Urinary System• Maintains the balance of products of ammonia such as sodium ions, chloride, potassium, hydrogen, sulfate and phosphate.• Excretes body wastes• Consists of : 2 kidneys 2 ureters 1 urinary bladder Urethra
Functions• Excretion: kidneys filter large amounts of fluid from the blood and eliminate nitrogenous waste, drugs and toxins• Maintain blood volume and concentration: kidneys control blood volume by regulating the proper balance in the blood between salts and water - regulate the volume of urine produced - regulate the concentration of ions in body fluids and blood so the proper balance of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium and phosphate ions is maintained.
Functions• pH regulation: kidneys control the proper balance of hydrogen ions in the blood• Blood pressure: kidneys produce a enzyme “RENIN” that helps adjust the filtration pressure• Erythrocyte concentration: kidneys produce “ERYTHROPOIETIM” a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production
Functions• Release of Prostaglandin: - prostaglandin dilate kidney blood vessels - dilated blood vessels contribute to homeostatis by maintaining blood flow in the kidney• Vitamin D production: kidneys convert vit.D to its active form, Calciferol - Together with liver and skin, it participates in Vitamin D synthesis
Kidney• Paired , bean shaped organ that lie on either side of the vertebral column below the diaphragm and liver• Regulate the composition and volume of the blood• Remove wastes from the blood in the form of urine
Ureters• tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder• Extension of the kidney pelvis• Ureters join the bladder via a tunnel in the bladder wall, which is angled to prevent reflux (backflow) of urine into the ureters when the bladder muscle contracts.
Urinary Bladder• organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination.• hollow muscular, and distensible or elastic organ• When the bladder is stretched, this signals the parasympathetic nervous system to contract the detrusor muscle. This encourages the bladder to expel urine through the urethra.
Urethra• tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body• In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine.• In females, the urethra is shorter and emerges above the vaginal opening.• Women use their urethra only for urinating, but men use their urethra for both urinating and ejaculating.• The external urethral sphincter is a striated muscle that allows voluntary control over urination.
• Acute Renal Failure - decrease in the ability of the kidney to excrete wastes and regulate the homeostasis of blood volume, pH, etc.• Glomerulonephritis - inflammation of the glumeroli - involvement of person’s own antibodies
• Kidney stones - also known as a renal calculus - solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine -typically classified by their location: in the kidney - nephrolithiasis ureter- ureterolithiasis bladder- cystolithiasis by their chemical composition- calcium containing