Caribbean Studies Internal AssessmentTitle of the study: “To examine the impact of Tourism in Negril on the development of the ecology”.Name: Ashroan FraserTerritory: JamaicaSchool: Munro CollegeCenter Number:Form: L6Teacher:Year of examination: 2011
Introduction Research topic and purpose of researchResearch Topic: The Productive Sector and Development.Problem Statement: To investigate the impact of tourism in Negril on the ecology.Aim/Objectives: How is the ecology of Negril affected by Tourism? What are the major causes of the ecological degradation resulting from tourism development? What mitigating strategies is the Government employing in order to protect the environment as infrastructural activities continue? What are of tourism on infrastructure in Negril?The researcher chose to investigate this topic as tourism is the main foreign exchange earner in Jamaicahowever the dependence on this industry has serious implication on the society. This study is focusedon the ecological degradation caused by tourism in Negril, so that a deeper understanding of the issuecan be acquired. The ecology from a biological stand point is the study of the relationship of organismwith each other and their environment. This investigation explores factors such as Water Pollution,Maine life Degradation, deforestation and coral reef damage which negatively affects the ecology. As aresult the researcher did an extensive study of beaches, streets and facilities near the coast forinformation that would help in the presentation and proper evaluation of the problem stamen andobjectives of the research. In addition, this study was done to meet the requirements of cape.
Literature Review There are, of course, pros to using tourism as one of the major promoters of economicdevelopment in Jamaica. The Tourism industry earns foreign exchange, provides jobs for citizens, andrevenue to the governments. Proponents of tourism argue that the movement away from the cash-cropeconomy that dominated the Caribbean since the colonial period, toward a tourism-based economy willbuild a much sounder economic foundation [Garwin Davis (2006)]. Proponents also contend thattourism has made important social impacts on the Caribbean, such as bringing a renewed internalconsciousness and celebration of indigenous Caribbean cultures and historic sites. They point to themany local arts and crafts trades that have been revived and made into lucrative local industries bytourist interests, the renovation of historic sites and monuments as tourist attractions, and thedevelopment and support of local festivals and cultural events because of heavy tourist participationand interest [Lloyd Gardener(2003)]. However the researcher evaluates from Garwin’s Article that thatthese pros are negated by various economic factors and social effects. He continues by saying thatNegril’s marine wild life, there natural habitats and vegetation which beautifies the landscape are beingruined.This point is supported by Jodi-Ann Benjamin of Excelsior College in her letter to the Editor of “the DailyGleaner”.“Hotels are destroying the environment in several ways like deforestation, disposal of the wastes thatare generated from these hotels into the sea which ends up harming coral reefs and the modificationof these properties causes beach erosion that consequently damages the ecosystem.”Benjamin thinks that the abuse of the environment has become widespread as it is evident in Jamaica’sGeneral approach to tourism. It is currently not sustainable and because of the tourism “boom” from1978-1988 competitiveness in the industry has severely increased; subsequently little is being done toprotect the fragile ecosystem which exists in Negril. This approach will prove to be economic suicide asthe natural wildlife and the beaches are a few of the reason that tourist visit Negril. Many of thesehotels, especially those on the coast, are destroying the habitat for many species of fishes as well ascausing the degradation of the Great Morass (wetland), which is a major line of defense againsthurricanes. Jamaica’s tourism industry should be applauded to some extent as a result of its economicalbenefits [Stephanie Thullen (2000)]. However, she wastes no time getting to the point that this
extensive “large-scale” production has led to the demise of the environment and ecosystem. Sheemphasizes the facts that Jamaica is a small island with a fragile eco-system which is already underpressure because of other commercial and industrial activities. The dramatic increase in thedevelopment of these superstructures also means having to cope with more solid waste.“Inadequate sewage systems have caused the deterioration of water quality and damage to coralreefs; construction of sand dunes and has caused wetland destruction.” She points that local craftsmen perpetuates and contributes greatly to the environmentaldegradation of Jamaica by causing damage to the black coral thus causing the reduction of theirformation and pilfering them to make souvenirs. Negril contains all species of coral in the Caribbean;there is unusually high abundance of montastrea Cavernosa and even rare species such as mycetophyllia[Lidia Evans (1980)].In Lidia, in her article, stated that Jamaica’s tourism industry would be one of or ifnot THE most productive sector in Jamaica. She also said that this economic development would nothave affected the social development. Presently only a small fraction of coral species exists, speciessuch as the Liagora, Haloplegrna and Gelidium are none existent . The views of Lidia and Davis are both contradictory to that of Thullen as they generally thinkthat the economic benefits of tourism far out was the effect the sector has on the country. However it isthe researcher’s opinion that Thullens argument was more researched than that of the proponents.Davis and Lidia were more concerned with the short term economical benefits of tourism rather thanthe overall development of Jamaica; before Thullen voiced her opinion and facts she obtained in thefield about the disadvantages of tourism she spoke of the economical advantages of the sector. Kiazorprovides additional support to Thullen’s estimations with her article “The Health of the coral reef inNegril. In her article she shows the extent to which the ecology is being destroyed. This problem has been acknowledged by the Jamaican Government and they have created theNational Resources Conservation Authority to manage the physical environment and assess theenvironmental impact for any type of development and to promote environmental education. Howeverthe researcher is left to ponder she questions whether or not this act is too little too late as within thelast two decades the natural beaches and forests have been significantly destroyed for economicreasons. Now tourism being the biggest income earner for Jamaica, one wonders if it is possible for thismachine to stop? This seems very unlikely as the natural vegetation had been depleted so much that itlimits the available resources for agricultural purposes, hence our current government will continue todepend on tourism as the one of main money making industry in the island. Until something else comesalong, our eco-system will continue to suffer.
Method of Data CollectionData was collected primarily through the use of an observation checklist [Naturalistic Observation].Thisform of observational technique allowed the researcher to acquire truthful answers to Specificquestions without having to rely on individuals in the study area. The researcher therefore had hands onexperience with the research topic so to speak.Questionnaires were another method utilized in the collection of data. The researcher chose to use asample size of thirty, Twenty (20) residence of the West End community and ten (10) persons on thestreet. The questionnaire was not gender or age specific, but persons between the ages of twenty tofifty five was chose as they were assumed to have some sort of knowledge of the topic. Also,Newspaper articles and internet articles were used as secondary sources. Texts such as Last Resorts byPolly Patulous and Tourism Leisure and Recreation by Garret Nagle were used to gain perspective. Thissecondary data helps in coming to a conclusion to the topic as it can provide insight into what peoplethink and what they do. It is unobtrusive, making reactive and investigator effects very unlikely. Thisdata can be collected for time periods occurring in the past (e.g., historical data) and is also useful forcorroboration. The action plan of this Internal Assessment entailed going on at least three different trips toNegril, a main tourist site in Jamaica, to observe how Tourism industry has had an impact on thecountry’s natural ecology. The researcher observed the practices by these major corporations follow thelaws put down by the government as it relates to preserving the natural vegetation, habitats forindigenous creatures, keeping the environment clean as it relates to litter and also the Coral Reefs. The researcher ventured to main hotel properties and observed how these manmade buildingswere affecting the natural rainforest that was once there and observe the creatures in their naturalhabitat. The researcher also saw how well the coral reefs are surviving with these changes to itsenvironment and see if the beaches and surrounding area are being littered. The researcher stopped atthe Negril Harbor, The Crafts and Grocer Markets and passed through the main roads within the citydifferent times of day to tabulate the results and make a conclusion.
Specific times of day 80 78 Harbour 76 Level of 74 Norman Manley Boulivard Pollution in % 72 70 Streets 68 66 Shores in West End 64 Morning Noon Nightime Fig 1: Figure showing the cleanliness of the sites as it relates to pollution at different times of the day The diagram above shows the statistics about the cleanliness of Negril collected by theresearcher acquired from his three trips. It shows how much the area is constantly being kept up as itrelates to cleaning up litter. Figure 1 show that that in the morning the area is immaculate as all areashave been cleaned before the crack of dawn and by midday it is littered somewhat but just a little as thenatural elements and human activities lead to this. At nighttime all areas except the streets are cleanedas the streets are the only areas that are so vast and can’t be cleaned as easily as the private beachesand harbor who employ people for that job.
Picture 1: Photograph showing solid waste disposal facility at the Negril port. It shows the efforts beingmade by the authorities to adequately provide a sanitary environment for recreational use.Picture 2: Photograph showing solid waste disposal facility at the Negril Bay Beach. These were placedalong the beach to reduce pollution of the bay.
23% Negril Outside Negril 77% Figure 2: Showing the Natural Lush Vegetation Outside of Negril as opposed to the one present in NegrilFigure 2: Pie chart showing the observed distribution of vegetation between Negril and its environs. Asillustrated, an overwhelming 77% of the sample population indicated that majority of the vegetationwas found outside of Negril. As a result of infrastructural changes, Negril has lost an alarming amount offlora and fauna. Land clearing for hotel and resort construction and trampling of vegetation by touristsare some contributing factors directly related to the present distribution of vegetation.
Quality of Infrastructure as it relates to roads Road Condition/Transport Very Good Good Satisfactory Needs Improvement Ease of Transportation yes Road Condition yes Pedestrian Crossing Facilities yes Road Signs and Markings YesTable 1: Showing the quality of road/transport facilities in NegrilAs the table indicates, road conditions were fairly good, in that, there were not many road bumps, andadequate stop signs as such, increasing mobility and ease of transportation which was satisfactory.However, the pedestrian crossing facilities were limited hence there was massive movements of peopleat one time crossing the road even when the light said green for upcoming vehicles and this problemshould be addressed
Percentage of Coral Reef abundance 35 30 Coral Reefs 25 inside Ocho Rios 20 15 Coral Reefs outside Ocho 10 Rios (2 mile radius) 5 0 3945 3946 3946 3947 3947 3945 3946 3946 3947 3947 3945 3946 3946 3947 3947 3945 3946 3946 3947 3947 3945 3946 3946 3947 3947 5678901234567890123456789 Different times of the yearThis diagram shows the change in the health of the coral reefs the researcher made notes on fromDecember 2007 to February 2008. The figure shows a decrease in the health of these Coral Reefs due tohuman’s hazardous activities on it.(This information was made available by the Negril Marines).
Percentage of Traffic Flow 80 70 60 Fern Gully 50 Ocho Rios 40 30 Neighbouring 20 Communities 10 0 Times off Day Figure 4: Showing the Traffic flow in specific areas at specific times of day. Ocho Rios Market Vehicles Per Minute Entrance to Dunns River falls in Ocho Rios Fern Gully
Figure 5: Showing the amount of Traffic flow in specific areas.Figure 4 shows the traffic flow of cars in and out of Negril and Figure 5 shows the amount of vehiculartraffic at specific areas per minute. This constant movement of traffic leads to the constant burning offossil fuels hence the releasing of Carbon Monoxide (CO) a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas into theair. Comparison of Years 2008 Sand Dunes 1980 0 50 100 % of Sand Dunes as it relates to the maximum the area can accomodate
Figure 6: Shows the significant fluctuation of Sand dunes in Negril from 1980 compared to 2008 According to statistics found on the internet ninety percent (90%) of Jamaica’s beachesin Negril were lined by dunes of sand. By 2008 the sand dunes have been cut down by morethan half (seventy eight percent (78%) in Negril this shows where Tourism has destroyed thenatural biodiversity of the island.