Examples of MalformationsA. Polydactyly (one or more extra digits) and syndactyly (fusion of digits)B. Cleft lip (may be with or without associated cleft palate)C. Lethal malformation (midface structures are fused or ill-formed); external dysmorphogenesis associated with severe internal anomalies such as maldevelopment of the brain and cardiac defects
Disruption by an amniotic bandDisruptions (Amniotic Bands)
Oligohydramnios sequence Flattened facial features and deformed right foot (talipes equinovarus)
Trisomy 18 (Edward’s Syndrome) • unusually small head • back of the head is prominent • ears are malformed and low- set • mouth and jaw are small (may also have a cleft lip or cleft palate • hands are clenched into fists, and the index finger overlaps the other fingers • Clubfeet (or rocker bottom feet) and toes may be webbed or fused
Hyaline Membrane Disease This is hyaline membrane disease due to prematurity and lack of surfactant production from type II pneumonocytes within the immature lung. Note the thick pink membranes lining the alveolar spaces.
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) Pneumatosis instestinalis (air within the intestinal walls)The plain abdominal film shows air in the portal vein, air in the bowel walls, and a largepneumoperitoneum [subdiaphragmatic free air, perihepatic free air, double wall sign (bluearrows), triangle sign (green arrows), and falciform ligament (red arrow)].
Hydrops Fetalis (non-immune) Cystic hygroma (in fetus w/ Turner’s syndrome) Generalized edema from fluid collection in the soft tissues results in hydrops fetalis. Causes: Most common are "non- immune" types that include infections, congestive failure (from anemia or cardiac abnormalities), and congenital anomalies. Immune hydrops, from maternal antibody formed against fetal red blood cells, is not common when Rh immune globulin is employed in cases of potential Rh incompatibility.
Wilms Tumor, kidney nests and sheets of dark blue cells at the left with compressed normal renal parenchyma at the rightWilms tumor of the kidney (lobulated white-tan mass), many are associated with genetic defects onchromosome 11.Children present with abdominal enlargement from the mass effect.
Carbon monoxide poisoning Cherry-red discoloration of the skin
Asbestosis Asbestos fiber Tan-white pleural plaques Asbestos fibers coated with iron
Aneurysm Atherosclerotic aneurysm of the aorta (large "bulge“ just above the aortic bifurcation). Prone to rupture when they reach about 6 to 7 cm in size. Felt on PE as a pulsatile mass in the abdomen.