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Introduction To QualityQuality is the ability of a product or serviceto consistently meet or exceed customerExpectations.
Quality – What Is It? “The degree of excellence of a thing” (Webster’s Dictionary) “The totality of features and characteristics that satisfy needs” (American Society for Quality Control – ASQ) Fitness for consumer use – meet or exceed customer expectations
Meaning of Quality Control Quality of product depends on material, man, machine, and manufacturing conditions. The quality control is a symmetric control of these factor. Skilled worker will give better quality. Better machines and better material with a good quality product. Quality is the right attitude to achieve excellence; producing error free products and services to the customer within time ; and satisfying the requirements and expectations of customers.
The Evolution of QualityIndustrial revolution - smaller jobs, more specialization andless responsibility for the final product. Early 1900’s - product inspection introduced -Fredrick Winslow Taylor. 1924 - statistical control charts - W. Shewhart of Bell Laboratories. 1930, - acceptance sampling - H.F. Dodge & H.G. Roming of Bell Labs. WWII - statistical methods began to be more widely accepted,especially in statistical sampling techniques. 1950’s - quality assurance, statistical quality control methodsintroduced to the Japanese - W. Edwards Deming- “cost of quality” concepts - Joseph Juran- “total quality control” including product design andmaterials - Armand Feigenbaum. 1960’s - “zero defects” emphasize employee performance - P. Crosby. 1970’s - quality assurance methods throughout the entire process
Dimensions of Quality1. Performance - characteristics of the product or service2. Aesthetics - appearance, feel, smell, taste3. Special features - extra characteristics4. Conformance - customer’s expectations5. Safety - risk of injury or harm6. Reliability - consistency of performance7. Durability - useful life of the product or service8. Perception - reputation9. Service after the sale - handling of complaints, customer satisfaction
Examples Of Quality Dimensions (Product) Automobile (Service) Auto RepairDimensionPerformance All work done, at Everything works, fit agreed price & finish Ride, Friendliness, courtesy, handling, grade of materials used Competency, quicknes s Clean work/waitingAesthetic Interior design, soft area touch Location, call when ready Gauge/controlSpecial features placement
Cellular phone, CD Computer diagnosticsConvenience playerHigh tech AntilockSafety brakes, airbags Separate waiting area Work done correctly, Infrequency ofReliability breakdowns ready when promised
Dimension Product) (Service) Auto Repair Automobile Useful life in miles, Work holds up overDurability time resistance to rust and corrosionPerceived Quality Top-rated car Award-winning service departmentService after Handling of complaintssale and/or requests for Handling of information complaints
Concept change:- Deming’s 14 Points1-Create constancy of Purpose for 8 - Eliminate fear among improvement of product and service employees2 - Adopt the new philosophy 9 - Eliminate barriers between3 - Cease mass inspection departments4 - Select a few suppliers 10 - Eliminate slogans, targetsbased on quality 11 - Remove numerical quotas5 - Constantly improve system 12 - Enhance worker prideand workers 13 - Institute vigorous training &6 - Institute worker training7 - Instill leadership among education programssupervisors 14 - Implement these 13 points
Total Quality Management The new concept of quality is total quality management. It means involvement of all aspect of the firm in satisfying the customer. TQM involves:-i. Customer – supplier relationship based on mutual trust & respect. There must be a beneficial strategy for both.ii. Firm in house requirements by the customer.iii. Suppliers are partners in achieving zero defect situation.iv. Regular monitoring of supplier processes and products by the customer.
Principal objectives of TQM Organization should have system oriented specific objectives as follows:-i. Customer focus, customer satisfactionii. Continuous improvement of culture of the organizationiii. Focus continuous and cost reductioniv. Focused, continuous and quality improvementv. Everyone is working towards making their organization the best business
TQM must include ten dimensional framework:-1. Quality policy and its communication2. Team work and participation3. Problem solving tools and technique4. Standardization5. Quality system6. Quality control and measurement7. Process control8. Customer supplier integration9. Education and training10. Quality audit and receive
Basics of TQM TQM focuses on identifying root causes of quality problems and connecting them at the source, as apposed to inspecting the product after it has been made. The Japanese believe that the best and the most lasting changes comes from gradual improvements. There are two approaches that can help companies with continuous improvement:-1. The plan-do-study-act cycle2. Benchmarking
PDSA Cycle• It explains the activities a company needs to perform in order to incorporate continuous improvement in its operation.• It shows that continuous improvement is never-ending process1. plan: study current situation and make plan based problems. Document all current procedure, collect data, and identify problems.2. Do: implement plan on trial basis manager should document all changes made and collect data for evaluation.3. Study: determine if trial is working correctly or it’s achieving the goals.4. Act: the best way to accomplish this is to communicate the results to other members in the company and then implement the new procedure if it has been successful.
Bench-marking It is studying the business practices of other companies for purpose of comparisons. To learn and study how others do things is an important part of continuous improvement. It does not have to be in same business, as long as it excels at something that the company doing the study wishes to emulate. TQM provides incentives for employees to identify quality problems and empower all employees to seek out problem and correct them. TQM differentiates between external and internal customers.
The Deming approach to TQM Create and publish the aims and purposes of the organization Learn the new philosophy Understand the purpose of inspection Stop awarding business based on price alone Improve constantly and forever the System Institute training Teach and institute leadership
The Deming Philosophy Drive out fear, create trust, and create a climate for innovation Optimize the efforts of teams, groups, and staff areas Eliminate exhortations for the work force Eliminate numerical quotas for the work force Eliminate management by objectives Remove barriers to pride of workmanship Encourage education and self-improvement for all Take action to accomplish the transformation.
Kaizen Technique Kaizen- defines the managements role in continuously encouraging and implementing small improvements in the individual & organization. Break the complex process into sub-processes and then improve the sub-processes. Continuous improvements in small increments make the process more efficient ,controllable and adaptable. Does not rely on more expense, or sophisticated equipment and techniques.
The five main elements of kaizen are:1. Team work2. Personal discipline3. Improved morale4. Quality circles5. Suggestion for improvements Criticisms1. Safety was being put at risk by aggressive cost cutting.2. Suppliers refusing to accept orders from Toyota because accusation of death by overwork at Toyota due to unpaid voluntary quality control meeting held after regular work hours.
Quality By Design Introduction Product quality is created by design. In such a competitive market, the designer have to keep on improving for higher and higher quality levels. Product development cyclei. Customer’s needs assessment through market survey and analysis.ii. Design specification formulationiii. Preliminary design of productiv. Review of designv. Manufacturing of the prototype and its evaluationvi. Manufacturing drawing and product specifications preparationvii. Pilot production run and changes in designviii. Design release for mass production
Assessment of customer’s needs The prospective customer are explained variety of features of the product. Information is recorded but if it can leak about the new product then the designer, the marketing organizations and the quality engineers decide the desirable features in that product. Formulation of design specification The requirement and expectations of the prospective customers translated in to design specification. It is always advisable to formulate in consultation with the quality engineers. By doing this they knew the technical failing of the previous product and draw back are avoided in the new design . It can be converted in a comprehensive document because it shows demand and expectation of the customer
Preliminary design The following decision can be taken to overcome the problemi. Reduction of the required featureii. Finding alternative designiii. Addition of compensatory features Such decisions involve consultation with quality engineers and the marketing organizations.
General consideration for a gooddesign1. Appearance2. Functional efficiency3. Safety4. Reliability5. Maintainability6. Ease of production7. Standardization8. Review of design
Evolution of prototype It is carried out by a well planned evaluation programme. The evaluation is coordinated by an agency different from the designer to maintain the objectivity of evaluation. Normally the quality manager is assigned the job of prototype evaluation. Production and marketing also associated with evaluation program me. Certain changes may be necessary in the design as a result of evaluation. Finally , all the features are subjected to confirmatory evaluation to ensure that the shortcomings of the design observed earlier are eliminated. It gives fully satisfaction
Manufacturing drawings - The drawing reflects the final design which emerged after evaluation studies. Product satisfaction:- it clearly define all the important characteristics to be achieved and also lay down general guidelines for measurements. Design changes during production