Fourth chapter [code of ethics]


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Fourth chapter [code of ethics]

  2. 2. Code of Ethics  Role played by Code of Ethics: • Protecting the interest of public • Serving the public  Guidance • Main obligation of the professionals • General Guidance • Identify the primary responsibilities  Inspiration • Expressing one’s profession’s commitment(The act of binding yourself to the ethics • Providing the positive stimulus / motivation (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action)
  3. 3. Shared Standards Establish the explicit standards Fair-playing while competing for the clients / users Support for the responsible professionals Support for the professionals seeking to act ethically Take stand on moral issues Education and Mutual Understanding Discuss the cases based on the moral issues Shared understanding among the professionals, public and government  Deterrence and Discipline • Formal basis for investigating the unethical event  • •  • •  • •
  4. 4.  Contributing to the Professional Image • Codes present a positive image to the public and clients • The Image that helps an engineer to serve the public and clients effectively • Codes provide the power of Self-Regulation (The property of a person or organization to improve ethically without having any external pressure) Codes achieve and sustain the trust of public and clients Abuses and Limitations of the Codes: Abuses: When the codes are taken too seriously Limitations: Codes are not a substitute of personal responsibility and ethical behaviour • Codes are not a one key to all the solutions • Codes are specialised • Codes can have the flaws •  • •
  5. 5.  Ethical Relativism  Theory of Relativism (Moral valves(person to person) of a persons or organization are not absolute. They are relative to each other) •Did the profession’s code of ethics create the obligations or it recorded the obligations which did already exist? Comparison of the arguments of Michael Davis and Stephen Unger about the Code of Ethics Michael Davis: An American philosopher and professor of philosophy working at “Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, USA”, and the pioneer of Professional Ethics (born in 1946) Michael Davis's arguments about the Code of Ethics: The code is to protect each professional from certain pressures (for example, the pressure to cut corners to save the money / achieve the economy) by making it reasonably likely that most other members of the profession will not take advantage of the good conduct.
  6. 6. Michael Davis's arguments about the Code of Ethics: A code protects members of a profession from certain consequences while competing. A code is a solution to a management / coordination problem. Code of ethics allows an engineer to object to a pressure to produce substandard work not merely as an ordinary moral agent, but as a professional. Engineers can say "As a professional, I cannot ethically put the business concerns ahead of the Professional Ethics” (quoted by Michael Davis). Davis gave four reasons that why the professionals should support their profession’s code: First, supporting it will help protect them from being injured by what others do unethically.
  7. 7. Michael Davis's arguments about the Code of Ethics: Second, supporting the code will also help assure each engineer a working environment in which it will be easier than it would otherwise be to resist pressure to do much that the engineers would rather not do. Third, the Engineers should support their profession's code because supporting it will help make their profession a practice of which they need not feel any embarrassment(to feel uneasy), shame, or guilt. And fourth, one has an obligation of fairness to do his part in generating(Bring into existence) the benefits for all the Engineers.
  8. 8. Comparison of the arguments of Stephen Unger & Michael Davis about the Code of Ethics Stephen A Unger: An American executive recruiter and a regular writer of the articles of ‘leadership’ for a weekly trade publication “Daily Variety”, working in NY, USA (born in 1946) Stephen Unger's arguments about the Code of Ethics: First, it serves as a collective recognition by the members of a profession of its responsibilities. Second, it helps create an environment in which ethical behavior is the norm (standard). Third, it serves as a guide or reminder in specific situations Fourth, the process of developing and modifying the Code of Ethics can be valuable for a profession.
  9. 9. Stephen Unger's arguments about the Code of Ethics: Fifth, a code serves as an educational tool, providing a focal point for discussions in the classes and professional meetings. Finally, a code indicates to others that the profession is seriously concerned with the responsible and professional conduct. Compare the ‘Important Characteristics’ of the “Arguments” presented by these two Professional Ethicists. Date for Second Assignment and Second Quiz is 25th of October 2013
  10. 10.  Obligations related to a Particular Role as a  • • • professional Sound Professional Codes withstand the Three Tests: Clear and Coherent Organised : Basic moral values are applicable to that profession Helpful: Provide the helpful and reasonable guidance
  11. 11. • •  • • • • • Existing ethical theories may develop and new theories may emerge As the social, economic, industrial and engineering setups and standards keep on changing – so are the Ethical Expectations and Theories Moral Reasoning and Theories are mostly culturally based: Most of the Ethical Theories are based on the setups of western world Westerns focus on the Moral Values and Behaviour of individuals rather than those of a group Globalization and Internationalization are causing / pressurizing the changes In keeping the balance between “business – government” and “individuals – society”, international frame-work weakens and vice-versa i.e. between “business – government” and “international organizations – governments” Different international norms may emerge
  12. 12. Moral Values and Moral Issues: Understanding moral values Resolving moral issues Justifying moral judgements Exploring the questions that involve moral issues Developing a system of Moral Values and Code of Ethics Defining “Moral Behaviour” and “Right Conduct”: What is to be morally done in a particular situation What is morally right and what is morally wrong and how the situations can be ethically handled • What is good or bad for the employer, employees, society, people, policies, laws, etc  • • • • •  • •
  13. 13.  Types of Enquiries: • Normative: The norms identify the moral values • Conceptual: Clarify the moral concepts • Factual: Explore the specific or certain situations and problems  Types of Moral Judgement: • Actions: Whether they are morally right or wrong • People: Whether they are morally responsible or not • Objective: Whether it is consistent and ethical in reasoning and decisions  Typical situations involving Ethical Dilemmas: • Interest of employer for his business Vs interest and consideration for the people and society
  14. 14. • Sub-standard, unsafe, unhealthy, etc products or services are • •  • •  • • produced Produced in obsolescence Extravagant claims for the production of product / service Interest of one Community or Group Vs Other: E.g: a power-station or factory producing the local pollution Impact of war on civilians’ population and their lives Pertinent Ethical Questions: What is the extent of an engineer’s responsibility? When one should obey or not obey the order esp. of the seniors?
  15. 15.  Virtue Ethics: • Virtues and Vices: Good and Evil Behaviour / Character  Utilitarianism: Actions which result most good (best) for the most   •  • • •  good people Duty Ethics: Actions / results based on nature of the duty carried out Rights Ethics: Actions which respect inalienable human rights Some Ethical Philosophers extend this scope to the animals too Description of Virtues: Principles of I. E. Australia express the Virtues as: Virtuous ways to interact to the others Desirable features of the reactor’s character Equity is a core value of virtues Vices: Immoral acts or practices the esp. social ones