Chicken pox


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Chicken pox

  1. 1. Chicken PoxDr Ashok Jaisingani LUMHS
  2. 2. Chicken PoxAlso known as VericeliaChicken pox is an acute highly infectious diseaseCaused by the varicella – Zoster virusCharacterized by the vascular rash, that may be accompaniedby the fever and malaise
  3. 3. Causative AgentVaricella – Zoster virusHumane Herpes virus type III or (*Humane alpha virus)
  4. 4. Host FactorMan is the host of the virusAge:Children under the 10 – years of the ageImmunity:One attack of the disease give life long immunity, secondattacks are rareEnvironment:Over-crowding increase the chance of the disease
  5. 5. ReservoirInfected persons are the reservoirSource of the infection:Ooropharyngeal secretionLesion of the skin and mucosaInfectivity Period:It range from the one to two days before the appearance ofthe rash and 4 – 5 days thereafter
  6. 6. Mode Of The TransmissionDirect:Person to person through the droplets or air borne spreadThe virus can cross the placental barrierIndirect:Through the articles freshly soiled by the discharge from themucus membrane of the patientClothingIncubation Period: It is 14 – 16 daysSusceptibility & Resistance: It is universal among those notpreviously attacked
  7. 7. Clinical FeaturesClinical features are characterized by thePre-eruptive stageEruptive stage
  8. 8. Pre – Eruptive Stagea) Onset is suddenb) Mild or moderate feverc) Back ached) MalaiseThis stage is lasts for about the 24 hours in the children and 2 – 3 days in adult
  9. 9. Eruptive StageIn children the rash is often first sign coming on the day thefever startsThis stage is characterized by theCentripetal DistributionRapid EvaluationPleomorphismsFever
  10. 10. Centripetal DistributionRashes are symmetricalFirst appears on the trunk, where it is abundant and thencome on the face, arms and legs where it is less abundantMucosal surface (Buccal & Pharyngeal) are generallyinvolvedAxilla may be affected palms and soles are not usuallyaffectedDensity of the eruption diminish the centrifugally
  11. 11. Rapid EvaluationRash advances quickly through the stage of the macule,papule, vesicles and scabVesicles are dew – drops like in appearance, present on theskin, containing the clean fluid superficial in site, with theeasily ruptured wall and surrounded by the area of theinflammation and are not umblicatedThe vesicles may form the crusts without going through thepustula stageScabing begin 4 – 7 days after the rash appearance
  12. 12. PleomorphismsAll stages of the rash (Papule, vesicles & crusts) may beseen simultaneously at one time in same areaThis due to the rash appearing in the successive crops forthe 4 – 5 days in same areaFever:The fever does not run highIt show exacerbation with the each fresh crop of theeruption
  13. 13. Chicken Pox & Herpes Zoster VirusThe two diseases are regarded as different host responses tothe same infectious agentIt is believed that herpes Zoster is the result of theproliferation of the varicella virus in cranial and spinalnerves producing the pain and vascular eruption ininnervated areas in persons partially immune as a result ofthe having varicella in the pastHerpes Zoster could be either a reinfection with the virus orreactivation of the latent virus, which had persisted since thechicken pox virus
  14. 14. ComplicationHemorrhagePneumoniaEncephalitisAcute cerebellar AtaxiaReye’s Syndrome (Acute encephalopathy associated withthe fatty degeneration of the liver)Fetal death and birth defects in case of the maternal vericeladuring the pregnancy
  15. 15. ControlThere is no special treatment for the chicken poxControl Of The Patient:Notification to the health authoritiesIsolation from the school for only one weekContact with the susceptible patient is avoidedConcurrent disinfections of the articles soiled by thedischargeQuarantine is not necessary, child contact should be keptunder the observation for the 21 – days
  16. 16. Preventive MeasureVaricella Zoster immunoglobulin given within the 72 – hoursof the exposure has been recommended for the preventionA live attenuated vaccine has proved safe and effective inpreventing the disease
  17. 17. Thank You“By Dr Ashok Jaisingani” Physician Residant Cardiologist