...
 2	
  
	
  
1. Introduction	
  about	
  Six	
  Sigma	
  	
  
2. Introduction	
  about	
  PMP	
  	
  
3. Similarities	
  an...
 
	
  
3	
  
Introduction	
  about	
  Six	
  Sigma	
  
	
  
We	
  can	
  define	
  by	
  DMAIC	
  model	
  which	
  itself...
 4	
  
products	
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  requirements	
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custome...
 
	
  
5	
  
Introduction	
  about	
  PM	
  (Project	
  Management)	
  
	
  
PMP	
  (Project	
  Management	
  Professional...
 6	
  
	
  
Similarities	
  and	
  Differences	
  between	
  Six	
  Sigma	
  and	
  PMP	
  
Differences	
  	
  
Six	
  Sig...
 
	
  
7	
  
We	
  can	
  also	
  say	
  that	
  Six	
  Sigma	
  is	
  mostly	
  a	
  process	
  level	
  approach	
  maki...
 8	
  
In	
  this	
  given	
  table	
  we	
  can	
  see	
  the	
  steps,	
  which	
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9	
  
Manager.	
  Change	
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 10	
  
Conclusion	
  	
  
This	
  is	
  idea	
  of	
  	
  combining	
  both	
  Six	
  Sigma	
  and	
  PMP	
  came	
  to	
...
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Six sigma and PMP: How can they help you togethere?

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This is idea of combining both Six Sigma and PMP came to me after working for nearly 5 years in Quality and Manufacturing functions of a balanced matrix organization(PMBOK). I always see Project Management not as something of future but present. So what is next, we have seen how Six Sigma brings a giant leap in quality but the problem with Six Sigma is that it is am operational tool for quality improvement. How to bring this provem concept into a project was a big challenge.
We know project is a one time activity and so we can say for design of product (DFSS), I tried to relate DFSS (Design for six sigma) with a projectized approach. And this was what I was able make. Its like a fusion, I thought this will be intresting and hence thought of sharing this “Theory” with you.

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Transcript of "Six sigma and PMP: How can they help you togethere?"

  1. 1.                                                                                                                         Six Sigma and PMP How can they help you togethere? ASHISH JUDE MICHAEL, Executive MBA, Indian Institute Of Management, Shillong            
  2. 2.  2     1. Introduction  about  Six  Sigma     2. Introduction  about  PMP     3. Similarities  and  Differences  between  Six  Sigma  and  PMP   4. How  to  use  both  of  these  to  make  most?   5. Conclusion   About  Author                            
  3. 3.     3   Introduction  about  Six  Sigma     We  can  define  by  DMAIC  model  which  itself  is  an  refined  version  of  PDCA   (Plan-­‐Do-­‐Study-­‐Act)  .  Six  Sigma  as  we  know  controls  Product  Variation  by   controling  the  process  and  its  parameters.  It  aims  to  bring  the  defect  rate  below   3.4    DPMO  (Defect  per  million  Opportunities).       D   Define  the  customer,  Critical  to  Quality  issues,  business  process.   M   Measure  the  performance  of  business  of  the  business  process.   A   Analyze  to  determine  the  root  cause  and  opportunities  for  improvement.     I   Improve  the  process,  develop  and  deploy  implementation  plan.   C   Control  the  improvement  to  keep  on  new  course.   There  is  a  concept  known  as  DFSS  (Design  For  Six  Sigma).  This  methodology   brings  six  sigma  at  a  much  earlier  phase  of  a  product  life  cycle,  the  design  phase.   By  using  DFSS  we  can  design  a  product  in  such  a  way  that  it  can  be  defined  by   DMAIV  instead  of  DMIAC  of  convectional  Six  Sigma  aproach.         D   Define  the  project  goals  and  customer  (internal  and  external)  requirements.   M   Measure  and  determine  customer  needs  and  specifications;  benchmark   competitors  and  industry.   A   Analyze  the  process  options  to  meet  the  customer  needs.   D   Design  (detailed)  the  process  to  meet  the  customer  needs.   V   Verify  the  design  performance  and  ability  to  meet  customer  needs.     In  todays  world  where  we  talk  not  about  Mass  Manufacturing  but  Mass   Customization  this  approach  help  us  learn  which  parameter  of  the  process  is   controling  which  parameter  of  product  and  how  altering  that  will  bring  change   in  final  product  and  that  too  at  design  phase.    Thus  DFSS  can  help  us  develop  us  
  4. 4.  4   products  which  can  comply  the  requirements  of  mass  customization  for  each   customer  as  per  his/her  requirements.     Let  us  understand  ,  a  customer  dosen’t  always  knows  what  he/she  needs  their   explanation  of  a  requirement  of  a  particular  requirement  can  be  very  vague.     Step  1:    We  should  clarify  and  verify  it  from  customers  at  various  stages  of   designing  and  prototyping  itself.     Stap  2:  Once  customer  is  happy  we  should  try  to  measure  and  bench  mark  the   specifications  as  per  competatiors  and  industry.   Step  3:  We  should  further  analyze  the  process  which  will  be  most  efficient  and   effective  to  make  the  product.  Also  identify  the  stages  where  we  can  introduce   customization  and  when,  how  and  how  much  change  in  the  process  parameter   will  being  which  type  of  change  in  the  final  product.   Step  4:  Finally  freeze  the  design.   Step  5:  Verify  the  design  by  using  prototype  or  simulation  or  any  other   Qualification    method.   The  figure  below  shows  the  steps  of  DFSS       *  Courtsey:  http://www.alefulcrum.com/methods/dfss/postage_stamp.html    
  5. 5.     5   Introduction  about  PM  (Project  Management)     PMP  (Project  Management  Professionals)  who  are  well  averse  in  Project   Management  methodology.       Project  can  be  defined  as  a  one  time  activity  which  has  defined  scope,  Quality  of   result,  time  and  resources  required  and  Project  Manager  has  to  achieve  result  in   defined  scope  with  required  Quality  within  specified  time  and  cost.   Project  management  has  become  one  of  the  most  preffered  skills  by  employers.   One  of  the  reasons  PM  (Project  Management)  is  highly  requirement  in  today’s     customer  orinted  world  when  technology  is  changing  day  by  day  at  a  rapid  pace.     PM  earlier  was  considered  to  be  related  to  infrastructure  or  IT  sectors  but  now   even  it  is  requirement  of  Manufacturing  organization.     The  launch  or  upgradation  of  a  product  can  itself  be  termed  as  a  Project,  and  if   we  are  able  implement  Project  Management  concepts  in  proceding  with  these   activities  we  can  be  more  efficient  and  effective.   For  example  if  I  am  working  on  a  greenfeild  project  for  implementing  ,  lets  say,   AS9100  Rev  C  certification.We  can  define  scope,  time  and  resource  on  which  it   will  be  dependent.  Then    we  can  constitute  a  team  ,  make  a  project  manager  and   give  further  responsiblities  will  be  taken  by  them.     I  will  not  be  describing  PM  in  detail  but  still  on  a  cursory  note  we  can  say  that     A  project  is  temporary  in  that  it  has  a  defined  beginning  and  end  in  time,  and   therefore  defined  scope  and  resources.  And  a  project  is  unique  in  that  it  is  not  a   routine  operation,  but  a  specific  set  of  operations  designed  to  accomplish  a   singular  goal.  So  a  project  team  often  includes  people  who  don’t  usually  work   together  –  sometimes  from  different  organizations  and  across  multiple   geographies.   Project  management  (PM),  is  the  application  of  knowledge,  skills  and  techniques   to  execute  projects  effectively  and  efficiently.  It’s  a  strategic  competency  for   organizations,  enabling  them  to  tie  project  results  to  business  goals  —  and  thus,   better  compete  in  their  markets.  (As  quoted  from  PMI)   The  purpose  document  is  to  show  how  Six  Sigma  and  PMP  togethere   complement  each  other  and  can  do  wonders  for  organization.   The  figure  given  below  explains  in  brief  the  concept  of  Project  Management.    
  6. 6.  6     Similarities  and  Differences  between  Six  Sigma  and  PMP   Differences     Six  Sigma     PMP  Phases   Define   Initiate   Measure   Plan   Analyze   Execute   Design/Improve   Monitor  &  Control   Verify/Control   Close    
  7. 7.     7   We  can  also  say  that  Six  Sigma  is  mostly  a  process  level  approach  making  it  a   operational  level  strategy  tool  and  PMP  is  a  project  level  approach  making  it  a   Tactical  level  strategy  tool.  Also  Six  Sigma  is  more  stastical  based  where  else   PMP  is  more  planning  and  execution.  Six  Sigma  is  more  about  effciency  where   else    PMP  is  more  about  effectiveness.     Similarities     When  it  come  to  similiraties  we  can  say  they  seemed  to  have  following   dsimilarities:     1. Both  define  the  the  problem  as  first  step.   2. Both  bring  financial  savings  for  organization.   3. Once  they  are  completed  both  are  closed  and  recorded  so  that  it  can  be   used  for  future  learning.     How  to  use  both  of  these  to  make  most  ?   The  propose  is  to  use  both  Six  Sigma  and  PMP  philosphy  togethere  amd  utlize   them  to  achieve  effectiveness  and  effciency  for  organization.  But  how  to  do  so?   The  era  of  Mass  Maufacturing  is  gone,  now  is  all  about  mass  customization.    Its   all  about  understanding  the  process  ,  the  process  parameters  and  how  those   parameters  effect  the  product.     Consider  the  following  stemps  which  can  be  included  in  a  project.  We  can  see   that  we  are  giving  special  emphesis  on  planning.  This  is  because  the  change  done   in  planning  stage  are  more  easier  and  economical  than  during    later  stage  or   execution.   “Give  me  six  hours  to  chop  down  a  tree  and  I  will  spend  the  first  four  sharpening   the  axe.”  Abraham  Lincoln.    If  cutting  the  tree  is  can  be  consider  a  project  then  sharpening  the  axe  is   planning  and  cutting  the  tree  is  execution,  monitoring  &  control  and  closure.      
  8. 8.  8   In  this  given  table  we  can  see  the  steps,  which  I  suggest,  can  be  taken  during  a   project.  A  brief  description  is  stated  for  each  step.   Six  Sigma+Project   Management   Define/Initiate   Plan   Analyze-­‐Plan     Improve-­‐Plan   Validate-­‐Plan   Execute-­‐As  planed   Monitor-­‐  The  Progress   (Measure)   Control-­‐By  Validation  &   Improvisation  (Analyze  &   Improve  )   Closure     Step  1:  After  selecting  the  project  through  feasiblity  and  cost  benefit  anslysis,   Define  the  scope  of  project  and  Initiate  it.  Then  form  a  team,  assig  Project   Manager  and  then  further  formulate  a  project  charter.     Step  2:  Plan  here  we  can  use  Project  Priority  Matrix  (PPM)  to  define  importance   of  Performance,  Time  and  Cost.  Plan  for  three  senarios  such  as  Ideal,  Most  likely   and  Worst.  Use  critical  chain  project  method  (CCPM).  We  are  laying  special   stress  on  planing  as  if  planing  is  good  execution  will  be  smooth.  Make  the  initial   plans.     Step  3:  Analyze  –Plan  Analyze  the  plan  with  team,  stakeholders  and  if  required   a  specialist  or  consultant.  Its  important  we  catch  the  loops  and  shortcommings  of   a  plan  now  rather  than  discovering  them  during  execution  phase.     Step  4:  Improve-­‐Plan  take  everyone’s  feedback  ,  make  necessary  changes  the   final  decision  power  to  weather  to  accept  the  change  in  the  plan  rests  on  Project  
  9. 9.     9   Manager.  Change  request  can  be  raised  by  team  members  as  per  the  feedback   but  they  need  to  be  approved  by  Project  Manager  to  make  necessary  changes.     Step  5:  Validate-­‐Plan  Check  if  there  is  still  any  scope  of  improvement  in  project   plan?  Ensure  that  the  changes  made  will  not  be  harming  any  other  requirement   of  project.  Discuss  with  project  team,  consultant  and  stakeholders  and  if  all     agree  validate  the  plan  and  move  to  execution  phase.     Step  6:  Execute  the  final  plan  (Most  Likely  Senario)  on  the  basis  of   responsibility  matrix,  Gantt  Chart  and  a  detail  project  plan  using  any  Project   Management  Software  such  as  MS  Project  etc.  This  phase  will  be  the  longest  and   maximum  resources  are  utlized  during  this  phase.     Step  7:  Monitor-­‐The  progress  (Measure)  this  is  done  in  terms  of  milestones   covered,  resources  (actual)  vs  progress  wrt  resources  (planed).  Tools  such  as  S   curve  ,  budget  costing,  Earned  Value  Milestone  (EVM).  To  check  if  we  are  ahead   or  behind  schedule,  if  we  are  over  or  under  budget  or  if  we  are  meeting  the  scope   of  project  and  its  requirements.         Step  8:  Control  –  by  validation  and  improvisation  its  useless  to  just  keep  on   monitoring  and  not  acting  on  the  results.   Check  the  results  we  get  from  monitoring  if  they  are  doubtful  re-­‐confirm  them   and  analyze  the  root  cause  of  the  problem  causing  this  and  solve  the  problem.   Improvise  the  execution  plan  (  We  have  3  senario’s  Ideal,  Most  likely  and  Worst)   choose  the  related  situation  and  work  upon  it  to  suit  the  requirement.     Step  9:  Closure  after  the  project  is  completed  it  should  be  closed  as  per  contract.   If  a  final  closure  report  has  to  be  approved  by  customer  than  it  has  to  be  done.   But  for  internal  purposes  closure  should  be  documented  properly  all  the   problems  faced,  lessons  learned  improvisations  done  should  be  documented  as   per  Project  Management  procedures.        
  10. 10.  10   Conclusion     This  is  idea  of    combining  both  Six  Sigma  and  PMP  came  to  me  after  working  for   nearly  5  years  in  Quality  and  Manufacturing  functions  of  a  balanced  matrix   organization(PMBOK).  I  always  see  Project  Management  not  as  something  of   future  but  present.  So  what  is  next,  we  have  seen  how  Six  Sigma  brings  a  giant   leap  in  quality  but  the  problem  with  Six  Sigma  is  that  it  is  am  operational  tool  for   quality  improvement.  How  to  bring  this  provem  concept  into  a  project  was  a  big   challenge.   We  know  project  is  a  one  time  activity    and  so  we  can  say  for  design  of  product   (DFSS),  I  tried  to  relate  DFSS  (Design  for  six  sigma)  with  a  projectized  approach.   And  this  was  what  I  was  able  make.  Its  like  a  fusion,  I  thought  this  will  be   intresting  and  hence  thought  of  sharing  this  “Theory”  with  you.   Thanks  for  taking  your  time  out  and  reading  through  it.  If  you  have  any   suggestions  or  feedback  feel  free  to  send  me.                 About  Author:    

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