INTRODUCTIONPRINCIPLESFORMS OF HEADINGSUBDIVISIONCROSS REFERENCECONCLUSION Presented by Ashkar Kairali
INTRODUCTION• In 1898, that the Library of Congress (LC) decided that its card catalogue should be in dictionary form in which author ,title, and subject entries were interfiled in alphabetical order.• For the topical entries in the new catalogue, the Library began to work on a list of preferred terms to be used as subject heading.• In 1914, this was published under the title Subject Headings Used in the Library of Congress.
What is subject heading?• Subject heading is that specific procedure of cataloguing by which the cataloguer chooses the appropriate subject heading for the subject discussed in the catalogued books• The main objective of the subject cataloguing is to fulfill the subject related needs of the readers• Subject heading gives complete indication of the subject covered in the book , including all of its various aspects and forms• Subject heading should be a synonym and indication of the specific subject of a book
Types of Subject HeadingsSome useful Subject Heading aspect all over words are given below• Sears list of Subject heading,(SLSH)• A.L.A. List of Subject Headings for Use in Dictionary Catalogues• Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)
Library of Congress Subject Heading• The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) comprise a thesaurus of subject headings, maintained by the United States Library of Congress for use in bibliographic records• LCSHs are applied to every item within a library’s collection, and facilitate a user’s access to items in the catalogue that pertain to similar subject matter• Purpose of LCSH is providing subject access points to the bibliographic records contained in the Library of Congress catalogues
Library of Congress Subject Headings • LCSH is a tool for subject indexing of library catalogs in general • It has also been used as a tool in a number of online bibliographic databases outside of the Library of Congress
Edition and Version of LCSH• LCSH is kept up to date by means of LC Subject Heading Weekly Lists, included in each issue of Cataloging Service Bulletin and available at the Library’s web site.• 1914(Ist Edition) – Included see and see also references as well as the list itself.• 1988(11th Edition) – Issued annually from this edition on.
LITERARY WARRANT• The concept first put forward by E. Wyndham Hulme
UNIFORM HEADING• “A subject catalog must bring together under one heading all the books which deal principally or exclusively with the subject.” (Haykin)• Uniformity of terms was considered a remedy for the scattering that resulted from the earlier practice of catchword title entry, in which entry was made under a term used by the author of the work being cataloged.• Name: Term or term string for the entity or concept Form : Gramatical construction Entity Element
UNIQUE HEADING• When a subject has more than one name, one must be chosen as the heading to represent all materials on that subject, regardless or authors’ usage.• Eg: In LCSH, the heading Ethics was chosen from among Ethics, Deontology, Ethology, Moral philosophy, Moral science, Morality and Morals
Choice of heading in different aspect • Choice among synonymous Terms • Choice between Variant Spellings • Choice between English and Foreign Terms • Choice between Scientific (or Technical) and Popular Terms • Choice between Obsolete and Current Terms
Choice among synonymous Terms• “In choosing between two names not exactly synonymous, consider whether there is difference enough to require separate entry; if not, treat them as synonymous.”• For example, Theological education is treated as a synonym of Religious education, and Freedom is treated as a synonym of Liberty.
Choice between Variant Spellings• If one or more spellings of the same word are equally current, the one most familiar to the largest numbers of users, based on reference sources, is chosen.• for example, Labor instead of Labour; Catalog instead of Catalogue.
Choice between English and Foreign Terms • There is not English term of r the concept and the concept is normally expressed in foreign terms even in English-language works and reference sources, Eg:Bonsai; Coups d’etat; Opera comique • Based on proper research, no citation to the concept can be found in any English-language work or reference sources, and the concept appears to be unique to the language in question, Eg: Waqf
Choice between Scientific andPopular Terms• In LCSH popular terms are generally used if they are in common use and unambiguous• Eg: Cockroaches instead of Blattaria; Lizards instead of Lacertilia.
Choice between Obsolete andCurrent Terms• A new invention or concept is sometimes called different names by different people, and the cataloger is in the position of having to choose among several possible names without much help or guidance from outside sources• One example was the choice of Electronic- calculating-machines as the heading for computers when they first appeared, a heading that was later replaced by Computers.
UNIQUE HEADING• The principle of unique headings, that is, the idea that each heading should represent only one subject• Cutter’s rule states: “Carefully separate the entries on different subjects bearing the same name, or take some other heading in place of one of the homonyms.”• E.g. Cold: Cold (Disease) and Rings (Algebra); Rings (Gymnastics), so that each heading represents only one subject or concept.
SPECIFIC ENTRY ANDCOEXTENSIVITY• Each subject in LCSH is represented by the most specific, or precise, term that names the subject, rather than a broader or generic term that encompasses the subject• The term used to represent a subject is coextensive with the subject.• In rare cases, a broader term may be used when the most specific term is considered too narrow and therefore not likely to be sought by catalog users.
INTERNAL CONSISTENCY• a subject catalog should be internally consistent.• The consistency as well as stability is a factor in end-user ease of consultation
STABILITY• Stability is one principle underlying LCSH that receives little attention in the literature but still must be kept in mind by anyone studying the system with an eye to the future• That principle calls for maintaining as much stability in the system as is compatible with the need to keep it responsive to changing conditions.
PRECORDINATION• The combination of multiple topics or facets may take place either when the heading enters the vocabulary or when it is assigned to a document• In the former approach, called enumeration, complex headings are listed in full; in the latter, called synthesis, individual terms are listed separately to be combined by the cataloger or indexer as neededAdjectival Phrases:• Chuck wagon racing• Energy labeling• Plant inspection• Wildlife recovery
POST COORDINATION• In Cataloging, a work on a complex subject for which there is no coextensive heading in LCSH and for which one cannot be synthesized, the subject cataloger at the Library of Congress may either propose a new heading as required for the work being cataloged (a procedure currently preferred) or choose to use several existing headings, that is take the post coordinate approach, if the topic in question appears to be new but is judged to be not yet discrete and identifiable
POST COORDINATIONExample:Title: Intercultural competence : interpersonalcommunication across culturesSUBJECTS: Intercultural communication; Interpersonal communication-United States Communicative competence – United States.
FORMS OF MAIN HEADINGS• Main headings used in the Library of Congress (LC) subject headings system fall into two main categories: topical/form headings and name headings• Most headings in the first category represent objects or concepts; a small number of them represent forms or genres• Headings containing proper names, on the other hand, may also be assigned as subject headings to works discussing individual persons, cooperate bodies, places and other entities bearing proper names
FORMS OF MAIN HEADINGSDifferent forms of main headings are:• SINGLE – CONCEPT HEADINGS• MULTIPLE – CONCEPT HEADINGS
SINGLE – CONCEPT HEADINGS• Single – concept headings appear in the form of single-word terms or multiple-word termsSINGLE WORD HEADINGS• The simplest form of main heading is a noun or substantive, which represents a single object or concept, for example: Catalogs BioinformaticsMULTIPLE-WORD HEADINGS• When a single object or concept cannot be properly expressed by a single noun, a phrase in used• Multiword terms appear in the form of adjectival or prepositional phrases• Chemistry
SINGLE – CONCEPT HEADINGS ADJACETIVE PHRASE HEADINGS • The most common phrase headings consist of a noun or noun phrase with an adjectival modifier • The modifier takes one of the following forms: Common Adjective Automotive computers Digital art Financial writers Universal design
MULTIPLE – CONCEPT HEADINGSCOMPOUND PHRASES• Compound phrase headings, consisting or two or more nouns, nouns phrases, or both, with or without modifiers, connected by the word and, the word or, or the word etc., serve various purposes• To express a reciprocal relationship between two general topics discussed at a broad level form the perspectives of both topics, for example : Art and technology Education and state Internet and teenagers Library and labor unions
MULTIPLE – CONCEPT HEADINGS PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE HEADINGS • Consisting of nouns, noun phrases, or both with or without modifiers, and connected by one or more propositions, are used to express complex relationships between topics example: Care of sick animals Counseling in elementary education Federal aid to youth services SEMANTICS • The principle of unique headings requires that each headings represent only one subject • A qualifier is a word or phrase enclosed within parentheses following the heading. Heliosphere (Astrophysics) Heliosphere (Ionosphere)
MULTIPLE – CONCEPT HEADINGS INVERTED HEADINGS • In the past, many phrase headings were established in the inverted from in order to bring a significant word into a prominent position as the entry element, a practice that resulted in better collection of related topics Calendar, Celtic Chemistry, Organic Education, higher Philosophy, Modern
PROPER NAME HEADING• In the LCSH system, proper names may be assigned as main headings, as part of subject strings, or as subdivision• The term proper names includes personal names, names of corporate bodies, names of conference and meetings, geographical names, names of works established as uniform titles, and names of individual entities
PERSONAL NAMES • Name of individual persons are used as subject headings for biographies, eulogies, festschriften, criticisms, bibliographies, a nd literary works in which the persons figure • At the Library of Congress, to ensure that the same form of a personal name is used for both author and subject, headings consisting of names of persons are established according to AACR2R E.g. Alexander, the Great, 356-323 B.C Byron, George Gordon Byron, Baron, 1788-1824
NAMES OF FAMILIES, DYNASTIES, ROYAL HOUSES, ETC • The heading for a family appears in the form of (Proper name) family, for example, Bush family • The older form with a qualifier, for example, smith family (William smith, 1669-1743) has been discontinued • No effort is made to distinguish between families with the same surname • The heading Kennedy family, for eg, is used for works about any family with the surname Kennedy. Adams family Bailly family Cook family
NAME OF THE MYTHOLOGICAL, LEGENDARY, OR FICTITIOUS CHARACTERS• They are often required as subject headings• Headings for mythological characters that are not gods or goddesses are established in the form of (Names of character) ([Ethnic adjective] mythology) example: Draupadi (Hindu Mythology) Lilith (Semitic mythology• The qualifier (Legendary character) is use with headings for legendary characters Aeneas (Legendary character) Anansi (Legendary Character) Brer Rabbit (Legendary Character)
NAMES OF GODS AND GODDESSES • Name of gods and goddesses are established in the form of [Names of god or goddess] ([Ethnic adjective] deity), for example: Amon (Egyptian deity) Apollo (Greek deity) NAMES OF CORPORATE BODIES • Works related to the original development, activities, and functions of individual corporate bodies are assigned subject headings under their names • Corporate bodies include public and private organizations, societies, associations, institutions, government agencies, commercial firms, churches, and other groups identified by a name, such as conferences and exploring expeditions Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (Smithsonian Institution) Cleveland Browns (football team : 1999)
OTHER INDIVIDUAL ENTITIES BEARING PROPER NAMES• In addition to the proper names , many other individual entities that bear proper names also serve as subject headings Animals Historical Events Prizes, Awards, Scholarships Holidays, Festivals Ethnic Groups, Nationalities, Tribes etc
GEOGRAPHIC NAMES • Geographic names are used widely in both subject and descriptive cataloging • As subject headings, they may be the main heading or part of a heading phrase, they may be used as sub divisions or they may figure as qualifiers E.g. Norway – Description and travel Paris (France) in motion pictures
Jurisdictional Headings • Entities that can be called jurisdictions include countries, principalities, territories, states, provinces, counties , administrative districts, cities, archdioceses, and dioceses E.g. Bavaria (Germany) Berlin (Germany) Non-Jurisdictional Headings • Many headings for geographic areas or entities are not jurisdictional units • These headings are established in LCSH, with the exception of those formed by using free-floating terms E.g. Archaeological sites, historical cities etc Areas and regions
SUBDIVISIONS• In the Library of Congress subject headings system, a main heading may be subdivided by one or more elements called subdivisions• There are four types of subdivisions in the Library of Congress subject headings system 1) Geographical Subdivision 2) Form Subdivision 3) Chronological Subdivision 4) Topical Subdivision
Geographical Subdivision• When a geographic aspect of the subject is of significance, geographic(also called place or local) subdivisions are often used.• There are two forms of geographic subdivision: Direct and Indirect• E.g. Catholic Church – Belgium
Form Subdivision• Form subdivisions may be defined as the extension of a subject heading based on the form or arrangement of the subject matter in the book• Form subdivision include those that indicate either the physical or the bibliographical form of a work• E.g. India-map
Chronological Subdivision• A chronological subdivision brings out the time period of the subject represented by the main headings.• Chronological Subdivision may follow the main heading directly or appear after another subdivision• E.g. Public libraries- Kerala- 1970
Topical Subdivision• A topical subdivision represents an aspect of the main heading other than space, time,or form.• E.g. Auditions-Standards Cats-Behavior therapy
Conclusion• LCSH is comparatively simple to use.• The rules and principles are fairly explicit in their directions, containing scope notes and specific instructions for their use.• If followed consistently, LCSH will provide useful reference guide for the user and also to the library reference staff.