* People who litter will have to pay a fine. People littering will have to pay a fine. * My friends who were living in dorms had a very hard time. My friends living in dorms had a very hard time. * People who are given a second chance should be more careful. People given a second chance should be more careful . * After observing these sets of sentences what are the methods of reducing relative clauses do you think? l ittering who litter living who were living given who are given PLEASE OBSERVE:
There are two ways to reduce a relative clause: A) We can reduce the relative clause by omitting the pronoun and the “be” form . FOR EXAMPLE: CLAUSE: The woman who is wearing a red skirt looks beautiful. PHRASE: The woman wearing a red skirt looks beautiful. CLAUSE: The poems which were written by Shakespeare are difficult to understand. PHRASE: The poems written by Shakespeare are difficult to understand. Reducing Adjective Clauses To Adjective Phrases HOW CAN WE CHANGE A RELATIVE CLAUSE TO AN ADJECTIVE PHRASE??? who is wearing wearing which were written written
B) If there is no ‘’be’’ form of a verb in the adjective clause, it is sometimes possible to omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to its “ ing’’ f orm. FOR EXAMPLE: CLAUSE: People who come from a different culture may suffer from ’’culture shock’’. PHRASE: People coming from a different culture may suffer from ‘’culture shock’’. CLAUSE: The girls who expected to see Johnny Depp on the screen felt disappointed when the electricity went off. PHRASE: The girls expecting to see Johnny Depp on the screen felt disappointed when the electricity went off . who come coming who expected expecting
* If an adjective clause that contains ‘’be + a single adjective ‘’ is changed, the adjective is moved to its normal position in front of the noun it modifies. FOR EXAMPLE: CLAUSE: Furniture that is new does not need polishing. INCORRECT PHRASE: Furniture new does not need polishing. CORRECT PHRASE: New furniture does not need polishing. Furniture that is new New furniture BE CAREFUL :
Be careful : Only adjective clauses with ‘ who ’, ‘ which ’ or ‘ that ’ can be reduced to phrases modifying nouns .
1. The man who is swimming in the sea is my uncle. 2. The books that are on the table are mine. 3. Any student who wishes to join the competition should consult with the advisor first. 4. The information which is given in the brochure is wrong . 5. We saw the play that was written by Tom Shepard . REDUCE THE RELATIVE CLAUSES INTO PHRASES