Sir Tariq M. Research.2 (1)


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  • 1) Often presented as a linear process 2) What is the actual experience of those who have done a research project? 3) Martin Levoi’s experience (U500 section 1!!) 4) In practice lots of feedback loops that affect all the stages. And you often need to do several tasks at once Planning and organising are important – because messy things will happen
  • Sir Tariq M. Research.2 (1)

    1. 1. Ref: ALQURAN
    2. 2. Formulating A research problem Collecting data Processing data Writing a Research report Writing a Research proposal Research design Instrument for data collection Selecting a sample Editing Of the data Developing A code book Field test of The research tool Literature review Contents of the Research proposal Principles of Scientific writing Validity and reliability Of the research tool Study design Variables and hypotheses Sampling theory And design Methods and tools of Data collection Research design steps in formulating A research problem Methods of data processing; Use of computers and statistics Operational steps Required theoretical knowledge Required Intermediary knowledge Coding What How Conducting of the study The research process
    3. 3. Is it this simple? Subject Area Research Aim Topic Review Core Question Data needed Data gathering Method Analysis Conclusions Write up
    4. 4. The Research Process Identify topic Review the literature Identify concepts & theory Clarify research problem Research design Collection of data Analyse data Draw conclusion
    5. 5. The Research Design
    6. 6. What is Research Design? <ul><li>A plan for selecting the sources and types of information used to answer research questions. </li></ul><ul><li>A frame work for specifying the relationships among the study variables. </li></ul><ul><li>A outlines each procedure from the hypothesis to the analysis. </li></ul>
    7. 7. The definition of research design: <ul><li>A research design is a plan, structure and strategy of investigation to obtain answers to research questions or problems . </li></ul><ul><li>The plan is the complete scheme or program of the research. </li></ul><ul><li>A research design is a detailed plan for how a research study is to be completed operational variables so they can be measured, selecting a sample of interest to study, collecting data to be used as a basis for testing hypotheses , and analyzing the results . </li></ul>
    8. 8. The functions of a research design: <ul><li>The definitions suggest that a research design has two main functions : </li></ul><ul><li>The first relates to the identification and/or development of procedures and logistical arrangements required to undertake a study. </li></ul><ul><li>And the second emphasizes the importance of quality in these procedures to ensure their validity, objectivity, and accuracy. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Continue… <ul><li>A research design is a procedural plan that is adopted by the researcher to answer questions, </li></ul><ul><li>Validly; </li></ul><ul><li>Objectively; </li></ul><ul><li>Accurately and </li></ul><ul><li>Economically. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Selltiz (1962) , </li></ul><ul><li>A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Power to Produce Effects <ul><li>In an experiment , the researcher attempts to control and/or manipulate the variables in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>In an ex post facto design , the researcher has no control over the variables. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Classification Base Study designs Types of study design Number of contacts Reference period Nature of the investigation One Two Three or more Cross sectional studies Longitudinal studies Before-and- after studies Retrospective Prospective Retrospective- prospective Experimenta l Non- Experimental Semi- Experimental
    12. 12. 1. The cross-sectional studies: <ul><li>Cross-sectional studies , also known as one-shot or status studies , are the most commonly used design in the social sciences . This design is best suited to studies aimed at finding out the situation, problem, attitude or issue, by taking a cross-section of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Such studies are cross-sectional with regard to both the study population and the time of investigation. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Continue… <ul><li>For Example, </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers satisfaction with a product. </li></ul><ul><li>The health needs of a community. </li></ul><ul><li>The attitudes of students towards the facilities available in their library. </li></ul>
    14. 14. 2. The before-and-after study design: <ul><li>The before-and-after design (also known as the pre-test/post-test design) is that it can measure change in a situation, phenomenon, issue, problem or attitude. It is the most appropriate design for measuring the impact or effectiveness of a program. </li></ul><ul><li>A before-and-after design can be described as two sets of cross-sectional data collection points on the same population to find out the change in the phenomenon or variable (s) between two points in time . </li></ul><ul><li>The change is measured by comparing the difference in the phenomenon or variable (s) before and after the intervention. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Examples <ul><li>The effect of an advertisement on the sale of a product. </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of Benefits on the productivity of employees in an organization. </li></ul>
    16. 16. 3. The longitudinal study design: <ul><li>Longitudinal studies are also useful when you need to collect factual information on a continuing basis. </li></ul><ul><li>The main advantage of a longitudinal study is that it allows the researcher to measure the pattern of change and obtain factual information, requiring collection on a continuing basis, thus enhancing its accuracy. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Continue… <ul><li>In longitudinal studies the study population is visited a number of times at regular intervals, usually over a long period, to collect the required information as shown in the figure: </li></ul>Study Population Study Population Study Population Study Population t t t t The longitudinal study design = Data collection t = Interval between data collection
    18. 18. The Time Dimension: <ul><li>Cross-sectional studies are carried out once and represent a snapshot of one point in time. </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal studies are repeated over an extended period. </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage of a longitudinal study is that it can track changes over time. </li></ul><ul><li>In longitudinal studies of the panel variety, the researcher may study the same people over time. </li></ul><ul><li>In marketing, panels are set up to report consumption data on a variety of products, consumer response to new products . </li></ul>
    19. 19. Study designs based on the reference period: <ul><li>The reference period to the time-frame in which a study is exploring a phenomenon, situation, event or problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrospective; </li></ul><ul><li>Prospective; </li></ul><ul><li>Retrospective-prospective </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Retrospective study design <ul><li>Retrospective studies investigate a phenomenon, situation, problem or issue that has happened in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><li>The living conditions of Sindhi people in Sindh in the early twentieth century. </li></ul><ul><li>The utilization of land before World War II in Western part of Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between levels of unemployment and street crime. </li></ul>
    21. 21. The Prospective study design: <ul><li>Prospective studies refer to the likely prevalence of a phenomenon, situation, problem, attitude or outcome in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>The following are classified as prospective studies: </li></ul><ul><li>To determine the impact of random breath testing on the prevention of road accidents. </li></ul>
    22. 22. The Retrospective-prospective study design: <ul><li>Retrospective-prospective studies focus on past trends in a phenomenon and study it into the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Examples are : </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of incentives on the productivity of the employees of an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of an advertisement on the sale of a product. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Study designs based on the nature of the investigation: <ul><li>On the basis of the nature of the investigation, studies can be classified as: </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental; </li></ul><ul><li>Non-experimental; </li></ul><ul><li>Quasi or semi-experimental. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Thanks