Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Trade union
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Trade union

2,141

Published on

Published in: Career
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,141
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
67
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. TRADE UNIONTRADE UNION Module V (iii)Module V (iii)
  • 2. Trade UnionsTrade Unions  "Trade Union" means any combination, whether"Trade Union" means any combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for thetemporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations betweenpurpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmenworkmen and employers or between workmen and workmen, or between employers andand workmen, or between employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive conditionsemployers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or businesson the conduct of any trade or business  Trade unions are formed to protect and promoteTrade unions are formed to protect and promote the interests of their members. Their primarythe interests of their members. Their primary function is to protect the interests of workersfunction is to protect the interests of workers against discrimination and unfair labor practices.against discrimination and unfair labor practices.
  • 3. ObjectivesObjectives  RepresentationRepresentation  NegotiationNegotiation  Voice in decisions affectingVoice in decisions affecting workersworkers  Member servicesMember services (a)(a) Education and trainingEducation and training (b)(b) Legal assistanceLegal assistance (c)(c) Financial discountsFinancial discounts (d)(d) Welfare benefitsWelfare benefits
  • 4. Functions of Trade unionsFunctions of Trade unions (i)  Militant functions(i)  Militant functions (a) To achieve higher wages and better(a) To achieve higher wages and better working conditionsworking conditions (b) To raise the status of workers as a part(b) To raise the status of workers as a part of industryof industry (c) To protect labors against victimization(c) To protect labors against victimization and injusticeand injustice
  • 5. (ii) Fraternal functions(ii) Fraternal functions  To take up welfare measures for improving theTo take up welfare measures for improving the morale of workersmorale of workers  To generate self confidence among workersTo generate self confidence among workers  To encourage sincerity and discipline amongTo encourage sincerity and discipline among workersworkers  To provide opportunities for promotion andTo provide opportunities for promotion and growthgrowth  To protect women workers againstTo protect women workers against discriminationdiscrimination
  • 6. Importance Of Trade UnionsImportance Of Trade Unions  Trade unions help in accelerated pace of economicTrade unions help in accelerated pace of economic development in many ways as follows:development in many ways as follows:  by helping in the recruitment and selection of workers.by helping in the recruitment and selection of workers.  by inculcating discipline among the workforceby inculcating discipline among the workforce  by enabling settlement of industrial disputes in a rationalby enabling settlement of industrial disputes in a rational mannermanner  by helping social adjustments. Workers have to adjustby helping social adjustments. Workers have to adjust themselves to the new working conditions, the new rulesthemselves to the new working conditions, the new rules and policies. Workers coming from different backgroundsand policies. Workers coming from different backgrounds may become disorganized, unsatisfied and frustrated.may become disorganized, unsatisfied and frustrated. Unions help them in such adjustment.Unions help them in such adjustment.
  • 7. Contd….Contd…. Social responsibilities of trade unionsSocial responsibilities of trade unions include:include: promoting and maintaining nationalpromoting and maintaining national integration by reducing the number ofintegration by reducing the number of industrial disputesindustrial disputes incorporating a sense of corporate socialincorporating a sense of corporate social responsibility in workersresponsibility in workers achieving industrial peaceachieving industrial peace
  • 8. Trade Unionism In IndiaTrade Unionism In India Indian trade union movement can be dividedIndian trade union movement can be divided into three phases.into three phases. ** The first phase (1850 to1900)The first phase (1850 to1900) ** The second phase (1900 to 1946)The second phase (1900 to 1946) ** The third phaseThe third phase (in 1947).(in 1947).
  • 9. By 1949, four central trade unionBy 1949, four central trade union organizations were functioning inorganizations were functioning in the countrythe country:: The All India Trade Union Congress,The All India Trade Union Congress, The Indian National Trade UnionThe Indian National Trade Union Congress,Congress, The Hindu Mazdoor Sangh, andThe Hindu Mazdoor Sangh, and The United Trade Union CongressThe United Trade Union Congress
  • 10. Trade Union Act 25 March 1926Trade Union Act 25 March 1926  The trade Unions Act, 1926 provides for registration ofThe trade Unions Act, 1926 provides for registration of trade unions with a view to render lawful organisation oftrade unions with a view to render lawful organisation of labour to enable collective bargaining. It also confers onlabour to enable collective bargaining. It also confers on a registered trade union certain protection and privileges.a registered trade union certain protection and privileges.  The Act extends to the whole of India and applies to allThe Act extends to the whole of India and applies to all kinds of unions of workers and associations ofkinds of unions of workers and associations of employers, which aim at regularizing labor managementemployers, which aim at regularizing labor management relations. A Trade Union is a combination whetherrelations. A Trade Union is a combination whether temporary or permanent, formed for regulating thetemporary or permanent, formed for regulating the relations not only between workmen and employers butrelations not only between workmen and employers but also between workmen and workmen or betweenalso between workmen and workmen or between employers and employers.employers and employers.
  • 11. Trade unions in IndiaTrade unions in India The Indian workforce consists of 430The Indian workforce consists of 430 million workers, growing 2% annually.million workers, growing 2% annually. The Indian labor markets consist of threeThe Indian labor markets consist of three sectors:sectors:  The rural workers, who constitute about 60 perThe rural workers, who constitute about 60 per cent of the workforce.cent of the workforce.  Organized sector, which employs 8 per cent ofOrganized sector, which employs 8 per cent of workforce, andworkforce, and  The urban informal sector (which includes theThe urban informal sector (which includes the growing software industry and other services,growing software industry and other services, not included in the formal sector) whichnot included in the formal sector) which constitutes the rest 32 per cent of the workforce.constitutes the rest 32 per cent of the workforce.
  • 12. At present there are twelve Central Trade UnionAt present there are twelve Central Trade Union Organizations in India:Organizations in India:  All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC)All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC)  Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)  Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU)Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU)  Hind Mazdoor Kisan Panchayat (HMKP)Hind Mazdoor Kisan Panchayat (HMKP)  Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS)Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS)  Indian Federation of Free Trade Unions (IFFTU)Indian Federation of Free Trade Unions (IFFTU)  Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC)Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC)  National Front of Indian Trade Unions (NFITU)National Front of Indian Trade Unions (NFITU)  National Labor Organization (NLO)National Labor Organization (NLO)  Trade Unions Co-ordination Centre (TUCC)Trade Unions Co-ordination Centre (TUCC)  United Trade Union Congress (UTUC) andUnited Trade Union Congress (UTUC) and  United Trade Union Congress - Lenin Sarani (UTUC - LS)United Trade Union Congress - Lenin Sarani (UTUC - LS)
  • 13. Industrial Relation PolicyIndustrial Relation Policy  Prior to 1991, the industrial relations system inPrior to 1991, the industrial relations system in India sought to control conflicts and disputesIndia sought to control conflicts and disputes through excessive labor legislations.through excessive labor legislations.  With the coming of globalization, the 40 year oldWith the coming of globalization, the 40 year old policy of protectionism proved inadequate forpolicy of protectionism proved inadequate for Indian industry to remain competitive as the lackIndian industry to remain competitive as the lack of flexibility posed a serious threat toof flexibility posed a serious threat to manufacturers because they had to compete inmanufacturers because they had to compete in the international market.the international market.
  • 14.  With the advent of liberalization in1992, theWith the advent of liberalization in1992, the industrial relations policy began to change.industrial relations policy began to change.  Now, the policy was tilted towards employers.Now, the policy was tilted towards employers. Employers opted for workforce reduction,Employers opted for workforce reduction, introduced policies of voluntary retirementintroduced policies of voluntary retirement schemes and flexibility in workplace alsoschemes and flexibility in workplace also increased. Thus, globalization brought majorincreased. Thus, globalization brought major changes inchanges in industrial relationsindustrial relations policy in India.policy in India.
  • 15. Contd….Contd…. The changes are as follows:The changes are as follows:  Collective bargaining in India has mostly been decentralized,Collective bargaining in India has mostly been decentralized, but now in sectors where it was not so, are also facingbut now in sectors where it was not so, are also facing pressures to follow decentralization.pressures to follow decentralization.  Some industries are cutting employment to a significant extentSome industries are cutting employment to a significant extent to cope with the domestic and foreign competition e.g.to cope with the domestic and foreign competition e.g. pharmaceuticals. On the other hand, in other industries wherepharmaceuticals. On the other hand, in other industries where the demand for employment is increasing are experiencingthe demand for employment is increasing are experiencing employment growths.employment growths.  In the expansionary economy there is a clear shortage ofIn the expansionary economy there is a clear shortage of managers and skilled labor.managers and skilled labor.  The number of local and enterprise level unions has increasedThe number of local and enterprise level unions has increased and there is a significant reduction in the influence of theand there is a significant reduction in the influence of the unions.unions.  Under pressure some unions and federations are putting up aUnder pressure some unions and federations are putting up a united front e.g. banking.united front e.g. banking.  Another trend is that the employers have started to push forAnother trend is that the employers have started to push for internal unions i.e. no outside affiliation.internal unions i.e. no outside affiliation.  HR policies and forms of work are emerging that include,HR policies and forms of work are emerging that include, especially in multi-national companies, multi-skills, variableespecially in multi-national companies, multi-skills, variable compensation, job rotation etc. These new policies are difficultcompensation, job rotation etc. These new policies are difficult to implement in place of old practices as the institutional set upto implement in place of old practices as the institutional set up still needs to be changed.still needs to be changed.  HRM is seen as a key component of business strategy.HRM is seen as a key component of business strategy.  Training and skill development is also receiving attention in aTraining and skill development is also receiving attention in a numbernumber of industries, especially banking and information technology.of industries, especially banking and information technology.
  • 16. Reasons for Joining Trade UnionsReasons for Joining Trade Unions Greater Bargaining PowerGreater Bargaining Power Minimize DiscriminationMinimize Discrimination Sense of SecuritySense of Security Sense of ParticipationSense of Participation Sense of BelongingnessSense of Belongingness Platform for self expressionPlatform for self expression Betterment of relationshipsBetterment of relationships
  • 17. Causes of Industrial DisputesCauses of Industrial Disputes The causes of industrial disputes can beThe causes of industrial disputes can be broadly classified into two categories:broadly classified into two categories:  economic causeseconomic causes The economic causes will include issues relating toThe economic causes will include issues relating to compensation like wages, bonus, allowances, andcompensation like wages, bonus, allowances, and conditions for work, working hours, leave and holidaysconditions for work, working hours, leave and holidays without pay, unjust layoffs and retrenchments.without pay, unjust layoffs and retrenchments.  non-economic causesnon-economic causes The non economic factors will includeThe non economic factors will include victimization of workers, ill treatment byvictimization of workers, ill treatment by staff members, sympathetic strikes,staff members, sympathetic strikes, political factors, indiscipline etc.political factors, indiscipline etc.
  • 18. Analysis of Industrial DisputesAnalysis of Industrial Disputes The number of industrial disputes inThe number of industrial disputes in country has shown slow but steady fallcountry has shown slow but steady fall over the past ten years. In 1998, the totalover the past ten years. In 1998, the total number of disputes was 1097 which fell bynumber of disputes was 1097 which fell by more than half to 440 in 2006.It is beingmore than half to 440 in 2006.It is being estimated that this trend will continue inestimated that this trend will continue in 2007 as well.2007 as well.
  • 19. StrikesStrikes  A strike is a very powerful weapon used by tradeA strike is a very powerful weapon used by trade unions and other labor associations to get theirunions and other labor associations to get their demands accepted. It generally involves quittingdemands accepted. It generally involves quitting of work by a group of workers for the purpose ofof work by a group of workers for the purpose of bringing the pressure on their employer so thatbringing the pressure on their employer so that their demands get accepted. When workerstheir demands get accepted. When workers collectively cease to work in a particularcollectively cease to work in a particular industry, they are said to be on strike.industry, they are said to be on strike.
  • 20. According to Industrial Disputes Act 1947, aAccording to Industrial Disputes Act 1947, a strike is “a cessation of work by a body ofstrike is “a cessation of work by a body of persons employed in an industry acting inpersons employed in an industry acting in combination; or a concerted refusal of anycombination; or a concerted refusal of any number of persons who are or have beennumber of persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or toso employed to continue to work or to accept employment; or a refusal under aaccept employment; or a refusal under a common understanding of any number ofcommon understanding of any number of such persons to continue to work or tosuch persons to continue to work or to accept employment”.accept employment”.
  • 21. Causes of strikesCauses of strikes  Strikes can occur because of the following reasons:Strikes can occur because of the following reasons:  Dissatisfaction with company policyDissatisfaction with company policy  Salary and incentive problemsSalary and incentive problems  Increment not up to the markIncrement not up to the mark  Wrongful discharge or dismissal of workmenWrongful discharge or dismissal of workmen  Withdrawal of any concession or privilegeWithdrawal of any concession or privilege  Hours of work and rest intervalsHours of work and rest intervals  Leaves with wages and holidaysLeaves with wages and holidays  Bonus, profit sharing, Provident fund and gratuityBonus, profit sharing, Provident fund and gratuity  Retrenchment of workmen and closure of establishmentRetrenchment of workmen and closure of establishment  Dispute connected with minimum wagesDispute connected with minimum wages
  • 22. TYPES OF STRIKETYPES OF STRIKE Economic StrikeEconomic Strike Sympathetic StrikeSympathetic Strike General StrikeGeneral Strike Sit down StrikeSit down Strike Slow Down StrikeSlow Down Strike Sick-out (or sick-inSick-out (or sick-in )) Wild cat strikesWild cat strikes
  • 23. LockoutsLockouts A lockout is a work stoppage in which anA lockout is a work stoppage in which an employer prevents employees fromemployer prevents employees from working. It is declared by employers to putworking. It is declared by employers to put pressure on their workers. This is differentpressure on their workers. This is different from a strike, in which employees refusefrom a strike, in which employees refuse to work. Thus, a lockout is employers’to work. Thus, a lockout is employers’ weapon while a strike is raised on part ofweapon while a strike is raised on part of employees.employees.
  • 24. PICKETINGPICKETING When workers are dissuaded from workWhen workers are dissuaded from work by stationing certain men at the factoryby stationing certain men at the factory gates, such a step is known as picketing.gates, such a step is known as picketing. Pickets are workers who are on strike thatPickets are workers who are on strike that stand at the entrance to their workplace.stand at the entrance to their workplace. It is basically a method of drawing publicIt is basically a method of drawing public attention towards the fact that there is aattention towards the fact that there is a dispute between the management anddispute between the management and employees.employees.
  • 25. Contd….Contd…. The purpose of picketing is:The purpose of picketing is: to stop or persuade workers not to go toto stop or persuade workers not to go to workwork to tell the public about the striketo tell the public about the strike to persuade workers to take their union'sto persuade workers to take their union's sideside
  • 26. GHERAOGHERAO Gherao in Hindi means to surroundGherao in Hindi means to surround It denotes a collective action initiated by aIt denotes a collective action initiated by a group of workers under which members ofgroup of workers under which members of the management are prohibited fromthe management are prohibited from leaving the industrial establishmentleaving the industrial establishment premises by workers who block the exitpremises by workers who block the exit gates by forming human barricades.gates by forming human barricades. The workers may gherao the members ofThe workers may gherao the members of the management by blocking their exitsthe management by blocking their exits and forcing them to stay inside theirand forcing them to stay inside their cabins.cabins.
  • 27. Contd…Contd… The main object of gherao is to inflictThe main object of gherao is to inflict physical and mental torture to the personphysical and mental torture to the person being gheraoed and hence this weaponbeing gheraoed and hence this weapon disturbs the industrial peace to a greatdisturbs the industrial peace to a great extent.extent.
  • 28. Measures for Improving IndustrialMeasures for Improving Industrial RelationsRelations Workers’ Participation inWorkers’ Participation in ManagementManagement Mutual AccommodationMutual Accommodation The approach must be of mutual “give andThe approach must be of mutual “give and take rather than “take or leave.” Thetake rather than “take or leave.” The management should be willing to co-management should be willing to co- operate rather than blackmail the workers.operate rather than blackmail the workers.
  • 29. Contd…Contd… Sincere Implementation ofSincere Implementation of AgreementsAgreements Sound Personnel PoliciesSound Personnel Policies Government’s RoleGovernment’s Role Progressive OutlookProgressive Outlook

×