CHAPTER ONE (1)           INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION                 TECHNOLOGY (IT)09/27/12              STID 1103      ...
Learning Objectives After      completing this chapter you will be able to:-  – Describe the evolution of Information Tec...
Chapter Outline   Introduction    – IT & ICT   Computer   Hardware   Software     – Application     – Operating System...
What is IT? Information  Technology (IT) is "the study,  design, development, implementation,  support or management of i...
What is ICT? Information Communications Technology (ICT)  covers any product that will store, retrieve,  manipulate, tran...
The Importance of IT/ICT   essential ingredient in managing business    processes of most organizations   reduction in a...
IT Components Process Application         (software) Hardware           that is used to get, create, arrange,          ...
Process The   ability to translate the information  needs, to analyze and present the  information and the ability to ana...
Application (Software) Software         can be categorized into:     – Curricular software           • it is designed to ...
Hardware The  physical components of a  computer system Includes all types of technology  hardware including computers, ...
Telecommunication devices Wireless Phone Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Walkie Talkie Pager Fax machine Video Conf...
Example of TelecommunicationDevices                         CELULAR PHONEPAGER09/27/12     STID 1103                   12
Example of TelecommunicationDevices           PDA               WALKIE TALKIE09/27/12         STID 1103               13
Example of TelecommunicationDevices           FAX MACHINE09/27/12     STID 1103         14
Example of TelecommunicationDevices            Computer09/27/12     STID 1103         15
Computer An  electronic device or a  programmable machine that receives  inputs, stores and manipulates data  (retrieves ...
Computer                       Monitor                           Central Processing                           Unit (CPU)  ...
Types of Computer Analog     – Process physical data. Example:       Temperature, air pressure, electrical Digital     –...
Components of Computer Central Processing Unit (CPU) Storage Input Devices Output Devices Communication Devices09/27/...
Central Processing Unit (CPU)   CPU or the processor is the portion of a    computer system that carries out the instruct...
Storage   A data storage device often called memory is a    device for recording (storing) information (data).   Primary...
Input Devices   Any peripheral (piece of computer hardware    equipment) used to provide data and control signals    to a...
Output Devices Any    piece of computer hardware equipment    used to communicate the results of data    processing carri...
Communication Devices Communication     is a process of  transferring information from one entity  to another. Provide c...
Categories of ComputersSupercomputerMainframeMidrange  (Minicomputers)MicrocomputersWorkstation09/27/12       STID 11...
Supercomputer Highly  sophisticated and powerful computer  that can perform very complex computations  extremely rapidly....
Mainframe Largest category of computer, used for major  business processing. Intended to service multiple users Capable...
Midrange (Minicomputers) A class of computer systems which fall in between  mainframe computers and microcomputers. Capa...
MicrocomputersA  computer with a microprocessor as its  central processing unit Also known as personal computer. Physic...
Workstation   A high-end microcomputer designed for technical or    scientific applications.   Intended primarily to be ...
Computer Hardware       Monitor  – 14”, 15”, 17” & 21”       Keyboards- 108, 110, 114 keys,       Mouse,       Speaker...
Monitor•A monitor or display (sometimes calleda visual display unit) is an electronicvisual display for computers.•It comp...
Printers   a printer is a peripheral which    produces a hard copy    (permanent readable text    and/or graphics) of doc...
Software Complete    instructions that control, manage  and support operational activities of computer  system. The coll...
User             Application Software               System Software                  Computer                  Hardware   ...
Example of Computer Software System  Software Application Software Programming Languages Firmware Device Drivers Mid...
System SoftwareA  computer software designed to  operate the computer hardware and to  provide and maintain a platform fo...
Operating System   Allows the parts of a computer to work together by    performing tasks like transferring data between ...
Example of Operating System DOS UNIX OS/2 Macintosh Windows 95/98/2000/NT/ME/XP LindowsOS09/27/12       STID 1103   ...
DOS DiskOperating System (DOS) Operating system for older IBM and IBM-  compatible PCs between 1981 and 1995. Advantage...
DOS09/27/12   STID 1103   41
UNIXA  computer operating system originally  developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T  employees at Bell Labs. Operating Sys...
UNIX09/27/12   STID 1103   43
OS/2 Operating  system/2 created by  Microsoft and IBM for IBM PCS that can  take advantage of the 32-bit  microprocessor...
OS/209/27/12   STID 1103   45
Macintosh OS  for Apple Macintosh computer that  support multitasking. The first commercially successful  personal compu...
Macintosh System 1.109/27/12     STID 1103   47
Mac OS 8.009/27/12     STID 1103   48
Mac OS X Jaguar09/27/12    STID 1103   49
Microsoft WindowsA  series of software operating systems  and graphical user interfaces produced  by Microsoft. Windows ...
List of Microsoft Windowsversions   1985 November 20 - Windows 1.01   1986 August - Windows 1.03   1986 May - Windows 1...
List of Microsoft Windowsversions (cont…)   1994 September - Windows NT 3.5   1995 August - Windows 95   1995 June - Wi...
Windows 3.1 Introduced  graphical User Interface for  example Program manager Based on windows- allowing few program in ...
Windows 3.109/27/12      STID 1103   54
Windows 95   Popular in mid 90s, used in personal PCs.   Most of the software is based on windows format   Using storag...
Windows 95 09/27/12    STID 1103   56
Windows 98 32-bit operating system that is closely  integrated with the Internet and that supports  multitasking, multith...
Windows 9809/27/12     STID 1103   58
Windows 2000 32-bitoperating system for PCs,  workstations and network servers. Support multitasking, multiprocessing,  ...
Windows 2000 Pro09/27/12    STID 1103   60
Windows ME Microsoft     Windows ME (Millennium Edition)     – Enhanced Windows Operating System for       consumer users...
Windows ME09/27/12     STID 1103   62
Windows NT Microsoft Windows NT (New    Technology)     – Posses the same ability in UNIX such as       multi-user, multi...
Windows NT 3.109/27/12    STID 1103   64
Windows XP Microsoft    Windows XP (Experience)     – Reliable, robust operating system with       versions for both home...
Windows XP09/27/12     STID 1103   66
LindowsOS Linspire,  previously known as LindowsOS, was a  commercial operating system based on Debian  GNU/Linux and lat...
LindowsOS09/27/12    STID 1103   68
The computer BIOS and device    firmware The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a standard defining a  firmware interfac...
The computer BIOS and devicefirmware (example)09/27/12     STID 1103         70
Utility software Utility software is a kind of system software designed to help analyze,  configure, optimize and maintai...
Computer Language TranslationPrograms   Convert programming languages into machine language.   Programs written in high-...
Application software   Also known as an application, is computer software    designed to help the user to perform singula...
Word Processor   A computer application used for the production and    manipulating (including composition (creating),   ...
Electronic spreadsheet A computer application that simulates a paper, accounting  worksheet, which manipulates lines and ...
Database Consists of an organized collection of related data for one or  more uses, typically in digital form. Shared co...
Graphic PresentationA  computer program that allows users  to compose and edit graphics images  and pictures interactivel...
Programming languages An artificial language designed to express computations  that can be performed by a machine, partic...
Low-level Programminglanguages   A programming language that provides little or no    abstraction from a computers instru...
First Generation Languages The   first-generation programming language, or  1GL also known as Machine Language, is  machi...
Second Generation Languages   2GL, is assembly language, developed in 1950s that resembles    machine language but substi...
High-level Programminglanguages   A programming language with strong abstraction from the    details of the computer.   ...
3rd Generation Language Specify  instructions as brief statements  that are more like natural language than  assembly lan...
4th generation Languages A programming language that can be employed directly by end  user or less skilled programmers to...
Very High-level Programminglanguages A programming language with a very high level of abstraction,  used primarily as a p...
5th Generation LanguagesA  programming language based around  solving problems using constraints  given to the program, r...
Firmware Low-level software often stored on electrically programmable  memory devices. Fixed, usually small programs and...
Device DriversA  device driver or software driver is a computer  program allowing higher-level computer  programs to inte...
Middleware   Computer software that connects software    components or applications.   Controls and co-ordinates distrib...
Middleware09/27/12     STID 1103   90
Testware Software for testing hardware or a  software package. Example use of testware:-     – Web testing, environment ...
IT in Management1.     Latest in cost efficiency- including labor cost,       transportation, communication2.     Incremen...
The Importance of Computer Efficiencyand effectiveness in information  management Business management Education purpose...
The Problems of Computer   Computer crime     – Hackers     – Illegal downloading   Hard to manage     – Computer broke ...
Review   Introduction    – IT & ICT   Computer   Hardware   Software     – Application     – Operating System   Progr...
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  • ~ the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications ~ data – raw facts (numbers, characters, voice, images (unprocessed) ~ Information ~ data that is organized & meaningful
  • ~ an extended synonym for IT ~ stresses the role of communications and the integration of telecommunication (telephone lines and wireless signals), intelligent building management systems and audio-visual systems in modern information technology.
  • Kenyataan-kenyataan berikut adalah antara sebab-sebab kenapa IT sangat penting pada hari ini KECUALI ____________. The following statements are among the reasons why IT is very important nowadays EXCEPT ____________ . A. Menambahkan kos pentadbiran / Increase in administration costs B. Meningkatkan produktiviti pekerja / Improve staff productivity C. Membantu dalam rekabentuk & pengeluaran produk / Assist in the design & manufacture of products D. Mempercepatkan process perniagaan / Speedup business process
  • * EXAM
  • ~ Analog is any continuous signal (a continuous range of values to represent information). ~ Analog device is an apparatus that measures continuous information (TV) ~ A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete (discontinuous) values
  • ~ Storage  is the process of retaining information ~ volatile storage, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information. ~ Non-volatile is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered.
  • ~ A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information.
  • The most important types of system software are: The operating system The computer BIOS and device firmware Utility software Computer Language Translation Programs
  • The most important types of system software are: The operating system The computer BIOS and device firmware Utility software Computer Language Translation Programs
  • The most important types of system software are: The operating system The computer BIOS and device firmware Utility software Computer Language Translation Programs
  • Example of computer software
  • Example of computer software
  • Example of computer software
  • Stid1103 ch1 introduction_to_it_

    1. 1. CHAPTER ONE (1) INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT)09/27/12 STID 1103 1
    2. 2. Learning Objectives After completing this chapter you will be able to:- – Describe the evolution of Information Technology and Communications – Explain the concepts of ICT and IT – Introduce to computer hardware – Introduce to computer software – Discuss the history of Windows Technology 09/27/12 STID 1103 2
    3. 3. Chapter Outline Introduction – IT & ICT Computer Hardware Software – Application – Operating System Programming Languages Windows Technology 09/27/12 STID 1103 3
    4. 4. What is IT? Information Technology (IT) is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of information systems". Information technology is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information.09/27/12 STID 1103 4
    5. 5. What is ICT? Information Communications Technology (ICT) covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. For example, personal computers, digital television, email, robots. ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. It is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other.09/27/12 STID 1103 5
    6. 6. The Importance of IT/ICT essential ingredient in managing business processes of most organizations reduction in administration costs improve staff productivity assist in the design & manufacture of products improve the efficiency of interactions with clients, customers, suppliers & distribution outlets create opportunities for new services, products & business ventures speed, efficiency, effectiveness & competitive advantages09/27/12 STID 1103 6
    7. 7. IT Components Process Application (software) Hardware that is used to get, create, arrange, analyze and present the information in various format including text, image, audio and video.09/27/12 STID 1103 7
    8. 8. Process The ability to translate the information needs, to analyze and present the information and the ability to analyze the process effectiveness. It Includes techniques and activities that involve design, development, implementation and IT management.09/27/12 STID 1103 8
    9. 9. Application (Software) Software can be categorized into: – Curricular software • it is designed to educate students with concepts and skills. The learning objective is determine by the software. – Generic software • Software that is used to achieve various learning objectives. Example: Word processor, databases and multimedia09/27/12 STID 1103 9
    10. 10. Hardware The physical components of a computer system Includes all types of technology hardware including computers, scanner, modem, printers etc.09/27/12 STID 1103 10
    11. 11. Telecommunication devices Wireless Phone Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Walkie Talkie Pager Fax machine Video Conferencing Telegraph Chatting software: Example IRC, Yahoo Messenger09/27/12 STID 1103 11
    12. 12. Example of TelecommunicationDevices CELULAR PHONEPAGER09/27/12 STID 1103 12
    13. 13. Example of TelecommunicationDevices PDA WALKIE TALKIE09/27/12 STID 1103 13
    14. 14. Example of TelecommunicationDevices FAX MACHINE09/27/12 STID 1103 14
    15. 15. Example of TelecommunicationDevices Computer09/27/12 STID 1103 15
    16. 16. Computer An electronic device or a programmable machine that receives inputs, stores and manipulates data (retrieves and processes data), can be programmed with instructions and provides output in a useful format. A computer is composed of hardware and software, and can exist in a variety of sizes and configurations.09/27/12 STID 1103 16
    17. 17. Computer Monitor Central Processing Unit (CPU) Keyboard09/27/12 STID 1103 17
    18. 18. Types of Computer Analog – Process physical data. Example: Temperature, air pressure, electrical Digital – Process data in binary ( 1 and 0) Hybrid – Combination of analog and digital computers09/27/12 STID 1103 18
    19. 19. Components of Computer Central Processing Unit (CPU) Storage Input Devices Output Devices Communication Devices09/27/12 STID 1103 19
    20. 20. Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPU or the processor is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computers functions. Manipulates raw data into a more useful form and controls the other parts of the computer systems. A microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable, clock driven, register based device that takes input and provides output. E.g. Intel Pentium, AMD Athlon, SUN UltraSparc09/27/12 STID 1103 20
    21. 21. Storage A data storage device often called memory is a device for recording (storing) information (data). Primary Storage (main memory, internal memory) – Temporarily stores data and program instructions during processing (volatile storage). Example RAM. Secondary Storage (external memory) – Store data and programs when they are not being used in processing. Example: HardDisk, Floppy Disk, CD, DVD, Tape Drive, ROM, flash memory (USB)09/27/12 STID 1103 21
    22. 22. Input Devices Any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer). Convert data and instructions into electronic form for input into the computer. Example – Pointing devices (mouse, touch screen) – Source data automation (optical character recognition ~ Bar code, magnetic ink character recognition) – Handwriting recognition (pen-based input ~ PDA, laptop mouse pointing) – Keyboard, Scanner, sensor device09/27/12 STID 1103 22 – voice input device (Microphone)
    23. 23. Output Devices Any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world. Convert electronic data produced by the computer system and display them into a form that people can understand. Example:Video Display Terminal (monitors), Printers, plotters, speakers, headphone, earphone.09/27/12 STID 1103 23
    24. 24. Communication Devices Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Provide connections between the computer and communication networks. Example: Modem, Digital Camera, HeadPhone/Telephony (conferencing), radio/TV.09/27/12 STID 1103 24
    25. 25. Categories of ComputersSupercomputerMainframeMidrange (Minicomputers)MicrocomputersWorkstation09/27/12 STID 1103 25
    26. 26. Supercomputer Highly sophisticated and powerful computer that can perform very complex computations extremely rapidly. Most powerful & expensive. Used in scientific and military work, such as classified weapons research and weather forecasting.09/27/12 STID 1103 26
    27. 27. Mainframe Largest category of computer, used for major business processing. Intended to service multiple users Capable of handling and processing very large amounts of data quickly. Used in large institutions such as government, banks and large corporations.09/27/12 STID 1103 27
    28. 28. Midrange (Minicomputers) A class of computer systems which fall in between mainframe computers and microcomputers. Capable of supporting the computing needs of small organizations or of managing networks of other computers such as in Universities, factories and research laboratories as server to manage organization computer network E.g. Digital Equipment Corporation, Hewlett- Packard (HP3000 line), and Sun Microsystems (SPARC Enterprise).09/27/12 STID 1103 28
    29. 29. MicrocomputersA computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit Also known as personal computer. Physically small compared to mainframe and mini. E.g. desktop computers, laptop and notebook computers, tablet PC, palmtop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs).09/27/12 STID 1103 29
    30. 30. Workstation A high-end microcomputer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. Desktop computer with powerful graphics and mathematical capabilities and the ability to perform several complicated at once. Used in scientific, engineering and design work09/27/12 STID 1103 30
    31. 31. Computer Hardware Monitor – 14”, 15”, 17” & 21” Keyboards- 108, 110, 114 keys, Mouse, Speaker, Printer, Scanner, CD Drive, CD Writer Floppy A Drive Joy Stick Plotter09/27/12 STID 1103 31
    32. 32. Monitor•A monitor or display (sometimes calleda visual display unit) is an electronicvisual display for computers.•It comprises the display device,circuitry, and an enclosure.•2 types of Monitor • CRT -Cathode Ray Tube (just like television set •Flat Panel - Using TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display, or plasma display panel (pixel rely on wgas in the cell or plasma)09/27/12 STID 1103 32
    33. 33. Printers a printer is a peripheral which produces a hard copy (permanent readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. o Dot matrix o Ink Jet o Laser Jet o Bubble Jet 09/27/12 STID 1103 33
    34. 34. Software Complete instructions that control, manage and support operational activities of computer system. The collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do. 3 basic functions: a) manage computer system’s data sources b) create platforms & tools to use the data source c) act as the ‘middle-man’ between human and data source storage09/27/12 STID 1103 34
    35. 35. User Application Software System Software Computer Hardware Relationship between User, Application Software, System Software and Computer Hardware09/27/12 STID 1103 35
    36. 36. Example of Computer Software System Software Application Software Programming Languages Firmware Device Drivers Middleware Testware09/27/12 STID 1103 36
    37. 37. System SoftwareA computer software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide and maintain a platform for running application software. The most important types of system software are: – The operating system – The computer BIOS and device firmware – Utility software – Computer Language Translation Programs09/27/12 STID 1103 37
    38. 38. Operating System Allows the parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring data between memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device. It also provides a platform to run high-level system software and application software. Manages and control the computer’s activities Main functions of the operating system – Allocates and assigns system resources – Schedules the use of computer resources and computer job – Monitor computer system activities09/27/12 STID 1103 38
    39. 39. Example of Operating System DOS UNIX OS/2 Macintosh Windows 95/98/2000/NT/ME/XP LindowsOS09/27/12 STID 1103 39
    40. 40. DOS DiskOperating System (DOS) Operating system for older IBM and IBM- compatible PCs between 1981 and 1995. Advantage: – Ease of use ~ user interface (command line interface) Disadvantage: – Do not support multitasking – Limits program use of memory to 640 kilobytes09/27/12 STID 1103 40
    41. 41. DOS09/27/12 STID 1103 41
    42. 42. UNIXA computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs. Operating System for all types of computers, which is machine independent and support multi-user processing, multitasking and networking. widely used in both servers and workstations09/27/12 STID 1103 42
    43. 43. UNIX09/27/12 STID 1103 43
    44. 44. OS/2 Operating system/2 created by Microsoft and IBM for IBM PCS that can take advantage of the 32-bit microprocessor. Support multitasking and networking. Has its own graphical user interface and desktop and server version Require memory intensive applications09/27/12 STID 1103 44
    45. 45. OS/209/27/12 STID 1103 45
    46. 46. Macintosh OS for Apple Macintosh computer that support multitasking. The first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface. Has access to the internet and has powerful graphics and multimedia capabilities.09/27/12 STID 1103 46
    47. 47. Macintosh System 1.109/27/12 STID 1103 47
    48. 48. Mac OS 8.009/27/12 STID 1103 48
    49. 49. Mac OS X Jaguar09/27/12 STID 1103 49
    50. 50. Microsoft WindowsA series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Windows – Operating System to control and manage computer activities Based on graphical user interface – easier to use09/27/12 STID 1103 50
    51. 51. List of Microsoft Windowsversions 1985 November 20 - Windows 1.01 1986 August - Windows 1.03 1986 May - Windows 1.02 1987 April - Windows 1.04 1987 December - Windows 2.03 1988 May - Windows 2.10 1989 March - Windows 2.11 1990 May - Windows 3.0 1992 August - Windows 3.1 1992 October - Windows for Workgroups 3.1 1993 August - Windows NT 3.1 1993 November - Windows for Workgroups 3.11 1993 October - Windows 3.209/27/12 STID 1103 51
    52. 52. List of Microsoft Windowsversions (cont…) 1994 September - Windows NT 3.5 1995 August - Windows 95 1995 June - Windows NT 3.51 1996 July - Windows NT 4.0 1998 June - Windows 98 2000 April - Windows Mobile 2000 February - Windows 2000 2000 June - Windows Me 2001 August - Windows XP 2003 April - Windows Server 2003 2006 November - Windows Vista 2008 February - Windows Server 2008 2009 July - Windows 709/27/12 STID 1103 52
    53. 53. Windows 3.1 Introduced graphical User Interface for example Program manager Based on windows- allowing few program in their own windows. Disadvantages: – Require high memory and storage – Operates only on computers with micro processor 286, 2MB RAM and at least 10MB hardisk.09/27/12 STID 1103 53
    54. 54. Windows 3.109/27/12 STID 1103 54
    55. 55. Windows 95 Popular in mid 90s, used in personal PCs. Most of the software is based on windows format Using storage area of 80 MB, 8MB RAM and micro processor at least 486 DX. Using 32-bit operating system Perform twice better than windows 3.1(16-bit) Support multitasking Support plug and play Better GUI09/27/12 STID 1103 55
    56. 56. Windows 95 09/27/12 STID 1103 56
    57. 57. Windows 98 32-bit operating system that is closely integrated with the Internet and that supports multitasking, multithreading and networking Faster and more integrated compare to windows 95 with support for additional hardware such as MMX, DVD. The most visible features is integration of the OS with Web browser software09/27/12 STID 1103 57
    58. 58. Windows 9809/27/12 STID 1103 58
    59. 59. Windows 2000 32-bitoperating system for PCs, workstations and network servers. Support multitasking, multiprocessing, intensive networking and Internet services for corporate computing.09/27/12 STID 1103 59
    60. 60. Windows 2000 Pro09/27/12 STID 1103 60
    61. 61. Windows ME Microsoft Windows ME (Millennium Edition) – Enhanced Windows Operating System for consumer users featuring tools for working with video, photos, music and home networking. – Improved capabilities for safeguarding critical files.09/27/12 STID 1103 61
    62. 62. Windows ME09/27/12 STID 1103 62
    63. 63. Windows NT Microsoft Windows NT (New Technology) – Posses the same ability in UNIX such as multi-user, multitasking and high security. – Suitable for high technology application, graphic and animation. – Appropriate as server in a network.09/27/12 STID 1103 63
    64. 64. Windows NT 3.109/27/12 STID 1103 64
    65. 65. Windows XP Microsoft Windows XP (Experience) – Reliable, robust operating system with versions for both home and corporate users. – Features support of internet and multimedia and improved networking, security and corporate management capabilities09/27/12 STID 1103 65
    66. 66. Windows XP09/27/12 STID 1103 66
    67. 67. LindowsOS Linspire, previously known as LindowsOS, was a commercial operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux and later Ubuntu. The first "Broadband OS" Built to take full advantage of broadband technology. Designed to fully utilize the world of tomorrow, where Internet connectivity is bountiful and cheap, and computers are ubiquitous.09/27/12 STID 1103 67
    68. 68. LindowsOS09/27/12 STID 1103 68
    69. 69. The computer BIOS and device firmware The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a standard defining a firmware interface. It is built into the PC. Firmware is a term often used to denote the fixed, usually rather small, programs and data structures that internally control various electronic devices. It provides basic functionality to operate and control the hardware connected to or built into the computer. The primary function of the BIOS is to load and start an operating system. When the PC starts up, the first job for the BIOS is to initialize and identify system devices such as the video display card, keyboard and mouse, hard disk, CD/DVD drive and other hardware. The BIOS then locates software held on a peripheral device (designated as a boot device), such as a hard disk or a CD, and loads and executes that software, giving it control of the PC. 09/27/12 STID 1103 69
    70. 70. The computer BIOS and devicefirmware (example)09/27/12 STID 1103 70
    71. 71. Utility software Utility software is a kind of system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain the computer. A single piece of utility software is usually called a utility or tool. Example of utility softwares: – Disk storage utilities ~ manage the storage like HDD, FDD, CD – Disk defragmenters ~ detect computer files whose contents are broken across several locations on the hard disk, and move the fragments to one location to increase efficiency. – Disk partitions ~ divide an individual drive into multiple logical drives – Backup utilities ~ make a copy of all information stored on a disk, and restore either the entire disk or selected files – Disk compression ~ compress/uncompress the contents of a disk, increasing the capacity of the disk. – Anti-virus utilities ~ scan for computer viruses. – Registry cleaners ~ clean and optimize the Windows registry by removing old registry keys that are no longer in use. – Network utilities ~ analyze the computers network connectivity, configure network settings, check data transfer or log events. 09/27/12 STID 1103 71
    72. 72. Computer Language TranslationPrograms Convert programming languages into machine language. Programs written in high-level language such as COBOL, C must be translated into machine language that the computer can execute The program in high-level language before translation is called source code. A compiler translates source code into machine code called object code But some programming language do not use complier, but use an interpreter Interpreter used to translate each source code statement one at a time into machine code during execution and executes it. It is a bit slow to execute since it translated one statement at a time.09/27/12 STID 1103 72
    73. 73. Application software Also known as an application, is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Application software that we will learn in this class – Word Processor (Microsoft Word) – Electronic Spreadsheets (Microsoft Excel) – Database (Microsoft Access) – Graphic presentation – Presentation (Microsoft Power Point)09/27/12 STID 1103 73
    74. 74. Word Processor A computer application used for the production and manipulating (including composition (creating), editing, formatting, deleting, saving and possibly printing) of any sort of printable material (e.g. memo, letters, report, etc.) Advantages (in comparison with type writer) – Save time and efficient to create documents – More flexible in term of deleting, and editing the content Used in – Business – Personal – Education…etc09/27/12 STID 1103 74
    75. 75. Electronic spreadsheet A computer application that simulates a paper, accounting worksheet, which manipulates lines and numbers and to do calculation and is used to create charts, graph and table. It displays multiple cells that together make up a grid consisting of rows and columns, each cell containing alphanumeric text, numeric values or formulas. A formula defines how the content of that cell is to be calculated from the contents of any other cell (or combination of cells) each time any cell is updated. Spreadsheets are frequently used for financial information because of their ability to re-calculate the entire sheet automatically after a change to a single cell is made.09/27/12 STID 1103 75
    76. 76. Database Consists of an organized collection of related data for one or more uses, typically in digital form. Shared collection of logically related data (and a description of this data), designed to meet the information needs of an organization Advantages: – Data consistency – More information from the same amount of data – Sharing of data – Improved data integrity – Improved security – Enforcement of standards – Economy of scale09/27/12 STID 1103 76
    77. 77. Graphic PresentationA computer program that allows users to compose and edit graphics images and pictures interactively on a computer and save them in one of many popular vector graphics formats, such as EPS, PDF, WMF, SVG, or VML . Animation Example: Corel Draw, Photoshop.09/27/12 STID 1103 77
    78. 78. Programming languages An artificial language designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine, to express algorithms precisely, or as a mode of human communication. Many programming languages have some form of written specification of their syntax (form) and semantics (meaning). It can be divided into: – Low-level programming languages – High-level programming languages –09/27/12 Very high-level programming languages STID 1103 78
    79. 79. Low-level Programminglanguages A programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computers instruction set architecture. The word "low" refers to the small or nonexistent amount of abstraction between the language and machine language; because of this, low-level languages are sometimes described as being "close to the hardware." Low-level programming languages are sometimes divided into two categories: – first generation – second generation.09/27/12 STID 1103 79
    80. 80. First Generation Languages The first-generation programming language, or 1GL also known as Machine Language, is machine code. It is the only language a microprocessor can process directly without a previous transformation. Using binary code ( 1 and 0 ) Programming in machine language is very slow, labor-intensive process – Example : 1010 1101 8B54 2408 83FA 007709/27/12 STID 1103 80
    81. 81. Second Generation Languages 2GL, is assembly language, developed in 1950s that resembles machine language but substitutes mnemonics for numeric codes. ( example: load, sum). It is considered a second-generation language because while it is not a microprocessors native language, an assembly language programmer must still understand the microprocessors unique architecture (such as its registers and instructions). These simple instructions are then assembled directly into machine code. The assembly code can also be abstracted to another layer in a similar manner as machine code is abstracted into assembly code. Difficult to read, debug and learn and costly in term of programmers time Example: – mov edx, [esp+8], cmp edx, 0, ja @f, mov eax, 0, ret09/27/12 STID 1103 81
    82. 82. High-level Programminglanguages A programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. It may use natural language elements, be easier to use, or be more portable across platforms. Such languages hide the details of CPU operations such as memory access models and management of scope. It makes the language user-friendly. Can be divided into: – 3rd Generation language – 4th Generation language09/27/12 STID 1103 82
    83. 83. 3rd Generation Language Specify instructions as brief statements that are more like natural language than assembly language. Easier to write and understand in comparison of assembly language. More user friendly Example: FORTRAN, COBOL,BASIC, Pascal Lisp and C09/27/12 STID 1103 83
    84. 84. 4th generation Languages A programming language that can be employed directly by end user or less skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages (nonprocedural or less). Use for the development of commercial business software Seven categories of 4th generation languages – Query languages – Report generators – Graphics languages – Application generators – Very high level programming languages – Application software packages – PC tools E.g. LINC (Logic and Information Network Compiler), Oracle Express 4GL.09/27/12 STID 1103 84
    85. 85. Very High-level Programminglanguages A programming language with a very high level of abstraction, used primarily as a professional programmer productivity tool. Very high-level programming languages are usually limited to a very specific application, purpose, or type of task. For this reason, very high-level programming languages are often referred to as goal-oriented programming languages. Example: 5th Generation Language09/27/12 STID 1103 85
    86. 86. 5th Generation LanguagesA programming language based around solving problems using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer. Used mainly in artificial intelligence research. E.g. Prolog, OPS5 (Official Production System), and Mercury09/27/12 STID 1103 86
    87. 87. Firmware Low-level software often stored on electrically programmable memory devices. Fixed, usually small programs and data structures that internally control various electronic devices. Examples of devices containing firmware range from end-user products such as remote controls or calculators, through computer parts and devices like hard disks, keyboards, TFT screens or memory cards, all the way to scientific instrumentation and industrial robotics. Also more complex consumer devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, synthesizers, etc., contain firmware to enable the devices basic operation as well as implementing higher- level functions.09/27/12 STID 1103 87
    88. 88. Device DriversA device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device. Control parts of computers such as disk drives, printers, CD drives, or computer monitors. Acts as a translator between a hardware device and the applications or operating systems that use it.09/27/12 STID 1103 88
    89. 89. Middleware Computer software that connects software components or applications. Controls and co-ordinates distributed systems which includes web servers, application servers, and similar tools that support application development and delivery. Examples include EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) software, telecommunications software, transaction monitors, and messaging-and-queueing software.09/27/12 STID 1103 89
    90. 90. Middleware09/27/12 STID 1103 90
    91. 91. Testware Software for testing hardware or a software package. Example use of testware:- – Web testing, environment & compatibility testing, performance testing – Functional testing, scalability testing, test automation, load and stress testing09/27/12 STID 1103 91
    92. 92. IT in Management1. Latest in cost efficiency- including labor cost, transportation, communication2. Increment in business performance – virtual marketing and globalization, Sharing of information3. Global marketing- E-commerce, E-business4. Increment in customer satisfaction5. Increment in share market6. Low margin cost7. Increment in quality- products and services09/27/12 STID 1103 92
    93. 93. The Importance of Computer Efficiencyand effectiveness in information management Business management Education purposes Borderless world Military Entertainment Finance and banking Town planning Publication Graphic and animation09/27/12 STID 1103 93
    94. 94. The Problems of Computer Computer crime – Hackers – Illegal downloading Hard to manage – Computer broke down Gap between humans – Less communication among people – Secluded in their rooms Privacy and confidentiality – Personal information can be revealed easily09/27/12 STID 1103 94
    95. 95. Review Introduction – IT & ICT Computer Hardware Software – Application – Operating System Programming Languages Windows Technology 09/27/12 STID 1103 95

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