How can we reduce open defecation in rural India?

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Majority of people practicing open defecation in the world are from India. This has very serious implications on health especially the health of children. We believe that the discussion needs to move beyond toilet construction and should start focusing on usage.

How can we reduce open defecation in rural India?

  1. 1. The Ask HOW Analysis How can we enable rural Indians to stop open defecation? Data and Analysis source:
  2. 2. The Ask HOW Analysis HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION? Why Is It Important? Use of toilets by ALL (100%) members of the community is necessary to significantly reduce fecally transmitted diseases. PUBLIC HEALTH
  3. 3. The Ask HOW Analysis Why Is It Important? Sanitation- related diseases are major killers. ŸDiarrhoea - 88% of which is due to poor water and sanitation. ŸDiarrhoea kills more children than HIV/AIDS, malaria and measles combined. Sources: Ÿ Department for International Development, Water Sanitation and Hygiene Evidence Paper, May 2013. Ÿ http://www.cdc.gov/safewater/disease.html Fatalities attributed to sanitation- related diseases outnumber the fatalities caused by Malaria, HIV/AIDS and Measles COMBINED. Most diarrhoea - related deaths are children. > HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION? Malaria Deaths (under 5 years) Diarrhoea Deaths (under 5 years) HIV/AIDS Deaths (under 5 years) Measles Deaths (under 5 years)
  4. 4. The Ask HOW Analysis Why Is It Important? CHILDREN pay the price for the lack of sanitation. Sources: Ÿ http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2012/09/13/almost-5000-indian-children-die-daily/ Ÿ4650 children died every day in India in 2011– for every 1000 children born, 61 are unlikely to make it to their 5th birthday. One of the major reasons for this, is poor sanitation. 3 children die EVERY MINUTE and poor sanitation is one of the reasons. HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION?
  5. 5. The Ask HOW Analysis How Many People Do It? Sources: Ÿ Ÿ Census 2011 Progress on Drinking Water & Sanitation: 2012 Update; UNICEF, WHO - http://www.unicef.org/media/files/JMPreport2012.pdf Out of 10 people who practice open defecation across the world, 6 live in India People defecating in the open in India People defecating in the open in China, Pakistan and Nepal put together >>>>>>>>>9 TIMES THE NUMBER TOILET ELSEWHERE 7 out of 10 Indians living in villages defecate in the open. HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION?
  6. 6. The Ask HOW Analysis Why Do People Defecate In The Open? REASON 1: Not enough toilets have been constructed and where constructed they are not all usable. REASON 2: Even when usable toilets are available, people do not use them. Sources: Ÿ Water and Sanitation Programme, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, A decade after the Total Sanitation Campaign, Rapid Assessment of Processes and Outcomes. Volume 1 HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION?
  7. 7. The Ask HOW Analysis 69% OF INDIANS IN VILLAGES DO NOT HAVE ACCESS TO A TOILET Sources: Ÿ Census 2011 Ÿ Water and Sanitation Programme, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, A decade after the Total Sanitation Campaign, Rapid Assessment of Processes and Outcomes. Volume 1 Ÿ From Outlays to Outcomes, Understanding the Status of Rural Sanitation Data, Avani Kapur, Saamia Ibrahim,Accountability Initiative, Centre for Policy Research (CPR) for the State of Sanitation Project, Arghyam TIME (yrs.) GROWTH IN ACCESS Access has grown by less than 10% in the last 10 years - from 22% in 2001 to 31%in2011. HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION?
  8. 8. The Ask HOW Analysis WHY DO PEOPLE NOT HAVE ACCESS TO TOILETS? Whilesanitationisaprioritytowomen,mendonot recognise its importance. In situations where men are responsible for taking investment decisions, sanitationtakeslesserpriority Sources: Ÿ Sanitation Markets: Using economics to improve the delivery of services along the sanitation value chain Pathfinder paper, 2012 Ÿ Strategic communication for total sanitation campaign; Ÿ Arghyam survey in Davangere district, Karnataka `9100 per family for buillding toilets Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan Scheme Awareness is very low and deliveryoftheschemeispoor HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION?
  9. 9. The Ask HOW Analysis Toilet Construction does not automatically translate into toilet usage. Sources: Ÿ Water and Sanitation Programme, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, A decade after the Total Sanitation Campaign, Rapid Assessment of Processes and Outcomes. Volume 1 Ÿ Strategic communication for total sanitation campaign HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION?
  10. 10. The Ask HOW Analysis Some key reasons for not using toilets include: Sources: Ÿ Gonzalez, Pathways to sustainability in Community Led Total Sanitation. PhD Thesis available at: http://riunet.upv.es/bitstream/handle/10251/31520/Pathways%20to%20sustainability%20in%20community_5653.pdf?sequence=16; Ÿ Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Rural Development, Toward Nirmal Bharat, Rural Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy 2012-2022, published on 4 July 2011 HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION? Poor Quality Construction Poor Water SupplyFear of bringing waste close to home and dealing with it
  11. 11. The Ask HOW Analysis How Do We Ensure Access? ŸFocus on rural men and connecting the image of a responsible man as someone who will build sanitation facilities for the women inhisfamily ŸImprovedeliverymechanism HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION?
  12. 12. The Ask HOW Analysis How Do We Ensure Usage? Build better toilets with more space, light and better ventilation, that would use less water and can be maintained easily. HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION?
  13. 13. The Ask HOW Analysis What Is Needed Now? ŸMonitor usage of toilets and not just theirconstruction. ŸEncourage access and usage in mission modeby: 1) Hiring more people (swachata doots) to implement and training them better to createdemandandsustainusage 2) Designing better toilets - in terms of enhancing user experience and using technologies that don't negatively impactgroundwaterquality. 3) Clearing choke points in the supply chain and enabling smooth flow of money ventilation water supply proper drainage good construction Ÿ improved sanitation Ÿ reduced health problems Ÿ cleaner, hygienic surroundings HOW CAN WE REDUCE OPEN DEFECATION?
  14. 14. How can we persuade people to use toilets already built? How can we construct more and better toilets? for Analysis,pleasefollow “AskHowIndia”on Facebook& Twitter www.AskHowIndia.org m oreAskHow How can we enable rural Indians to stop open defecation? Ask your Lok Sabha candidate:

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