Airports

The Internet of
Important Things
Extreme challenges in connectivity

Air Traffic Management

Space

Telecoms

Ma...
‘Future Internet 2020’ – Example 1
“Maria’s clothes are made of selfcleaning nanofabric but some still
require a washing m...
‘Clothes that can talk to the washing machine’
specification
Parameter
Size

Wearer dependent

Power source

Body heat

Re...
Challenges for connectivity
• How does the machine know
which piece of clothing to
interrogate?
• Who will develop the nec...
‘Future Internet 2020’ – Example 2
“The hotel’s entertainment system
provides suggestions for the next day
based on their ...
‘Biodegradable smart dust’ specification
Parameter
Size

~ 1 mm³

Power source

Solar

Not required to operate
during nigh...
Challenges for connectivity
• Small amounts of data
• Inefficient to use ‘IP’ to package this
• Minimise transmissions to ...
At 8am, the Ski Resort polls the Smart Snow
• Each device relays data it has stored:
•
•
•
•

Temperature: 8 bits
Humidity...
‘Smart Dust’ – that’s silly talk

8
Trivial examples illustrating a greater problem
• The data format used for the ‘Things’ on the internet
will have to be ca...
Current networks are not designed for the IoT
• Networks assume data will grow and grow
• but not necessarily that the siz...
Things are looking up
• Entrepreneurial companies are developing solutions
that don’t take a ‘one size fits all’ approach
...
Don’t forget security
• Millions of consumer devices will
form Internets
• Appliances
• Cars
• Household systems (heating,...
What happens next?
• Flexible data protocols that can serve multiple
purposes
• to assist with interoperability between cl...
Wider challenges
• There are a multitude of additional challenges facing
‘Things’
•
•
•
•
•

Finding and storing power
Mak...
Airports

Air Traffic Management

Thank you for your attention
Richard Womersley
richard.womersley@askhelios.com

Space

T...
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The Internet of Important Things - extreme challenges in connectivity

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Presentation at ISIC Surrey Workshop: "The Internet of Important Things - The challenges of connecting Things together", December 2011
Presenter: Richard Womersley of Helios
richard.womersley@askhelios.com
_______________________________________________________________________
Follow Helios via Linkedin, www.twitter.com/askhelios and www.facebook.com/askhelios

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The Internet of Important Things - extreme challenges in connectivity

  1. 1. Airports The Internet of Important Things Extreme challenges in connectivity Air Traffic Management Space Telecoms Maritime Rail www.askhelios.com
  2. 2. ‘Future Internet 2020’ – Example 1 “Maria’s clothes are made of selfcleaning nanofabric but some still require a washing machine. Maria does not know what setting to use. To find the right washing cycle, the clothes talk to the washing machine, which in turn talks to the clothes manufacturer and the detergent manufacturer” 1 http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/foi/library/docs/epr.pdf
  3. 3. ‘Clothes that can talk to the washing machine’ specification Parameter Size Wearer dependent Power source Body heat Required to communicate when not being worn Information stored Material type, size, manufacturer, age, previous washes, state of nano-repair Only needed when requested Communications range ~30 cm Wireless Communications protocol One to one Useful live Up to 10 years Cost 2 Requirement Notes < £0.05 per item
  4. 4. Challenges for connectivity • How does the machine know which piece of clothing to interrogate? • Who will develop the necessary standards and protocols • Could clothes communicate with each other and with user? • “Don’t go to your left, there’s someone else wearing the same outfit” • Should communication be restricted to clothes – washing machine? 3
  5. 5. ‘Future Internet 2020’ – Example 2 “The hotel’s entertainment system provides suggestions for the next day based on their individual fitness profiles and forecasts of slope conditions. These forecasts are based on sensor data from biodegradable smart dust deployed in the winter sport area.” 4
  6. 6. ‘Biodegradable smart dust’ specification Parameter Size ~ 1 mm³ Power source Solar Not required to operate during night hours Sensors Temperature Humidity Colour / Brightness Movement Reporting every 15 minutes Communications range ~10 cm Wireless Communications protocol Mesh network Useful Life 6 months Cost 5 Requirement Notes < £0.0001 per ‘flake’ Must have decomposed by 12 months
  7. 7. Challenges for connectivity • Small amounts of data • Inefficient to use ‘IP’ to package this • Minimise transmissions to conserve power • Millions of devices • Self-forming mesh network requires intelligence • Be ‘awake’ to relay incoming data • Tiny! • Range too small to connect to a network • Range versus power versus bandwidth Relative data traffic • Size of antenna Maximum number of ‘hops’ 6
  8. 8. At 8am, the Ski Resort polls the Smart Snow • Each device relays data it has stored: • • • • Temperature: 8 bits Humidity: 8 bits Snow Colour: 24 bits Movement: 24 bits (8 bits x 3D) • 100 million devices per km² • Area of resort is 100 km² • Amount of data to be transferred: • ~7 Gbytes • But it’s a mesh network with up to 6 hops so ~140 Gbytes • Maximum transfer time 5 minutes • Resulting data transfer rate ~500 Mbit/second 7
  9. 9. ‘Smart Dust’ – that’s silly talk 8
  10. 10. Trivial examples illustrating a greater problem • The data format used for the ‘Things’ on the internet will have to be carefully designed to meet the constraints of the particular ‘Thing’ • IP may have far too much overhead (IP v6 header is 320 bits) • Connections may be increasingly server initiated • Connecting a ‘thing’ to an existing network may be difficult • Wireless connectivity is essential • Individual pieces of data may be small, but total data requirement is massive • Devices may or may not be intelligent • Security is paramount 9
  11. 11. Current networks are not designed for the IoT • Networks assume data will grow and grow • but not necessarily that the size of ‘parcels’ may shrink • Wireless networks have greater capacity • but can’t cope with devices with very limited range • Devices will need to connect wirelessly • but there isn’t any spectrum set-aside for the purpose • Multiple protocols may be necessary to support different ‘things’ • but there is a drive towards fewer 10
  12. 12. Things are looking up • Entrepreneurial companies are developing solutions that don’t take a ‘one size fits all’ approach • Developing bespoke protocols for particular data types • Finding novel ways to use available spectrum (eg white space) • Expanding the capability of existing technologies (eg NFC, RFID) • Finding ways of generating power ‘out of thin air’ (eg RF harvesting) • Networks are thinking about the problems • Charging regimes for data services (eg one-off 2.5G/3G tariffs) • Dealing with ‘lumpy’ data (eg RSVP) 11 http://www.ralphtherobot.com/tag/things-are-looking-up/
  13. 13. Don’t forget security • Millions of consumer devices will form Internets • Appliances • Cars • Household systems (heating, lighting) • Industrial sensors and processes • Whilst hacking into a washing machine or heating system might cause distress, hacking into an industrial system could cause loss of life 12
  14. 14. What happens next? • Flexible data protocols that can serve multiple purposes • to assist with interoperability between clothes, snow, washing machines and humans • Hierarchical wireless handling techniques • tiny devices support one standard only • bigger devices support more protocols • network nodes support higher level protocols (only?) 13
  15. 15. Wider challenges • There are a multitude of additional challenges facing ‘Things’ • • • • • Finding and storing power Making things small enough Being able to communicate when small Small, sensitive, sensors Learning how to use the unimaginable amounts of data The Internet of Things has the potential to change the world, just as the Internet did. Maybe even more so. 14
  16. 16. Airports Air Traffic Management Thank you for your attention Richard Womersley richard.womersley@askhelios.com Space Telecoms Maritime Rail www.askhelios.com
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