335 chpt 6 summary

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  • I noticed that /k/ is [-BACK]. Is there a reason for this classification?
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335 chpt 6 summary

  1. 1. Phonology LANE - 335 Chapter 6 (Features) · Features are basically correlates of speech sounds. · Phonology provides concise description of features. · Features distinguish each phonemes from the other phonemes of a given language. · Each speech sound is not single whole, but is rather composed of a number of separate but simultaneous physical events.6.1 Segmental Composition · Natural Class ü Sounds that share in some features. ü No other sounds share them. Example: [p, t, k] constitute a natural class of (voiceless stops) · [t] and [v] do not constitute a natural class. Why? Because they differ in a number of ways such as: (1) The state of vocal cords, (2) The active articulator (tongue blade vs. lower lip) (3) The passive articulator (alveolar ridge vs upper teeth) (4) The distance between the articulators. · Natural classes may consist of any number of sounds, fro two (2), as in [t, d], to many, as in the class of vowels. .6.2 Phonetic vs. phonological features · Binary Features: A feature which has just two values ( + or - ). · Disadvantages of binary features: 1- The majority on natural class can only be defined negatively 2- There is no way of referring to some groups we often need. Such as those consisting of more than one place of articulation 3- It makes possible many combinations of feature values which are not needed by languages or cannot be articulated.Poly – ‫ﺑﻮﻟﯿﻤﺮ‬ Page 1 of 4
  2. 2. Phonology LANE - 335 · Phonological Features: 1- [anterior] ([+anterior] sounds are produced no further back in the oral tract than the alveolar ridge.) 2- [coronal] ([+ coronal] sounds are produced in the area bounded by the teeth and hard palate.) Alveolars Velars Labials Palatal Dentals Uvulars [+ anterior] [p, b, f, v] [- coronal] [+ anterior] [t, d, s, z, θ, ð] [+ coronal] [- anterior] [+ coronal [j, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ] [- anterior] [k, g, x, R] [- coronal]6.3 Charting the feature · One of the goal of linguistics is to determine the universal properties of human language.6.3.1 Major Class Feature 1- Syllabic 2- Consonantal 3- Sonorant 1- [+ / - Syllabic]: to distinguish vowels and other sounds. [+syll]: vowels. [-syll]: other sounds. 2- [+ / - consonantal]: distinguish true consonants from vowels and glides [+ con]: all sound except vowels and glides [- con]: vowel and glides 3- [+ / - sonorant ] distinguish vowels, glides, liquids and nasals form oral stops, affricate and fricatives [+son ] :liquids , nasals [- son] : oral stop + affricates + fricativesPoly – ‫ﺑﻮﻟﯿﻤﺮ‬ Page 2 of 4
  3. 3. Phonology LANE - 335 Speech Sounds Consonant VowelsVoicing Feature Place Feature Manner Feature Vocalic Feature [+ voi] [+ cor] [+ cont] [-voi] [- cor] [- cont] Height Backness Length [High – Low] [Back – Front] Roundness [tense] [+ ant] [+ nas] [- ant] [- nas] [+ hi] [+ back] [+ rnd] [+ tns] [- hi] [- back] [- rnd] [- tns] [+ strid] [- strid] [+ lo] [+ front] [- lo] [- front] [+ lat] [- lat] [+ del rel] [-del rel] Poly – ‫ﺑﻮﻟﯿﻤﺮ‬ Page 3 of 4
  4. 4. Phonology LANE - 335 Very important table Distinctive Features for English Consonants P b f v k g tʃ dʒ ʃ ʒ s z θ ð t d h m n ɳ ɹ l w jSyll - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ -/+ - -Cons + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - -Son - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + +Cor - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + - - + - + + - +Ant + + + + - - - - - - + + + + + + - + + - + + - -Cont - - + + - - - - + + + + + + - - + - - - + + + +Nas - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + + + - - - -Stri - - + + - - + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - - - -Lat - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - -Del rel - - - - - - + + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -High - - - - + + + + + + - - - - - - - - - + - - + +Low - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - -Back - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - -Round - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + -voice - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + + + + + + + Distinctive feature for English Vowels i: i U: u ɔ O: ɒ ɑ: ʌ æ e: ɛ ə ɜ: High + + + + - - - - - - - - - - Low - - - - - - + + + + - - - - Back - - + + + + + + - - - - - - front + + - - - - - - - + + + - - Round - - + + + + + - - - - - - - tense + - + - - + - + - - + - - + Poly – ‫ﺑﻮﻟﯿﻤﺮ‬ Page 4 of 4

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