W IL D L IF E A large area of land on which trees and other plants grow naturally is called a forest, and the wild animals (like lion, tiger, elephant, deer, snakes, etc.) and birds which live in forest, are called wildlife.
IM P O R TAN C E O F WILD LIF E It provides a great biological diversity. Many valuable products such as silk feathers, musk, honey, etc. are obtained from wildlife Wildlife maintain an eco logical balance in nature.
WI LD LI F E I N Indian forests Iare the adobe of various kind of N DI Aanimals and birds. The most important among theanimals are tigers, elephant, leopard, rhinocerosand the lions. Like its flora, India is also rich infauna. It has more than 89,000 of animal species.The country has more than 1200 species of birds.They constitute of 13% of the world’s total. Thereare 2500 species of fish, which account for nearly12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptilesand mammals.
D O Y OU K N OW ? T h e G ir F o r e s t is t h e la s t r e m a in in g h a b it a t o f t h e A s ia t ic lio n .
A FRI CA N W I L Dwealth F wildlife foundNo other continent matches the L I of Ein Africa. Covering the full climate spectrum fromintense heat to bitter cold, its varied vegetation hasgiven rise to a wide range of animals, includingmammals birds, reptiles, fish, and insects. Among themare more than 40 species of primate, ranging from tinygalagos to huge gorillas, a great variety of antelopes,gazelles, and other hoofed animals, and 70 species ofcarnivore. Bird life, too, is extraordinary rich; more than1,500 species live south of the Sahara. In addition,Africa is inhabited by the world’s fastest land animal,the cheetah; the biggest bird, the ostrich; and thelargest land animal, the elephant.
A SI A N W I the frozen ArcticF the north to theAsia stretches from L D L I in Ewarm tropics in the south. Although much of Asia isundulating plain, it also boasts the awesome mountainrange of the Himalayas. Much of the interior receives littlerain, but parts of India hold the world record for annualrainfall. This continent of contrasts provides many habitats,each with its own characteristics plants and animals. Manyof the world’s best known endangered species, such asgiant pandas and tigers, live in Asia. But many lesspublicized, smaller animals and plants are also threatenedby the steady spread of human populations.
AU S TR ALIAN WILD LIF EAustralia has been isolated by water for more than30 million years, resulting in the evolution of manyunique animals and plants. Half of all marsupials,such as the koala and kangaroo, live only inAustralia, along with the platypus and echidna, theworld’s only egg-laying mammals, or monotremes.Much of Australia is desert or scrub. The animalsand plants that live here are adapted to the hot, dryconditions. There are also areas of tropical andtemperate forests, which contain the greatestdiversity of life in Australia.
E U R OP E A N WI LD LI F EEurope is a landmass that contains many differenthabitats, ranging from the Arctic tundra, throughbroad leaved forests, and mountainous areas, todry, hot regions around the Mediterranean. Onlydeserts and tropical forests are missing from thelist. European wildlife is not as rich as it once was;human intervention in the form of agriculture andforest clearance, as well as the sheer size of thehuman population, has diminished the number ofplants and animals. Yet in undisturbed forests andwetlands, a large diversity of wildlife remains.
D E S E R T WILD LIF E Camel (SHIP OF THE DESRT)The driest places on Earth areknown as deserts. Food is scarce,and there is little shelter from thesun and wind. Deserts are amongthe most inhospitable of all placesin which to live. In spite of this,many remarkable animals surviveand even thrive in these hostilesurroundings. Birds, mammals,insects, arachnids, amphibians, andreptiles are all represented,together with some equallyremarkable plants.
IS LAN D WILD LIF EIsolated locations and the lack oflarge predators, competitors, anddisease has allowed the evolutionof a unique range of wildlife onmany islands. Island habitats varygreatly, from the ice and rock ofGreenland to the tropicalrainforests of Borneo. Island florasfaunas are fragile ecosystems,easily upset by foreign invadersand freak weather conditions.Some islands posses uniquespecies found nowhere else(endemics); other remote islands Dense vegetation cover providesare inhabited by species from homes for many animals.otherwise extinct groups (relicts).
LAK E AN D R IVE R WILD LIF EThe freshwater habitats on land maybe tiny in volume compared with theoceans, but the many lakes, ponds,and rivers are home to a hugevariety of wildlife. Plants take root inthe soft soil and provide food andshelter for many different animals.These include air-breathing thatenter the water froe thesurroundings as well as truly aquaticcreatures, which spend all their timein water. Together, they show allmanner of adaptations tounderwater life, including ways ofmaking shelters and of copying withfast currents or murky conditions. Lake contains cold, clear water from mountains streams
M OU N T A I N W I L D L I F E Tree line – above this levelThe great mountain chains of the Snow on it is too cold andworld are very beautiful but they offer higher slopes harsh for trees to growtesting conditions for wildlife. Theanimals that live there, such as thealpine ibex, are either exceptionallyhardy to cope with steep and rockyterrain or, like the Andean condor,specially adapted to high winds andcold nights in thin air. In temperateand cold climates, winter is very harshin the mountains, bringing gale forcewinds and deep snow that drive manyanimals down towards shelter. Bycontrast, in summer , the strongsunshine of high altitudes gives a realboost to life, bringing the buzz ofinsects and the songs of nesting birds Dense trees cover andto mountain slopes. other vegetation on lower slopes
O C E AN WILD LIF EThe ocean covers two-third of theEarth’s surface. This vast body ofwater is home to a great variety ofplants and animals. On the oceanfloor, there are underwater mountainsranges, plains covered with clays andmud-like oozes, deep trenches, andsubmerged mountains called seamounts. Animals live in all theseregions and in all depths of theocean. Generally, food is scarce inthe deep because there is no light forphotosynthesis , which enables plantgrowth. Plants are restricted to thesunlit waters near the surface, wherethey either drift in the sea or float,anchored to the seabed. Oceanwildlife is at its richest in the warm,shallow waters of coral reefs.
WI LD LI F E I N D A N GE RSince life began on Earth, many species of plants andanimals have died out- mostly because of humaninterference. The main threats to wildlife today arehabitat destruction, hunting and collecting, andpollution. Many plants and animals are now protectedby law. There are some environmental organizationswhich are dedicated to helping plants and animals indanger and finding solutions to worldwide ecologicalproblems, for e.g.:- Greenpeace, friends of the Earth,International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), WorldWildlife Fund (WWF) etc.
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E nvironmental OR GA N I SA T I ONSome logos of environmental organization are:- GR E E NP E AC E Friends of the Earth Greenpeace 26-28 Underwood Street Canonbury Villas London N1 7JQ London N1 2PN www.greenpeace.org www.foei.org
E nvironmental F A C T SIt is estimated that over the next 20 years almost half amillion species of plants and animals will become extinct.The ivory-build woodpecker used to live in forest swamps. Itis one of the world’s rarest birds and is endangered.All species of rhinoceros are now protected by law. Manyrhinoceros were killed for their horns, which are reputed tohave medicinal qualities.The population of the komodo dragon, the largest-livinglizard, is at a dangerously low level because of over-huntingby collectors.
C ON SE R V A T I ON OF WI LD LI F EThe large scale poaching (killing) of wild animalsresiding in the forests by man is a serious threat tothe survival of many animal and bird species. Thisalso disturbs the food chains in which these animalsoccur resulting in undesirable consequences for thewhole ecosystem. Now, to make some money,some people kill the animals indiscriminately inlarge numbers to obtain their skin, horns, teeth, etc.This large scale killing of animals disrupts the foodchains in which snakes occur and creates animbalance in nature.
SOM E ST E P S T O C ON SE R V E WI LD LI F EIt is very important to conserve wildlife to maintain theecological balance in nature and to preserve the genepool. Some of the measures (or steps) to be taken for theconservation of wildlife are given below :-Laws should be made to impose a total ban on poaching(killing) or capturing of any animal or bird belonging to anendangered species. The poaching of an endangeredspecies of animals and birds should be made apunishable offence.Even if some type of wild animals and birds are inabundance today, their indiscriminate killing should not beallowed by the forest authorities.
SOM E ST E P S T O C ON SE R V E WI LD LI F EThe natural habitats of wild animals and birds shouldbe preserved by establishing National Parks andSanctuaries throughout the country.The Government Department connected with theconservation of wildlife should conduct a periodicsurvey in all forests, National Parks and Sanctuariesto have a knowledge of all species of wild animals andbirds, so that these animals can be helped in thetimes of distress like floods and famines.Special attention should be paid to the conservation ofendangered species of wild animals and birds toprevent their extinction altogether.
A N I M A LS A N D H U M A N S V I E F OR SP A C E With 2 percent(%) of the world’s land and 16 percent of its people, India is fast losing its wildlife habitat. Sanctuaries such as Nagarahole—where men collects gaur skulls for a study of predator behavior—give scant haven to Indians embattled animal species. Isolation of small groups weakens gene pools, but plans for protected corianders between parks are stalled.
THANKS FOR YOUR KINDCONSIDERATION Made by:- Ashwani Kumar