting properties. Balsam pears expel toxins and activate the immune system (Levi, Lucchini, & Franceschi, 2004). Women are advised to increase their consumption of balsam pears in order to improve menstruation, removing toxins. Leech protects the liver and spleen and increases their function. These promote effective digestion, which is crucial to detoxification. Leech has the capabilities of improving liver functions, nourishing kidneys and accelerating the production of cells in the body. These are essential aspects of detoxification because these organs and cells perform crucial roles during detoxification. Coagulated pig blood ideally eliminates toxins through its function of cleaning intestines and nourishing blood. The plasma proteins in pig blood undergo decomposition by gastric juices, producing solvents for numerous toxins. Mung beans have high levels of enzymes, amino acids and calcium that effectively discharge toxins and accelerate metabolism. Mushrooms also contain enzymes and amino acids that have potency against cancer causing toxins (Kato, Shore, Riboli, 2003). These are helpful in restraining tumors and purifying the blood of toxins. Foods That Can Aid the Body to Recover From Cancer An individual with cancer needs to eat plenty of proteins to ensure speedy recovery. Proteins perform crucial roles in ensuring body repair, recovery and stability. They help the body to repair tissues and regulates against unwanted weight loss. Proteins are extremely essential during therapy because they help the body cells to recover from the adverse effects of therapy. Cancer patients also require fibers in high amounts. Fibers help the body to deal with the effects
  • 23. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 23 of chemotherapy. The cancer patient should focus on anti-inflammatory foods such as fish and omega-3 fats. These foods ensure that the body copes with the inflammatory effects of the cancer or therapy (Kato, Shore, Riboli, 2003). The patient should also increase portions of elements such as magnesium, calcium and vitamin D. Foods that prevent further growth of cancer include boy Choy, which is a Chinese cabbage. This contains brassinin, which is a powerful cancer fighting agent. Brassinin can also be obtained from broccoli, Brussels and cauliflower. The boy Choy should be eaten thrice a week to ensure maximum benefit. Cooked tomatoes also have cancer fighting properties. They contain lycopene, which is changed upon cooking to a compound that is readily available to the body cells. Flounder is a fish that has high levels of omega-3 fats and low levels of mercury. Omega 3 has capabilities of reducing further metastasis of the cancer cells. Strawberries and artichokes also contain cancer fighting molecules (Kato, Shore, Riboli, 2003). They have antioxidants that help in fighting cancers. Conclusion The evidence based assessment showed a high correlation of nutrition with cancer. High calorie nutrients mixed with low fiber contents have been shown to have high probabilities of leading to cancer. However, lean nutrient contents with components in appropriate composition facilitate the prevention or protection against cancers. Patients with cancer should identify their nutritional requirements and follow a nutrient regime that will facilitate protection and prevention against further progression of the disease. According to the evidence, nutrients have
  • 24. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT been identified that can halt the progression of cancer or facilitate recovery from cancer. There are also nutrients that can enable the body carry out detoxification. 24
  • 25. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 25 Reference Augustin, S. Gallus, S. Bosetti, C. & Jenkins, J. (2003). Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load and Ovarian Cancer Risk. Annual Oncology. Vol. 14. Page 78-84. Bostick, M. Potter, D. & McKenzie, R. (2004). Sugar, Meat and Fat Intake and Non-Dietary Risk Factors for Colon Cancer Incidence in Iowa Women. Cancer Causes and Control. Vol. 10. Page 38-52. Calle, E. Rodriguez, C. Walker, K. & Thun, J. (2003). Overweight, Obesity And Mortality From Cancer In A Prospectively Studied Cohort Of U.S Adults. New England Journal Of Medicine. Vol. 348. Page 1625-1638. Frazier, A. Willett, C. Colditz, A. (2004). Adolescent Diet and the Risk of Breast Cancer. Cancer Causes Control. Vol. 15. Page 73-82. Fung, T. Giovannucci, E. Stampfer, J. (2003). Major Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Cancer in Women. American International Medical Journal. Vol. 163. Page 309-314. Giovannucci, E. Stampfer, J. Willett, C. (2010). Intake of Fat, Meat and Fiber In Relation To Risk of Cancer in Men. Cancer Research. Vol. 54. Page 2390-2397. Hursting, D. Lavigne, A. Berrigan, D. & Perkins, N. (2003). Calorie Restriction, Aging and
  • 26. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT 26 Cancer Prevention: Mechanisms of Action and Applicability to Humans. Annual Review of Medicine. Vol. 54. Page 131-152. Holmes, D. Liu, S. Hankinson, E. (2004). Dietary Carbohydrates Fibers and Cancer Risk. American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 159. Page 732-739. Kato, I. Shore, E. Riboli, E. (2003). Prospective Study Of Diet And Female Colorectal Cancer: The New York University Women’s Health Study. Nutrition and Cancer Journal. Vol. 28. Page 276-281. Levi, F. Lucchini, F & Franceschi, S. (2004). Food Groups and Colorectal Cancer Risk. British Journal of Cancer. Vol. 79. Page 1283-1287. Mokdad, H. Marks, J. & Stroup, F. (2004). Actual Causes of Deaths in the United States. Journal of American Association Of Medicine. Vol. 291. Page 2146-2148. Michels, B. & Ekbom, A. (2004). Caloric Restriction and Incidence of Breast Cancer. Journal of American Association of Medicine. Vol. 291, Page 1226-1230. Michaud, S. Liu, S. Willett, C. (2002). Dietary Sugar, Glycemic Load and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in a Prospective Study. Journal of National Cancer Institute. Vol. 94. Page 12931300. McLaughlin, K. Schuman, M. Wacholder, S. (2004). Risk Factors for Cancers in a Study among
  • 27. NUTRITION FOR CANCER PATIENT White Men in U.S.A. International Journal of Cancer. Vol. 77. Page 549-553. Slattery, L. Boucher, M. & Potter, D. (2002). Eating Patterns and Risk of Colon Cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 148. Page 4-16. 27