FOOD POISONING        By Dr Ashok Jaisingani
FOOD – POISONING  Food – poisoning is an acute gastro-enteritis caused by the  ingestion of the food or drink contaminated...
CHARACTERISTICS  There is history of the ingestion of the common foods  Attack of the many persons at the same time  Simil...
TYPES OF THE FOOD POISONING  Non – bacterial type of the food poisoning  Bacterial Type of the food poisoning
NON – BACTERIAL TYPE OF THEFOOD POISONING  It is caused by the chemicals such as  Arsenic  Certain plants & sea foods  The...
BACTERIAL TYPE OF THE FOOD –POISONING  It is caused by the ingestion of the food contaminated by the  living bacteria or t...
SALMONELLA – FOOD POISONING  Common form of the food poisoning  There is increasing incidences of this type of the food  p...
CAUSATIVE AGENTS  The species most often incriminated in humane outbreaks are  S – typhimurium  S – cholera –suis  S – ent...
SOURCE  Salmonellosis is primarily a disease of the animals  Man get infection from the farm animal & poultry through  Con...
INCUBATION PERIOD  The incubation period is 12 – 24 hours commonly
MECHANISM OF THE FOODPOISONING  The causative agents on ingestion multiply in intestine and  give rise acute “enteritis & ...
STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOODPOISONING It is also as common as salmonella food poisoning
AGENTS Enterotoxins of the certain strain of the coagulase positive staphylococcus aureus At least five different enteroto...
SOURCES Staphylococci are ubiquitous in nature Found on the Skin Nose Throat They are common agents of the boil and pyogen...
INCUBATION PERIOD  Incubation Period is between the 1 – 6 hours  The incubation period is short because of the performed  ...
MECHANISM OF THE FOODPOISONING  Food poisoning resulting from the ingestion of the performed  toxins in the food  In food ...
SIGN & SYMPTOMS  The illness become manifested by the sudden onset of the  vomiting  Diarrhea  Abdominal Cramps  In severe...
BOTULISM FOOD POISONING  Botulism derived its name from Latin word   (Sausage = Botulus)  It is most serious type of the f...
CAUSATIVE AGENTS  Exotoxin of the clostridium botulinum generally type A, B or  E
SOURCE  The bacteria is widely distributed in soil, dust and intestinal  tract of the animals  The organism enter in to th...
INCUBATION PERIOD  The incubation period is between the 12 – 36 hours  Because the organism enter in to the food in spore ...
MECHANISM OF THE FOODPOISONING  Under the suitable anaerobic condition the toxins will be  performed in to the foods  It a...
SIGN & SYMPTOMS  The prominent Symptoms are  Dysphagia  Diplopia  Ptosis  Dysarthria  Blurring of the vision  Muscle weakn...
CHARACTERISTICS OF THEBOTULISM TOXINS  Botulism toxin is thermolabile  Foods contaminated with the botulism toxins heated ...
INFANT – BOTULISM  The botulism occurring in the infants is called infants  botulism  It is due to the infection of the gu...
BOTULISM – ANTITOXINS  Antitoxins are of the considerable value in prophylaxis of the  botulism  When a case of the botuli...
CL – PERFRINGENS POISONING  It is less common type of the food poisoning  There is rapid recovery no any death due to this...
CAUSATIVE AGENTS  Cl – perfringens (Welchii)
SOURCES  The organism have been found in to the faces of the humane  and animals, soil, water and air  The majority of the...
INCUBATION PERIOD  Incubation Period is between the 6 – 24 hours  With peak time between the 10 – 14 hours
MECHANISM OF THE FOOD –POISONING  The spores are able to survive the cooking  If the cooked meat and poultry are not coole...
CLINICAL SYMPTOMS  The most common symptoms are  Diarrhea  Abdominal Cramps  Little or no fever  These symptoms occurring ...
PREVENTION Cooking foods just prior its consumption Store the foods by rapid and adequate cooling
B – CEREUS FOOD POISONING  Bacillus – cereus is an aerobic, spore – bearing, motile gram  positive rod  It is ubiquitous i...
B – CEREUS ENTEROTOXINS  B – cereus produce at least two distinct enterotoxins causing  two distinct form of the food pois...
EMETIC – FORM OF THE FOODPOISONING  This form of the food poisoning have a short incubation  period in between 1 – 6 hours...
DIARRHEAL – FORM OF THE FOODPOISONING  This form of the food poisoning have longer incubation period  of about 12 – 24 hou...
DIAGNOSIS  Diagnosis can be confirmed by the isolation of the organism  of 105 or more B – cereus organism per gram of the...
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS  Cholera  Acute bacillary dysentery  Arsenic poisoning
INVESTIGATION OF THE FOODPOISONING  1) Secure complete list of the people involved and their  history  2) Laboratory Inves...
PREVENTION & CONTROL  Food Sanitation:  Meat inspection  High standard of the personal hygiene among the individuals  enga...
REFRIGERATION  In order to prevention o0f the bacterial food – poisoning the  emphasis must be placed on proper temperatur...
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Food – poisoning

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Food – poisoning

  1. 1. FOOD POISONING By Dr Ashok Jaisingani
  2. 2. FOOD – POISONING Food – poisoning is an acute gastro-enteritis caused by the ingestion of the food or drink contaminated with either living bacteria or their toxins or inorganic chemical substances and poison delivered from the plant and animals
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS There is history of the ingestion of the common foods Attack of the many persons at the same time Similarity of the sign and symptoms in the majority of the cases
  4. 4. TYPES OF THE FOOD POISONING Non – bacterial type of the food poisoning Bacterial Type of the food poisoning
  5. 5. NON – BACTERIAL TYPE OF THEFOOD POISONING It is caused by the chemicals such as Arsenic Certain plants & sea foods The contamination of the food by the chemicals such as Fertilizer Pesticides Cadmium Mercury
  6. 6. BACTERIAL TYPE OF THE FOOD –POISONING It is caused by the ingestion of the food contaminated by the living bacteria or their toxins The conventional classification of the bacterial food poisoning in to the toxic and infective type is becoming increasingly blurred, with the knowledge that in some types both multiplication and toxins production involve
  7. 7. SALMONELLA – FOOD POISONING Common form of the food poisoning There is increasing incidences of this type of the food poisoning because of - An increase in communal feeding - An increase in international trade in humane food - A higher incidences of the salmonellosis in farm animals - Wide – spread use of the house – hold detergents interfering with the sewage treatment - Wide distribution of the prepared food
  8. 8. CAUSATIVE AGENTS The species most often incriminated in humane outbreaks are S – typhimurium S – cholera –suis S – enteritidis
  9. 9. SOURCE Salmonellosis is primarily a disease of the animals Man get infection from the farm animal & poultry through Contaminated Meat Milk & Milk Products Sausages Custards Eggs & Eggs Products Rat & mice are another source, they are often heavily infected and contaminate the foodstuffs by their urine & faces
  10. 10. INCUBATION PERIOD The incubation period is 12 – 24 hours commonly
  11. 11. MECHANISM OF THE FOODPOISONING The causative agents on ingestion multiply in intestine and give rise acute “enteritis & colitis” The onset is generally sudden with Chills Fever Nausea Vomiting Profuse Watery Diarrhea (Last 2 – 3 days) Convalescent carrier state may lasting for the several weeks The mortality rate is 1%
  12. 12. STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOODPOISONING It is also as common as salmonella food poisoning
  13. 13. AGENTS Enterotoxins of the certain strain of the coagulase positive staphylococcus aureus At least five different enterotoxins have been identified Toxins can be formed at optimum temperature of the 35oC to 37oC These toxins are relatively heat stable and resist a boiling of 30 minuets or more
  14. 14. SOURCES Staphylococci are ubiquitous in nature Found on the Skin Nose Throat They are common agents of the boil and pyogenic infection in man and animals Cow suffering from the mastitis have been responsible for the outbreaks of the food poisoning involving the milk and milk products
  15. 15. INCUBATION PERIOD Incubation Period is between the 1 – 6 hours The incubation period is short because of the performed toxins
  16. 16. MECHANISM OF THE FOODPOISONING Food poisoning resulting from the ingestion of the performed toxins in the food In food bacteria have grown (Intradietic toxins) Toxin remain in the food after the organism have been died because the toxin is heat resistant Action Of The Toxins: The toxin act directly on the intestine and CNS
  17. 17. SIGN & SYMPTOMS The illness become manifested by the sudden onset of the vomiting Diarrhea Abdominal Cramps In severe cases blood & mucus may appear Unlike salmonella food poisoning the staphylococci food poisoning rarely cause the fever Death is uncommon
  18. 18. BOTULISM FOOD POISONING Botulism derived its name from Latin word (Sausage = Botulus) It is most serious type of the food poisoning It occurs rarely It kills about two – third of the victims
  19. 19. CAUSATIVE AGENTS Exotoxin of the clostridium botulinum generally type A, B or E
  20. 20. SOURCE The bacteria is widely distributed in soil, dust and intestinal tract of the animals The organism enter in to the food in the form of the spore Food Responsible For The Botulism: These are preserved home food such as Home – canned vegetables Smoked or pickled fish Home made cheese Other mow – acid foods
  21. 21. INCUBATION PERIOD The incubation period is between the 12 – 36 hours Because the organism enter in to the food in spore form
  22. 22. MECHANISM OF THE FOODPOISONING Under the suitable anaerobic condition the toxins will be performed in to the foods It act on the parasympathetic nervous system Its action on the GI – Tract is very slight
  23. 23. SIGN & SYMPTOMS The prominent Symptoms are Dysphagia Diplopia Ptosis Dysarthria Blurring of the vision Muscle weakness & even quadriplegia Fever is generally absent Consciousness is generally retained The condition is generally fetal Death occurs 4 – 8 days later due to respiratory or cardiac failure
  24. 24. CHARACTERISTICS OF THEBOTULISM TOXINS Botulism toxin is thermolabile Foods contaminated with the botulism toxins heated for 100oC for a few minuets are safe for the consumption
  25. 25. INFANT – BOTULISM The botulism occurring in the infants is called infants botulism It is due to the infection of the gut by the Cl – botulinum, with subsequent in vivo production of the toxins
  26. 26. BOTULISM – ANTITOXINS Antitoxins are of the considerable value in prophylaxis of the botulism When a case of the botulism have occurred, antitoxins should be given to all individuals partaking of the food The dose varies from the 50,000 – 100,000 unit IV The antitoxin is of the no value if the toxin is already fixed to the nervous tissues Guanidine hydrochloride given orally in doses of the 15 – 40 mg/kg of the body weight have been shown to reverse the neuromuscular block of the botulism When combine with good medical and nursing care the drug can be useful adjunct in the treatment of the botulism Active immunization with botulism toxoid is available
  27. 27. CL – PERFRINGENS POISONING It is less common type of the food poisoning There is rapid recovery no any death due to this type of the poisoning
  28. 28. CAUSATIVE AGENTS Cl – perfringens (Welchii)
  29. 29. SOURCES The organism have been found in to the faces of the humane and animals, soil, water and air The majority of the outbreak have been associated with the ingestion of the Meat, meal dishes and poultry The usual story is that food has been stored and cooked 24 – hour or more before the consumption and allow to cool slowly at room temperature and then heated immediately prior to serving
  30. 30. INCUBATION PERIOD Incubation Period is between the 6 – 24 hours With peak time between the 10 – 14 hours
  31. 31. MECHANISM OF THE FOOD –POISONING The spores are able to survive the cooking If the cooked meat and poultry are not cooled enough, they will germinate The organism multiply between the 30o C – 50oC and produce a variety of the toxins such as Alpha – toxin, theta – toxins
  32. 32. CLINICAL SYMPTOMS The most common symptoms are Diarrhea Abdominal Cramps Little or no fever These symptoms occurring 8 – 24 hours after the consumption of the food Nausea & vomiting are rare Illness is usually of the short duration (1 day or less) Recovery is rapid and no death have been reported
  33. 33. PREVENTION Cooking foods just prior its consumption Store the foods by rapid and adequate cooling
  34. 34. B – CEREUS FOOD POISONING Bacillus – cereus is an aerobic, spore – bearing, motile gram positive rod It is ubiquitous in soil and in raw, dried and possessed foods The spore can survive cooking and germinate and multiply rapidly when the food is held at favorable temperature B – cereus has been recognized as a cause of the food poisoning with increasing in frequency in recent years
  35. 35. B – CEREUS ENTEROTOXINS B – cereus produce at least two distinct enterotoxins causing two distinct form of the food poisoning 1) Emetic For of the food poisoning 2) Diarrheal Form Of The Food Poisoning
  36. 36. EMETIC – FORM OF THE FOODPOISONING This form of the food poisoning have a short incubation period in between 1 – 6 hours It is characterized pre-dominantly by the upper gastro – intestinal tract symptoms
  37. 37. DIARRHEAL – FORM OF THE FOODPOISONING This form of the food poisoning have longer incubation period of about 12 – 24 hours It is characterized predominantly by the Diarrhea Abdominal pain Nausea with little or no vomiting and no fever The recovery within the 24 – hours is usual The toxins are performed and stable
  38. 38. DIAGNOSIS Diagnosis can be confirmed by the isolation of the organism of 105 or more B – cereus organism per gram of the epidemiologically incriminated food Treatment: Treatment is symptomatic
  39. 39. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Cholera Acute bacillary dysentery Arsenic poisoning
  40. 40. INVESTIGATION OF THE FOODPOISONING 1) Secure complete list of the people involved and their history 2) Laboratory Investigation 3) Animal Experiments 4) Blood for the antibodies 5) Environmental Study 6) Analysis of the data according to descriptive method of time, place and person 7) A case control study may be undertaken to establish the epidemiologic association between illness and the intake of the particular foods
  41. 41. PREVENTION & CONTROL Food Sanitation: Meat inspection High standard of the personal hygiene among the individuals engaged in handling, preparation and cooking of the food Food handler suffer from any disease should be excluded from food handling Food handling technique I.e. the time between the food preparation and consumption is short Sanitation of the all work surface, utensils, equipments, must be insured Food handler should be educated in matter of the clean habits, and personal hygiene (Frequent and thorough hand washing)
  42. 42. REFRIGERATION In order to prevention o0f the bacterial food – poisoning the emphasis must be placed on proper temperature control Food should not be left in warm pantries Cook and eat the food same day immediately is golden rule
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