1) Often presented as a linear process 2) What is the actual experience of those who have done a research project? 3) Martin Levoi’s experience (U500 section 1!!) 4) In practice lots of feedback loops that affect all the stages. And you often need to do several tasks at once Planning and organising are important – because messy things will happen
Formulating A research problem Collecting data Processing data Writing a Research report Writing a Research proposal Research design Instrument for data collection Selecting a sample Editing Of the data Developing A code book Field test of The research tool Literature review Contents of the Research proposal Principles of Scientific writing Validity and reliability Of the research tool Study design Variables and hypotheses Sampling theory And design Methods and tools of Data collection Research design steps in formulating A research problem Methods of data processing; Use of computers and statistics Operational steps Required theoretical knowledge Required Intermediary knowledge Coding What How Conducting of the study The research process
Is it this simple? Subject Area Research Aim Topic Review Core Question Data needed Data gathering Method Analysis Conclusions Write up
The Research Process Identify topic Review the literature Identify concepts & theory Clarify research problem Research design Collection of data Analyse data Draw conclusion
A research design is a plan, structure and strategy of investigation to obtain answers to research questions or problems .
The plan is the complete scheme or program of the research.
A research design is a detailed plan for how a research study is to be completed operational variables so they can be measured, selecting a sample of interest to study, collecting data to be used as a basis for testing hypotheses , and analyzing the results .
In an experiment , the researcher attempts to control and/or manipulate the variables in the study.
In an ex post facto design , the researcher has no control over the variables.
Classification Base Study designs Types of study design Number of contacts Reference period Nature of the investigation One Two Three or more Cross sectional studies Longitudinal studies Before-and- after studies Retrospective Prospective Retrospective- prospective Experimenta l Non- Experimental Semi- Experimental
Cross-sectional studies , also known as one-shot or status studies , are the most commonly used design in the social sciences . This design is best suited to studies aimed at finding out the situation, problem, attitude or issue, by taking a cross-section of the population.
Such studies are cross-sectional with regard to both the study population and the time of investigation.
The before-and-after design (also known as the pre-test/post-test design) is that it can measure change in a situation, phenomenon, issue, problem or attitude. It is the most appropriate design for measuring the impact or effectiveness of a program.
A before-and-after design can be described as two sets of cross-sectional data collection points on the same population to find out the change in the phenomenon or variable (s) between two points in time .
The change is measured by comparing the difference in the phenomenon or variable (s) before and after the intervention.
Longitudinal studies are also useful when you need to collect factual information on a continuing basis.
The main advantage of a longitudinal study is that it allows the researcher to measure the pattern of change and obtain factual information, requiring collection on a continuing basis, thus enhancing its accuracy.