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Total principles


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  • 1. Principles of Art 1. Proportion - relationships of parts to each other and to the whole work. Our sense of proportion in art comes from the human body. Proportions are often normal and expected. They can also be exaggerated and distorted. Sometimes proportions are idealized – more perfect than you might see in nature. Standard – describes a person or object that seems to have appropriate height, width, and depth compared to its surroundings Altered – describes objects or people whose proportions have been changed or altered. Monumental – much larger than life-size Miniature – very small Scale - the relative size of something compared with what you expect. Scale can be created in two ways. a. Realistic Scale – when an artist creates a work of art in which various elements seem to fit together well and they resemble size relations in real life. b. Unrealistic scale – when an artist intentionally makes size relationships that do not resemble real life. Caricature – use of exaggerated proportions usually for humor and satire. Facial Proportions - guidelines used by an artist to correctly place features on the human face. 2. Variety – “the spice of life” It is the use of different elements and interest to a work of art. It works hand in hand with unity to add emphasis and meaning.
  • 2. Principles of Art 2 3. Balance - a principle of art concerned with arranging the elements so that no one part of the work overpowers, or sees heavier than, any other part. a. Formal or symmetrical balance – occurs when equal or very similar elements are place on opposite side of central line called an axis. b. Radial Balance – occurs when the elements of design seem to radiate or come out of a center point. It is often symmetrical. c. Informal or asymmetrical balance - a balance of unlike objects. It is a way of organizing part of a design so that unlike objects have equal visual weight. It is not exactly the same on both sides. 4. Emphasis – making an element or an object in a work stand out. This is the principle artists use to control what you first notice about a work. Emphasis can be achieved in several ways. a. Dominance - making one element the strongest or most important thing in the work b. Focal Point or Center of Interest - this is done by isolating an important element from the space around it. It might be larger or brighter. It could also be created be an arrangement of lines or paths that come together to flow toward one main point in the work. 5. Unity – the quality of seeming whole, complete, or harmonious, a feeling of oneness. The opposite of unity is disunity, a feeling of disorder. -Repetition - In art, unity is often achieved by the repetition of shape, color, or another visual element. -Simplicity - Simplicity is the use of one major color, kind of shape, or element to unify a work. -Harmony – Harmony is related colors, textures, and materials that might be combined. - Theme and Variation - In this case, an artist might organize a work around one major element like a circle, then include variations on the circle – showing it in different sizes and colors, or including some half-circles. - Proximity or Continuity Proximity means that parts are grouped together, enclosed or clustered into sets. Continuity means that edges of forms are lined up so your eye moves from one part to another in a definite order.
  • 3. Principles of Art 3 6. Pattern – a repeated use of lines, shapes, colors, forms, or textures. Artists use pattern to express their ideas and feelings. - Two-dimensional patterns are created by using a motif over and over again. ♣ Motif - one complete unit in a larger design. (shape or simulated form) - Three-dimensional art uses modules. ♣ Module - one complete unit (actual form) All-over pattern - when the motifs or modules are arranged in a regular pattern. 7. Visual Rhythm and Movement – the principle of art that indicates movement through the repetition of elements and objects. There are several types of visual rhythms. a. Regular rhythm - occurs when each motif is repeated with the same amount of space between * * * * * * * * * * b. Alternating rhythm – repeats motifs but changes positions of motifs or adds a second motif * * * * * * $ * $ * $ * * * * * c. Random rhythm - occurs when the motif is repeated in no apparent order * * ** * * *** * ** *** d. Progressive rhythm - a motif that changes each time it is repeated * ** *** **** * * * * * * e. Flowing rhythm - rhythm that repeats wavy lines ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) )