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  • Mauryan_Empire_PPt

    1. 1. India Unites: The Mauryan and Gupta Dynasties
    2. 2. Aryan Age ends with Invasion of Darius and Alexander
    3. 3. India begins to Unite c. 400-300BCE <ul><ul><li>Persia first united NW India under Cyrus and Darius </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. c. 330 Alexander the Great conquered Persia Greek empire failed when Alexander died Now a native Indian Empire would begin.
    5. 5. The Mauryan Empire 321-180 BCE
    6. 6. Politics <ul><ul><li>Founded by Chandragupta Maurya ( 324 to 301 B.C.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased centralized govt control over regional kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large army of 700,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secret police to watch for treason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>301 BCE gave up his throne to & became a Jain monk (extreme Buddhism) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Ashoka Maurya
    8. 8. Ashoka 268-232 BC <ul><ul><li>Most important ruler in ancient India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brutal military commander who extended the Empire throughout S. and E. India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Kalinga - 260 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100,000 Kalingans died </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>150,000 Kalingans driven from their home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More died from disease & starvation in the aftermath of the destruction brought on by the war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What have I done?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ashoka and many Indian leaders converted to Buddhism after this battle and became pacifists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He spent the rest of his life encouraging non-violence, moderation and Buddhist principles to India </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Asoka’s Buddhist Rock and Pillar Edicts <ul><ul><li>spread Buddhist principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scattered in more than 30 places in India, Nepal,Pakistan, & Afghanistan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each pillar is 40’-50’ high. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helped bring order and unity to India </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Trade/Economy <ul><li>Agricultural economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New canals and irrigation systems for trade and agriculture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>renovated major roads throughout India. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>built towns for spinning & weaving textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uniform system of currency, weights and measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created provinces ruled by governors for tax assessments and law enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes rose over time to build Ashoka’s projects which led to Empire’s fall at Ashoka’s death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased trade by uniting India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India traded silk, cotton, and spices to Mesopotamia, China, Egypt and Rome </li></ul></ul>Silver punch mark coin
    11. 11. Indian Agriculture <ul><ul><li>State farms operated and cultivated by slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grew Rice, Pepper, Wheat, Barley, Mustard, Sugar Cane, Medicinal Roots </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Religion <ul><ul><li>Buddhism grows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>built thousands of Stupas for Buddhist followers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>built Buddhist schools and universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the unnecessary eating of animals was abolished. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife became protected including the first national parks in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promoted vegetarianism and built animal hospitals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ashoka’s empire died out slowly after he died </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The Sanchi Stupa (Buddhist temple) by Ashoka
    14. 14. Similarities between Buddhist Stupas and Pagodas <ul><ul><li>Buddhist architecture spread from India when Buddhism spread over the next 1000 years </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. The Mauryan Empire at its Height
    16. 16. Social <ul><ul><li>The Caste System limited social opportunities & determined who people could marry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Families are patriarchal—headed by the eldest male </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws limited women’s life and abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sati was sometimes practiced </li></ul></ul>“ Even a man in the grip of rage will not be harsh to a woman, remembering that on her depends the joy of love, happiness and virtue” Mahabharata epic
    17. 17. Indian Population <ul><ul><li>50 million people during Mauryan Empire </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The Arts transition from wood to stone in their architecture and art Indian Stupa Ashoka's Pillars
    19. 19. After the Mauryans: Regional Rule and the Rise of Jainism and Buddhism
    20. 20. Regional Kingdoms and local rule - 185 BCE to CE 300 <ul><ul><li>Northern India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invading HUNS built new small regional kingdoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu Kush civilizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most powerful regional kingdoms for trade across the region and along the Silk Road </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jainism grew in influence during this time of confusion since the leaders pushing Hinduism and Buddhism were weakened </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Jainism – like Hindu and Buddhism <ul><ul><li>Believe in karma, dharma and Moksha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expected to follow five principles of living: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ahimsa: &quot; non violence in all parts of a person -- mental, verbal and physical. &quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satya: speaking truth; avoiding falsehood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asteya: to not steal from others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahma-charya: (soul conduct); remaining sexually monogamous to one's spouse only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aparigraha: detach from people, places and material things. Avoiding the collection of excessive material possessions, abstaining from over-indulgence, restricting one's needs, </li></ul></ul>