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Cyberactivism: A generational approach to digital activism
 

Cyberactivism: A generational approach to digital activism

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My thesis defense presentation about social media use by digital natives and digital immigrants.

My thesis defense presentation about social media use by digital natives and digital immigrants.

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    Cyberactivism: A generational approach to digital activism Cyberactivism: A generational approach to digital activism Presentation Transcript

    • CYBERACTIVISM: A GENERATIONAL COMPARISON OF DIGITAL ACTIVISM A thesis defense by Ashley Noel Hennefer
    • TERMS TO KNOW o Cyberactivism: Activism that occurs or is facilitate by the internet and/or digital technologies (Amin, 2010) o Digital natives: People exposed and immersed in technology from a young age (Prensky, 2001) o Digital immigrants: People exposed to technology at older ages (Prensky, 2001) o Social media: Websites that facilitate social interaction across geographical boundaries (Facebook, Twitter, Reddit) (Christensen, 2011)
    • SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY DURING POLITICAL MOVEMENTS
    • SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY DURING POLITICAL MOVEMENTS o Used to coordinate in-person protests and meet-ups o Mimicked many in-person procedures: general assemblies, meetings, strategy planning o Livestreams, Tweets, Facebook events became outlets for citizen-driven news
    • DIGITAL LITERACIES o Ability to use technology and apply traditional literacy skills – reading, writing, critical thinking (Bawden, 2001) o Adaptation to multiple platforms – mobile and stationary devices, various websites, software, and social networking (Howard & Duffy, 2011) o Distributed intelligence: ―a complex, adaptive learning system that can be sustainable in the face of unpredictable futures‖ (Innes & Booher, 2010)  Social networking uses distributed intelligence—taps into unique skills offered by members of the same community (Fisher & Konomi, 2007)
    • DIGITAL NATIVES AND DIGITAL IMMIGRANTS o Terms coined by Prensky (2001) o Digital natives: People immersed in technology from a young age; a familiar skill (Prensky, 2001) o Digital immigrants: People who use technology later in life; a learned skill (Prensky, 2001) o Digital natives are avid users of social media and mobile devices (Palfrey & Gasser, 2008)
    • CRITICISMS OF DIGITAL NATIVES o A Western construct; assumes that youth has access to technology o Assumes characteristics of a generation o Words ―natives‖ and ―immigrants‖ has racial implications
    • CYBERACTIVISM o Technology-based activism; activism that takes place on the web or using internet/digital technologies (Amin, 2010; Rotman et al., 2011) o Activist literacy: Requires skills of activism as well as digital literacies o Instruments of cyberactivism include social networking, forums
    • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY o To examine any trends in web-based outlets and habits associated with digital natives o To have some context for how cyberactivism is conducted oTo determine if age plays a role in cyberactivism
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS o How do digital natives use web-based resources to participate in political movements? o What are the habitual differences between digital natives and digital immigrants in the use of web-based resources to participate in political movements and discussion?
    • DESIGN & ANALYSIS o Quantitative o Survey instrument o Analyzed with Chi square, crosstabulated by age groups o Responses were coded based on literature review; focused on active vs. passive actions, differences between digital natives and digital immigrants
    • PARTICIPANTS o Distributed through social networking: Facebook, Twitter and Reddit o Use of hashtags on Twitter: #Cyberactivism, #occupywallstreet, #arabspring, #occupygezi (Turkey protests were occurring at the time of distribution) o Snowball effect gained responses o Distributed to students in Northern California for additional responses
    • LIMITATIONS o Snowball effect meant an open sample population o A mix of qualitative/quantitative questions in survey o A Likert scale would have provided more consistent responses
    • RESULTS: DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION Age of participants (blue = DI, green = DN) Age of first computer usage
    • RESULTS: DEMOGRAPHICS, CONT. Digital natives more likely to use the internet at younger ages Age of first web use
    • RESULTS: IDENTIFICATION AS ACTIVIST Both digital natives and digital immigrants identified as activists occasionally
    • RESULTS: ONLINE PETITIONS Both digital natives and digital immigrants signed or created online petitions; DNs more so, but only marginally
    • RESULTS: DEVICE PREFERENCES Digital natives favored mobile devices, digital immigrants favored stationary devices Relationship between age and device preference
    • RESULTS: PASSIVE VS. ACTIVE Relationship between age and preference for passive activism; digital natives more likely to be passive
    • RESULTS: FORUM DISCUSSION Digital natives more active than digital immigrants when discussing politics on web forms
    • RESULTS: ACCESSING NEWS Both digital natives and digital immigrants used the web to access news
    • RESULTS: RESEARCH PROCESS Both digital natives and digital immigrants used the web as the first step when researching a political cause
    • DISCUSSION o Digital natives used computers and the internet at younger ages than digital immigrants (Palfrey & Gasser, 2008; Prensky, 2001) o Digital natives preferred mobile devices over stationary; are more social and mobile (Palfrey & Gasser, 2008) o Digital natives exhibited passive activism more so than digital immigrants (Rotman et al., 2011) o Internet plays a role for both digital natives and digital immigrants: both used web for news access, online petitions and research (Sivitanides & Marcos, 2011; Valenzuela, 2013)
    • IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH o Exploring characteristics of specific groups of activists: environmental activists, internet freedom activists, human rights activists o The role of education within cyberactivism o The role of gender within cyberactivism oDetermining if passive/active habits are true of digital natives and digital immigrants
    • REFERENCES Amin, R. (2010). The empire strikes back: Social media uprisings and the future of cyberactivism. Kennedy School Review, 64–66. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. (R. K. Belew & M. D. Vose, Eds.) On Horizon, 9(5), 1-6. MCB UP Ltd. the Bawden, D. (2001). Information and digital literacies: a review of concepts. Journal of Documentation, 57(2), 218–259. Rotman, D., Vieweg, S., Yardi, S., Chi, E., Preece, J., Shneiderman, B, Pirolli, P., & Glaisyer, T. (2011). From slacktivism to activism: participatory culture in the age of social media. Paper presented at Christensen, C. (2011). Twitter revolutions? Addressing the annual CHI (Computer-Human Interaction) social media and dissent. The Communication Conference in Vancouver, Canada. Abstract retrieved Review, 14(3), 155–157. from http://yardi.people.si.umich.edu/pub/Yard CHI11_SIG.pdf. Innes, J., & Booher, D. (2010). Indicators for sustainable communities: a strategy building on complexity Sivitanides, M., & Marcos, S. (2011). The era of digital activism. theory and distributed intelligence. Planning Theory & Conference for Information Systems Applied Research Practice,1(2), 173-186. (pp. 1–8). Palfrey, J., & Gasser, U. (2008). Born digital: Understanding the first generation of digital natives. New York: Basic Books. Valenzuela, S. (2013). Unpacking the use of social media for protest behavior: the roles of information, opinion expression, and activism. American Behavioral Scientist,57(7), 920-942.