Male reproductive system

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  • period when the endocrine and gamete – producing functions of the gonads have first developed to where reproduction is possible
  • the tunica albuginea, surrounds each testis and extends inward to form septa that partition the organ into lobules There are about 250 lobules in each testis. Each contains 1 to 4 highly coiled seminiferous tubules that converge to form a single straight tubule, which leads into the rete testis. Short efferent ducts exit the testes.
    Interstitial cells (cells of Leydig), which produce male sex hormones, are located between the seminiferous tubules within a lobule
  • A vertical septum, or partition, of subcutaneous tissue in the center divides it into two parts, each containing one testis.
    Smooth muscle fibers, called the dartos muscle, in the subcutaneous tissue contract to give the scrotum its wrinkled appearance. When these fibers are relaxed, the scrotum is smooth.
    the cremaster muscle, consists of skeletal muscle fibers and controls the position of the scrotum and testes. When it is cold or a man is sexually aroused, this muscle contracts to pull the testes closer to the body for warmth
  • saccular glands posterior to the urinary bladder.
    Each gland has a short duct that joins with the ductus deferens at the ampulla to form an ejaculatory duct, which then empties into the urethra.
    The fluid is viscous and contains fructose, which provides an energy source for the sperm; prostaglandins, which contribute to the mobility and viability of the sperm; and proteins that cause slight coagulation reactions in the semen after ejaculation.
  • a slightly alkaline mixture of sperm cells and secretions from the accessory glands. Secretions from the seminal vesicles make up about 60 percent of the volume of the semen, with most of the remainder coming from the prostate gland. The sperm and secretions from the bulbourethral gland contribute only a small volume.
    The volume of semen in a single ejaculation may vary from 1.5 to 6.0 ml. There are between 50 to 150 million sperm per milliliter of semen. Sperm counts below 10 to 20 million per milliliter usually present fertility problems. Although only one sperm actually penetrates and fertilizes the ovum, it takes several million sperm in an ejaculation to ensure that fertilization will take place.
  • a firm, dense structure that is located just inferior to the urinary bladder.
    It is about the size of a walnut and encircles the urethra as it leaves the urinary bladder.
    Numerous short ducts from the substance of the prostate gland empty into the prostatic urethra. The secretions of the prostate are thin, milky colored, and alkaline. They function to enhance the motility of the sperm.
  • the male copulatory organ, is a cylindrical pendant organ located anterior to the scrotum and functions to transfer sperm to the vagina.
    consists of three columns of erectile tissue that are wrapped in connective tissue and covered with skin. The two dorsal columns are the corpora cavernosa. The single, midline ventral column surrounds the urethra and is called the corpus spongiosum.
  • It is a passageway for sperm and fluids from the reproductive system and urine from the urinary system. While reproductive fluids are passing through the urethra, sphincters contract tightly to keep urine from entering the urethra.
  • spongy erectile tissue is a loose network of connective tissue with many spaces
    ED – inability to achieve or maintain an erection
    Affects approx. 30 mil men in USA. Not unusual to experience sometime – usually due to psychological problems: stress, depression, worrying, grief
    Physical problems: nerve damage – usually accompanying diabetes or alcoholism
    Atherosclerosis [fatty deposits] in arteries supplying penis
    medications: HTN, antihistamines, antinausea & antiseizure, antidepressants, sedatives, tranquilzers
    Cigarettes, marijuana & alcohol
    Treat ED – eliminate problem. Medications: Viagra type enhance nitric oxide that is released with arousal and caused arterioles to dilate
  • Male reproductive system

    1. 1. By- Mr. ASHOK BISHNOI Lecturer, JINR
    2. 2. Introduction:-  In human being the process is one of sexual reproduction, in which the male & female organ differ anatomically& physiologically.
    3. 3.  Both male & females produce specialise reproductive germ cells, called Gametes.  The male gametes are called Spermatozoa  The female gametes are called Ovum
    4. 4. Slide 6 of 22 Terminology:- Sperm The reproductive cells in males. Fertilization The process of a sperm cell joining with an egg. Testes The male reproductive glands. Testosterone The sex hormone that affects the production of sperm and signals certain physical changes at puberty. Scrotum A sac of skin that contains the testes.
    5. 5. Penis The external male sexual organ through which sperm leave the body. Semen The mixture of sperm and fluids produced by the glands of the male reproductive system. Ejaculation The ejection of semen from the penis. Infertility The condition of being unable to reproduce.
    6. 6. Male reproductive organ are:-  Testis (Gonads)  Scrotum  Seminal  Prostate gland  Urethra  Panis
    7. 7. Function:-  To produce sperm and protective fluid (semen)  To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract  To produce male sex hormones
    8. 8. Adolescence Puberty :-  Begins: 9 – 14 yrs of age  Abnormally early = precocious puberty  Delayed = eunuchoidism
    9. 9. General Physical Changes  Enlargement of the external and internal genitalia  Voice changes  Hair growth  Mental changes  Sebaceous gland secretions thicken/increase  acne
    10. 10.  Are the reproductive gland of the male.  Each testis is an oval shaped.  About 5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide & 3 cm thick  Weighing 10–15 g each  Located in the scrotum
    11. 11. Layers of testis:- There are three layers of tissue  Tunica vaginalis (Outer layer) There are two layers of the tunica vaginalis: the visceral and the parietal.  Tunica albginea (Middle layer)  Tunica vasculosa (Inner layer)
    12. 12. Structure of testis:-  There are about 200-300 lobules in each testis.  Each contains 1 to 4 -seminiferous tubules that converge to form a single straight tubule.  Between the tubules are group of intestinal cell (cells of Leydig), that secret the hormone testosterone after puberty.
    13. 13.  Epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles (male duct which transport sperm to the penis)
    14. 14. Blood supply:-  Blood supply:-By branch of testicular artery.  Venous drainage:-By testicular vein  Lymph drainage:-By lymph node around the aorta  Nerve supply :-By the 10th & 11th thorasic nerve
    15. 15. Function:-  Production of sperm in the seminiferus tubules of the testis.  Production of Androgens, Testesterone.
    16. 16. Slide 24 of 22 Male Reproductive System Seminal vesicle Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland Front View Urinary bladder Vas deferens Urethra Penis Epididymis Testis
    17. 17. • The ejection of semen from the penis is called ejaculation. Release of Sperm • Ejaculation occurs when muscles in the male reproductive system and at the base of the bladder contract, forcing semen through the urethra. • Several million sperm cells are released during one ejaculation. • Ejaculation can occur when the penis is in an erect state.
    18. 18. Characteristics:-  is only 0.06 mm long.  A healthy sperm cell is usually a white color  Life span of sperm is 48 to 72 hrs
    19. 19. Functions:  To deliver its set of genes to the egg and to stimulate the egg to begin development.
    20. 20. The Pathway of Sperm Seminal vesicle Prostat e gland Bulbourethr al gland Vas deferens Urethra Penis Epididymis Testis Sperm are produced in the testes. They mature and are stored in the epididymis. Sperm travel through the vas deferens to the seminal vesicles. Seminal vesicles add a fluid that provides a source of energy for the active sperm. The prostate gland adds a fluid that protects the sperm. The bulbourethral glands add a lubricating fluid that aids the passage of sperm through the urethra.
    21. 21.  Consists of skin and subcutaneous tissue  A vertical septum, of subcutaneous tissue in the center divides it into two parts, each containing one testis.  Smooth muscle fibers in the subcutaneous tissue contract to give the scrotum its wrinkled appearance.  The cremaster musclecontrols the position of the scrotum and testes.  When it is cold or a man is sexually aroused, this muscle contracts to pull the testes closer to the body for warmth.
    22. 22.  It is the accessory sex organ in male  Position:-In lower abdomen on either side of prostate.  Each has a short duct that joins with the ductus deferens at the ampulla to form an ejaculatory duct, which then empties into the urethra.  The fluid is viscous and mucoid in nature
    23. 23. Composition:-  Fructose, Prostaglandins,Proteins,Pepsinogen ,Ascorbic acid & Citric acid
    24. 24. The Pathway of Sperm Seminal vesicle Prostat e gland Bulbourethr al gland Vas deferens Urethra Penis Epididymis Testis Sperm are produced in the testes. They mature and are stored in the epididymis. Sperm travel through the vas deferens to the seminal vesicles. Seminal vesicles add a fluid that provides a source of energy for the active sperm. The prostate gland adds a fluid that protects the sperm. The bulbourethral glands add a lubricating fluid that aids the passage of sperm through the urethra.
    25. 25. Function:-  Provide nutrition to sperm.  Clotting of semen  Help in fertilization
    26. 26. Accessory glands  Are the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands.  These glands secrete fluids that enter the urethra.
    27. 27.  Is ejaculated during sexual act.  Is consist of sperm & product of accessory glands.  The sperm and secretions from the bulbourethral gland contribute only a small volume.
    28. 28. Properties of semen:-  Specific gravity:1.028  Volume: 2-6 ml/ejaculation  pH: 7.5
    29. 29. Composition of semen:-  Sperm: 10%  Product from seminal vesicle:60%  Product from prostate gland:30%
    30. 30.  It is consist of 20-30 separate glands.  Weight it is about 40 gm  It is open in to urethra.  Position:- Situated in the pelvic cavity in the front of the rectum & behind the symphysis pubis.
    31. 31. Characteristics:-  The secretions of the prostate are thin, milky colored, and alkaline.  Composition:- Sodium,Calcium,Zink,Citrate,cholesterol ,Phospholipid,Cloting enzymes etc.
    32. 32. Function:-  Maintenance of ph for fertilization.  To control the flow of urine outside the human body.  Secretes a milky fluid that combines with sperm to make semen.
    33. 33.  Is a cylindrical pendant organ located anterior to the scrotum.  Consists of three columns of erectile tissue that are wrapped in connective tissue and covered with skin.  The single, midline ventral column surrounds the urethra and is called the corpus spongiosum.
    34. 34.  3 parts: a root, body (shaft), and glans penis.  The root of the penis attaches it to the pubic arch.  The body is the visible portion.
    35. 35. Function:-  Transfer sperm to the vagina.
    36. 36.  Extends from the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice at the tip of the penis.  It is a passageway for sperm and fluids from the reproductive system and urine from the urinary system.  Divided into three regions: The prostatic urethra, the membranous urethra & the penile urethra.
    37. 37. Erection  Involves increase in length, width & firmness  Changes in blood supply: arterioles dilate, veins constrict  The spongy erectile tissue fills with blood  Erectile Dysfunction [ED] also known as impotence
    38. 38. Hormones  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates spermatogenesis  Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH) stimulates the production of testosterone  testosterone stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics.

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