Sungai Burung Mangrove Forest• A famous stopover for the migratory birds because of abundance of shelter and food.• The mangrove provided the villagers with a good catch when they fish near the coast, and sheltered the jetties• This forest was the one of the hardest hit area in Penang in 26 December 2004.
“The Green War 2011’ campaign. The participants are planting the mangrove saplings along Sungai Burung, Penang
Why mangroves are most successfulin low-lying regions with relatively large tidal fluctuations?
Tidal fluctuationWhere evaporation is very high, it wash excess salt away Reduction ofpreventing excessively competition high soil salinity concentrations
Transportation ExportingAlternating of relatively wastes, Effective Reduction of wetting clean water detritus and dispersal of competitionand drying and nutrients sulfur propagules in compounds
2 major methods mangroves use to dealwith living in salt water.
Root adaptations to soft, saline soils• Far-reaching, exposed roots.• Some species of mangroves have pneumataphores• Some mangroves species adapted to stop the intake of a lot of the salt from the water before it reaches the plant.Leaf adaptations to saline conditions• Reduction of transpiration rate on leaf surface to minimise salt intake.• Tolerate the storage of large amounts of salt in their leaves .• Restrict the opening of their stomata.• Turn their leaves to reduce the surface area of the leaf exposed to the hot sun.
Unique reproductivestrategies of the mangrove species • Mangrove spreadsHydrochory seeds, fruit, and/ or propagules. • Mangrove embryo Vivipary germinates while still attached.
Important roles of mangrovesin land stabilization and storm protection During extreme storms and hurricanes, mangrove forests protect landward coastal areas. Underground root Mangroves trap, hold, systems which increase and stabilize inter-tidal sediment-holding sediments. capabilities. Prevent erosion.
Importance of mangroves forpopution of marine organisms Basis of a complex marine Establishment food chain of restrictive impoinds thatoffer protection for maturing offspring Creation of breeding habitat
The Economic Values• 2 modes: –Direct values –Indirect values
Direct Values• Actual removal of mangrove community for – Personal consumption – Sold in the market • Local • International• Example: – Firewood/ charcoal – Poles for construction works – Medicine
Indirect Values• Use the mangrove without destroying the community.• Examples: – Fisheries – Eco-tourism
Direct Uses of Mangrove• Firewood/ charcoal• Poles for construction works• Medicine
Firewood/ Charcoal• Trunks & branches – firewood – High calorific value – produce more heat.• Process into charcoal – Absorbs odours and moisture in the air – Reliefs gastric problems/ indigestion
Poles for Construction Works• As building foundation – Provides support for houses – Reasons: • Can withstand high humidity • Long-lasting compared to terrestrial wood
Medicine• Leaf of Rhizophora apiculata – Active ingredients capable to inhibit the growth of HIV-1 strains** Presume more potentials in mangrove treesor other organisms - New drugs produced
Indirect Uses of Mangrove • Fisheries • Eco-tourism
Fisheries• Suitable habitat for most of the seafood we consume – Examples: Prawns, fish, crabs• Provides shelter & food source for juveniles and adult seafood
Fisheries• Continuous supply to market – Prevent price hike in seafood during monsoon season
Eco-tourism• Build bridges made up of mangrove tree poles – Ease visitors especially during high tides/ raining season. – Access to zones with substrate too soft to be stepped on – Ensure safety of visitors especially children
Eco-tourism• Fisherman provides boat trip services – Brings visitors out to the sea – Visitors could understand • The life of fishermen • The way they earn a living • Fishing methods used • Share life experiences of fishermen in sea – Expose urban kids to countryside lifestyles
Ways to Boost Tourism in Balik Pulau • Food • Scenery
Food• A feast or carnival during the durian season, normally May to July each year.• Herb garden in Kampung Jalan Bharu.• Special food presentation to attract attention – Fresh seafood cooked with herbs – Served in durian husks – Fruit pickles (jeruk) as appetizers – Nutmeg juice to quench thirst – Durian as dessert• Taste all the delicacies in just 1 meal.
Scenery• Scenic paddy fields – Relaxing – stress-releasing – Fresh air – Photography enthusiasts could snap shots• Eagle watching – Unique as not so common in urban area
Human Impact• Overfishing – Food sources, net size, greediness of fisherman• Deforestation – firewood, construction wood, wood chip and pulp production, charcoal production, and animal fodder
Human Impact• Uses of mangrove land for urban development – agricultural land, anchoring of boats, human settlements, resettlement activities, infrastructure, and industrial areas• Pollution – Fertilizers, pesticides, discharge of industrial effluent, Solid waste dumping, pollutants, and sewage
Tsunami(The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake)• On 26 December 2004.• Involved 18 countries.• Triggered by an earthquake (measuring 9 of the Richter scale) in Indian Ocean.• Penang and Kedah affected most.
Impacts of Tsunami on Ecosystem• Physical removal of flora and fauna.• increased sediment load - will kill sediment sensitive corals and sea grasses by smothering.• Increased turbidity of coastal water.• Eutrophication.• Escape of exotic (introduced) species used for aquaculture.
• The areas shielded by mangrove forests received minimal destructible effects from the huge tidal wave.• Reduce the wave energy from Tsunami.• Reduce erosion of beaches.