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Biofuels history and types
 

Biofuels history and types

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  • -Animals-Vegetables-But not Rocks(Layman enough for you?)
  • -Often when we hear the word “biofuels” we think of two words: corn and ethanol-Not that simple. Biofuels come from a multitude of sources, including but not limited to those listed here-Almost every living thing has a potential to be turned into biofuel-Not just ethanol either. Other liquid fuels include forms of diesel and butanol, as well as solid biomass pellets, and what we ironically call “synthetic natural gas”
  • -Most of our renewable sources of energy can only produce one type of energy: electricity-Using these sources for heat and transportation requires a major retooling of engines, furnaces, ect-Biofuels are the only renewable resource we have that has the same applications as fossil fuels-Switching to biofuels on the short term is far less labor and capital intensive
  • -Yet another title slide!-Say “I promise”
  • -It may surprise you, but we were running out of whales to power lamps in the 1850s-First forms of biofuels were Camphene, which was a mixture of alcohol, turpentine, and camphor oil. Cost 50 cents/gallon, compared to whale oil at 1.30 to 2.50/gallon.-In 1862, a “sin tax” on all forms of alcohol was put in place in an attempt to battle the growing debt from the civil war. Camphene wasn’t an intended target, but was effected all the same-Naturally, people found an alternative. Kerosene became the lamp oil of choice.
  • -Farmers and distillers united in 1906 to repeal the alcohol tax with the help of Theodore Roosevelt. This happened just a few years after he broke up Standard Oil-The first combustion engine was built to run on biofuel by Rudolf Diesel. The Model-T, built by Henry Ford Motor Company, could run on both gasoline and alcohol. Alcohol was then considered to be a “superior” fuel to gasoline by many in the industry-At the end of World War I, there was a huge surplus of crops like corn and cotton, which was hurting the rural economy. The Farm Chemurgic movement, founded by William “Billy” Hale, sought to use these crops in industrial applications for both fuel and textiles. They pushed for legislation that required blending alcohol with conventional gas and offering subsidies to oil companies who’d invest in it.
  • -Self explanatory
  • -Usage of biofuels went into remission for a solid 70 years. The oil embargo and concerns for the national security risks involved with using foreign oil-Nixon pushed the “Project Independence” act through congress in 1974 with the stated goal of becoming completely energy independent by 1980. While it was unrealistic, this legislation got the ball rolling, and every administration since has had plans for finding alternatives to foreign oil.-The public was growing conscious of the damage that gasoline was dealing to both public health and the environment. Thomas Midge published several studies which lead to the removal of lead additives to gas. There was also public concern growing about acid rain, would could be attributed to sulfur compounds present in fossil fuels.
  • -Flex-fuel car sales have been steadily increasing. Where only a quarter of a million flex-fuel cars were sold in 2006, the number jumped to 1.8 million cars sold in 2007, which equals about 1.1% of all cars sold.-Our output of ethanol is six times what it was just ten years ago. We’ve also tripled the number of processing plants now in use.-We surpassed Brazil in ethanol production in 2006. However, we aren’t exporting any yet. All ethanol currently produced is still consumed domestically.

Biofuels history and types Biofuels history and types Presentation Transcript

  • Group no. M.Waqas Haider Hassan Naeem Asma Sattar Bukhtawer khusnood 03 1754 1766 1774 0945
  • • Renewable source • A biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation
  • Animal
  • Biofuels come from a variety of sources and in many different forms •Corn •Switch grass •Miscanthus •Algae •Used Cooking Oil •Manure •Whey •Forest Residues •Ethanol •Synthetic •Biodiesel Natural Gas •Biobutanol (SNG) •Biomass Pellets
  • Biofuels have the same variety of applications as fossil fuels Wind, Water, Solar, and other Renewable Sources Biofuels Electricity Electricity, Gas, and Oil for Combustion Engines
  • The origins of Biofuels: An early struggle 1850s-1900s • Camphene • Kerosene
  • 1900s – 1930s • Both gasoline and alcohol • Mechanization • Leaded gasoline as an alternative to alcohol
  • 40 years of expanding infrastructure… 1930s – 1970s •Industry grew at an unprecedented rate • Powered by fossil fuel • Little emphasis was placed on biofuel
  • Foreign oil becomes a liability 1970s –2000s • Negative health and environmental effects associated with gasoline • New Regulations i.e. Clean Air Act, Energy Policy Act, EPACT Act Information from Solomon, B. D., Barnes, J. R., Halverson K. E. (2007). “Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 31(6), 416-425
  • The Great Ethanol “Boom” 2000s-Now • Flex-fuel cars • US is now the world’s leading producer of biofuels Information taken from Automotive News Data Center http://www.autonews.com/section/datacenter And the Renewable Fuels Association Website http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#A
  • How to make biofuels
  • Three categories First generation Biofuel • Made from sugar, starch, and vegetable oil. Second generation Biofuel • Made from non-edible plant materials. Third generation Biofuel • Made from algae and microbes.
  • FIRST Generation BIOFUEL
  • FIRST GENERATION Biodiesel Vegetable Oil Bioalcohols Biogas Syngas
  • Biodiesel • It is mineral acid and chemically known as fatty acid methyl. • Biodiesel is a famous biofuel in Europe • Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic. • Produced from oils or fats using trans- esterification after mixing the biomass with methanol and sodium hydroxide. • methanol and sodium hyrox • Produced after mixing the biomass with methanol and sodium hyroxide • Used for car diesel engi PrProduced after mixing the biomass with methanol and sodium hyroxide
  • Bio-diesel feed stock: Coconut seeds Palm seeds Pond Algae Palm Coconut Rapeseed/ Mustard Sunflower Corn Soybean Peanuts Algae Animal fats Rapeseeds Sunflower seeds Corn Soybean seeds
  • Biodiesel vehicles and pumps
  • BIOALCOHOL
  • Bioalcohols •Biologically produced alcohols, most commonly ethanol, and less commonly propanol and butanol. Synthesis: •Bioalcohols are produced by the action of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of sugars or starches (easiest), or cellulose (which is more difficult).
  • Bioalcohal/ethanol cycle
  • VEGETABLE OIL
  • Vegetable oil • Generally used for cooking purpose. • It is used in several old diesel engines that have indirect injection systems. • Vegetable oil is mainly used for the production of biodiesel.(part of biodiesel cycle)
  • BIOGAS
  • SYNGAS • Gas mixture of CO , CO2 and H i s pr oduced by 2 par t i al com bust i on of bi om ass. • This is a gas that is produce after the combined process of A)gasification B)combustion C)pyrolysis .
  • nd 2 generation biofuels
  • • Known as advanced biofuels • From lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste • Harder to extract • Sustainable • By the remaining non-food parts of crops e.g. stems, leaves and husks
  • Bagasse • Fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane stalks are crushed to extract their juice • Each 10 tons of sugarcane = 3 tones of wet bagasse. • Quantity of bagasse produced = size of sugarcane industry
  • Bagasse cycle
  • Products
  • rd 3 Generation Biofuels
  • Algal Based Biofuels • Use Aquatic microbes • Seawater and freshwater Algae • Have a high lipid (fatty acid) • Some grow rapidly and are more resilient than others • Require warmer temperatures, correct light/sunlight, and sufficient nutrients to grow
  • Production Method
  • Bio Photo Reactors
  • Raceway Ponds
  • Biofuels And C-cycle
  • Energy use and biofuels