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90 % mangrove
 

90 % mangrove

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    90 % mangrove 90 % mangrove Presentation Transcript

    • BAT213COASTAL & MARINE ECOSYSTEM
    • Balik Pulau
    • Sites Visited
    • Balik Pulau Market• Wet market• Dry market• Halal stall for Muslims
    • Next Station! Pantai Acheh !!
    • Pantai Acheh
    • Pantai Acheh• A small Chinese fishing community on the west coast of Penang Island.• Located at the end of Jalan Pantai Acheh.
    • flatworm
    • Sungai Burung Mangrove Forest
    • Kampung Sungai Burung
    • Sungai Burung Mangrove Forest• A famous stopover for the migratory birds because of abundance of shelter and food.• The mangrove provided the villagers with a good catch when they fish near the coast, and sheltered the jetties• This forest was the one of the hardest hit area in Penang in 26 December 2004.
    • “The Green War 2011’ campaign. The participants are planting the mangrove saplings along Sungai Burung, Penang
    • Why mangroves are most successfulin low-lying regions with relatively large tidal fluctuations?
    • Tidal fluctuationWhere evaporation is very high, it wash excess salt away Reduction ofpreventing excessively competition high soil salinity concentrations
    • Transportation ExportingAlternating of relatively wastes, Effective Reduction of wetting clean water detritus and dispersal of competitionand drying and nutrients sulfur propagules in compounds
    • Salt wateradaptations :
    • 2 major methods mangroves use to dealwith living in salt water.
    • Root adaptations to soft, saline soils• Far-reaching, exposed roots.• Some species of mangroves have pneumataphores• Some mangroves species adapted to stop the intake of a lot of the salt from the water before it reaches the plant.Leaf adaptations to saline conditions• Reduction of transpiration rate on leaf surface to minimise salt intake.• Tolerate the storage of large amounts of salt in their leaves .• Restrict the opening of their stomata.• Turn their leaves to reduce the surface area of the leaf exposed to the hot sun.
    • Specific strategies of each mangrove species
    • Rhizophora Laguncularia apiculata racemosa Prop root
    • Anaerobicadaptations :
    • Anaerobi cWithout Oxygen
    • High salinityIncrease of salt concentration in the plant tissues Damage the metabolic processes Death of mangroves.
    • Reproduction
    • Unique reproductivestrategies of the mangrove species • Mangrove spreadsHydrochory seeds, fruit, and/ or propagules. • Mangrove embryo Vivipary germinates while still attached.
    • Important roles of mangrovesin land stabilization and storm protection During extreme storms and hurricanes, mangrove forests protect landward coastal areas. Underground root Mangroves trap, hold, systems which increase and stabilize inter-tidal sediment-holding sediments. capabilities. Prevent erosion.
    • Importance of mangroves forpopution of marine organisms Basis of a complex marine Establishment food chain of restrictive impoinds thatoffer protection for maturing offspring Creation of breeding habitat
    • Rhizophora apiculata
    • Laguncularia racemosa
    • The Economic Values of Balik Pulau Mangrove
    • The Economic Values• 2 modes: –Direct values –Indirect values
    • Direct Values• Actual removal of mangrove community for – Personal consumption – Sold in the market • Local • International• Example: – Firewood/ charcoal – Poles for construction works – Medicine
    • Indirect Values• Use the mangrove without destroying the community.• Examples: – Fisheries – Eco-tourism
    • Direct Uses of Mangrove• Firewood/ charcoal• Poles for construction works• Medicine
    • Firewood/ Charcoal• Trunks & branches – firewood – High calorific value – produce more heat.• Process into charcoal – Absorbs odours and moisture in the air – Reliefs gastric problems/ indigestion
    • Poles for Construction Works• As building foundation – Provides support for houses – Reasons: • Can withstand high humidity • Long-lasting compared to terrestrial wood
    • Medicine• Leaf of Rhizophora apiculata – Active ingredients capable to inhibit the growth of HIV-1 strains** Presume more potentials in mangrove treesor other organisms - New drugs produced
    • Indirect Uses of Mangrove • Fisheries • Eco-tourism
    • Fisheries• Suitable habitat for most of the seafood we consume – Examples: Prawns, fish, crabs• Provides shelter & food source for juveniles and adult seafood
    • Fisheries• Continuous supply to market – Prevent price hike in seafood during monsoon season
    • Eco-tourism• Build bridges made up of mangrove tree poles – Ease visitors especially during high tides/ raining season. – Access to zones with substrate too soft to be stepped on – Ensure safety of visitors especially children
    • Eco-tourism• Fisherman provides boat trip services – Brings visitors out to the sea – Visitors could understand • The life of fishermen • The way they earn a living • Fishing methods used • Share life experiences of fishermen in sea – Expose urban kids to countryside lifestyles
    • Ways to Boost Tourism in Balik Pulau • Food • Scenery
    • Food• A feast or carnival during the durian season, normally May to July each year.• Herb garden in Kampung Jalan Bharu.• Special food presentation to attract attention – Fresh seafood cooked with herbs – Served in durian husks – Fruit pickles (jeruk) as appetizers – Nutmeg juice to quench thirst – Durian as dessert• Taste all the delicacies in just 1 meal.
    • Scenery• Scenic paddy fields – Relaxing – stress-releasing – Fresh air – Photography enthusiasts could snap shots• Eagle watching – Unique as not so common in urban area
    • Human Impact• Overfishing – Food sources, net size, greediness of fisherman• Deforestation – firewood, construction wood, wood chip and pulp production, charcoal production, and animal fodder
    • Human Impact• Uses of mangrove land for urban development – agricultural land, anchoring of boats, human settlements, resettlement activities, infrastructure, and industrial areas• Pollution – Fertilizers, pesticides, discharge of industrial effluent, Solid waste dumping, pollutants, and sewage
    • Tsunami(The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake)• On 26 December 2004.• Involved 18 countries.• Triggered by an earthquake (measuring 9 of the Richter scale) in Indian Ocean.• Penang and Kedah affected most.
    • Impacts of Tsunami on Ecosystem• Physical removal of flora and fauna.• increased sediment load - will kill sediment sensitive corals and sea grasses by smothering.• Increased turbidity of coastal water.• Eutrophication.• Escape of exotic (introduced) species used for aquaculture.
    • • The areas shielded by mangrove forests received minimal destructible effects from the huge tidal wave.• Reduce the wave energy from Tsunami.• Reduce erosion of beaches.
    • Thank You