802 Culture Presentation


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  • Aspen Walker LI 802 XC Colorado Cohort IX Expert Group: Barbara Blum, Jacob Browne, Alex Hernandez, Tana Lucero, Anna Lull & Aspen Walker
  • 802 Culture Presentation

    1. 1. . culture .
    2. 2. . definitions & elements . Definition Edward B. Tylor, 1871: “ That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” (Borgata and Montgomery, 2001) Includes: Language, religious beliefs, customs & courtesies, laws, clothing & jewelry, diet, artistic expression, recreation.
    3. 3. . theories & models . Pattern Theory “ The culture from any given society can be formally described… it can be placed in formal categories representing different spheres of social life to facilitate comparison between societies. As such, universal patterns of culture can be constructed.” (Borgata and Montgomery, 2001)
    4. 4. . theories & models . Layers of Culture: Model #1 (O’Neil, 2006) Cultural Universals* Specific Culture/Society Subcultures
    5. 5. . theories & models . <ul><li>Layers of Culture: Model #1 </li></ul><ul><li>(O’Neil, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>*Cultural Universals: </li></ul><ul><li>Recurring Characteristics of Human Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Language, including a specific vocabulary of sounds and grammatical means for constructing sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Age, gender, marriage and kinship are used to categorize people (e.g., teenager, woman, wife, uncle). </li></ul><ul><li>Children are raised in some variation of a family setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual division of labor (men's work, women's work). </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of privacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules and taboos to regulate sexual behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctions between good and bad behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations of body ornamentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Making jokes, playing games. </li></ul><ul><li>Art. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership roles for the implementation of community decisions. </li></ul>
    6. 6. . theories & models . Layers of Culture: Model #2 (Rousseau, 1990) Visible: Artifacts Hidden: Values Hidden: Behavioral Norms & Taboos Hidden: Fundamental Assumptions & Beliefs Visible: Behavioral Patterns
    7. 7. Anderson’s Dimensions of Non-Western & Western Worldviews (Anderson, 1988) . theories & models . * Euro/Americans (primarily males) & Minorities with a High-Degree of Western Acculturation *American Indians, Mexican-Americans, African-Americans, Vietnamese-Americans, Puerto Rican-Americans, Chinese-Americans, Japanese-Americans & many Euro/American Females Analytical Thinking (elements are perceived as separate & distinct from the larger whole/field) Holistic/Relational Thinking (individual elements are perceived as part of a larger whole/field) Believe Western Worldview is Superior Accepts Other Worldviews Religion is Separate from Culture Religion Permeates Culture Time Proved Invariant Structure Time is Relative Values Mastery & Control of Nature Values Harmony with Nature Nuclear Family Extended Family Limited Emotional Expression Emotionally Expressive Task Orientation Social Orientation Individual/Competition Cooperation/Group Achievement Western* Non-Western*
    8. 8. Intercultural Communications: Edward T. Hall’s Cultural Factors (Hall, 1971) . theories & models . Product over Process Process over Product Process or Product? Highly Organized; Scheduling Open & Flexible Flexibility of Time Low Commitment to Long-Term Relationships; Work Trumps Relationship   High Commitment to Long-Term Relationships: Relationship Trumps Work Commitment: Relationship or Work? Fragile Bonds; Little Sense of Loyalty Strong People Bonds; Affiliation to Family & Community People Bonds Flexible & Open Group Patterns; Group Loyalties More Likely to Change as Needed Strong Distinction between In-Group & Out-Group ; Strong Sense of Family Groups- Cohesive or Separated? Reactions Tend to be Visible, External & Outward Reactions Tend to be Reserved & Inward Expressing Reaction Focus on Verbal Communication; Body Language Tends to be Secondary Nonverbal Communication; Body Language is Important Verbal or Nonverbal Communication? Outer Locus of Control; Blame Others for Failure Inner Locus of Control; Personal Acceptance for Failure   Control & Failure Attribution Overt & Explicit; Simple & Clear; “ Spell Everything Out” Covert & Implicit; Metaphor; “ Read Between the Lines” Messages- Overt or Covert? American, German, Swiss, Northern-European, English Japanese, African-American, Latino, French, Arab, Mediterranean Who? Low-Context Culture High-Context Culture Factors/Signifiers
    9. 9. <ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>The variations in any given population: </li></ul><ul><li>-Ethnicity -Language </li></ul><ul><li>-Age -Gender </li></ul><ul><li>-Sexual Orientation -Socio-Economic Levels </li></ul><ul><li>-Education -Ideologies & Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>-Physical Differences -Disability </li></ul>. diversity & multiculturalism .
    10. 10. <ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><li>An ideology or philosophy that purposefully </li></ul><ul><li>recognizes & seeks to maintain </li></ul><ul><li>ethnic and cultural diversity. </li></ul>. diversity .
    11. 11. <ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the consumption of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world, especially since the late 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>(New Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>The extension of culture and commerce across traditional national boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li> (World Book Dictionary, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald’s in Italy … Panini in Colorado </li></ul>. globalization .
    12. 12. <ul><li>Globalization’s Effect in Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Cat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlibrary Loan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Professional Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Federation of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& Institutions (AFLA) </li></ul></ul>. globalization .
    13. 13. . cultural identifiers & library adaptations . <ul><li>Types of Cultural Shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Influx of Foreign Language Speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Epidemiological Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Aging Populations </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Youth Population </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Ethnic/Racial Demographics </li></ul>
    14. 14. . cultural identifiers & library adaptations . <ul><li>Tracking Cultural Change </li></ul><ul><li>Census Data </li></ul><ul><li>State & Local Health Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Community Advisory Boards </li></ul><ul><li>Library Comment Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Public Meetings for Community Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>ALA Committee on Diversity </li></ul>
    15. 15. . cultural identifiers & library adaptations . Adaptations to Changing Culture Health Materials Wellness Fairs ESL Programs Minority Staffing Foreign Language Materials Year-Round Storytime Classroom Materials Children’s Group Tours Digitization of Collections Online Services Public Computer Terminals Traditional Information Services
    16. 16. How does a professional execute diagnosis , prescription , treatment & evaluation of the client with culture in mind? (Grover, 1993) . service design & the culture of the individual user .
    17. 17. DIAGNOSIS <ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Language and communication style (oral versus written) </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Tools, skills, and level of technology use </li></ul>. service design & the culture of the individual user .
    18. 18. <ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Use neutral questioning techniques to discover: </li></ul><ul><li>How the person communicates </li></ul><ul><li>How the person learns best (learning style) </li></ul><ul><li>What the person feels are roadblocks or limitations in his or her search </li></ul><ul><li>(Dervin, 1986) </li></ul>. service design & the culture of the individual user .
    19. 19. <ul><li>Prescription </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding culture can help expose the frame of reference or knowledge base of an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>The insight gained helps the information professional identify the knowledge gap of the client </li></ul><ul><li>(Dervin, 1986) </li></ul>. service design & the culture of the individual user .
    20. 20. Treatment <ul><li>Information Customization </li></ul><ul><li>Information can be better </li></ul><ul><li>catered to the individual </li></ul><ul><li>based on cultural background </li></ul><ul><li>Information Repackaging </li></ul><ul><li>The information </li></ul><ul><li>professional can “translate” </li></ul><ul><li>library resources to fit the </li></ul><ul><li>preexisting knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>of the client </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, the information </li></ul><ul><li>professional may learn to: </li></ul><ul><li>Associate patterns of social networking within various cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize styles of knowledge seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Know when to intervene (mediate) depending upon various cultural attitudes and approaches to learning </li></ul>. service design & the culture of the individual user .
    21. 21. <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and individual behavior can come into play as an information professional attempts to find out how well the knowledge gap has been filled. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the communication skills gained in the diagnosis phase to assist in evaluation as well. </li></ul>. service design & the culture of the individual user .
    22. 22. . l ibrary roles & culture . <ul><li>Culture: An Information Professional’s Role </li></ul><ul><li>Authority on culture: classic or current, global or subculture </li></ul><ul><li>Protect and preserve </li></ul><ul><li>Old Paradigm: disseminator of culture </li></ul><ul><li>New Paradigm: diffuser of culture </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>New Laws of Librarianship: </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries serve humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Use technology intelligently to enhance service. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect free access to knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Honor the past & create the future. </li></ul><ul><li>( American Libraries , 1995) </li></ul>. l ibrary roles & culture .
    24. 24. . culture .