Disaster preparedness and hazard reduction processes
Natural Hazards and Disasters.• A natural hazard is an extreme event that threatens human life and property.• It becomes a natural disaster when it has a serious effect on people, their property and their livelihood.
The impact of a hazard on a country depends onthe: Severity of the event Population density Knowledge and preparedness of the population Availability of predicting and forecastingtechnology
WHAT IS DISASTER MANAGEMENT?Disaster management can be defined as theorganization and management of resourcesand responsibilities for dealing with allhumanitarian aspects of emergencies, inparticular preparedness, response andrecovery in order to lessen the impact ofdisasters.
The Disaster Management Process Disaster Impact Preparednes Response s Post-Disaster Mitigation Recovery Pre-Disaster Prevention Redevelopment
NATURAL DISASTER MANAGMENTThere are three categories of Natural Disaster Management:• Preparedness - to ensure the highest level of physical preparedness, as well as the speed and effectiveness of the response when a disaster actually strikes• Mitigation - to increase the protection of buildings and infrastructure facilities against disasters• Post-disaster Response - to rehabilitate social and economic infrastructure and to ensure the earliest reinstatement of economic activity without prejudicing the highest professional standards
REGIONAL NATURAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE• 1989, the project was • PCDPPP has also led to extended and it became the creation of disaster Pan-Caribbean Disaster preparedness offices in Preparedness and several Caribbean Prevention Project countries e.g. the Central (PCDPPP) to Emergency Relief accommodate the term Organization in "prevention". Barbados, the National• It was launched in Emergency conjunction with different Management Agency in American, Canadian and Trinidad and Tobago European disaster relief and the Office of organizations. Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management in Jamaica.
CARIBBEAN DISASTER EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY• In I991 the Heads of Government of CARICOM established a regional agency to coordinate disaster management activities thus the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) was formally established. In 2009 CDERA became Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA).
Its main objectives are to: Provide a coordinated emergency relief to any affected participating state. Provide reliable information to governmental organizations and NOGs and donors regarding the effects of a disaster. Mobilize and coordinate the supply and delivery of disaster relief to an affected country. Mitigate or eliminate the immediate consequences of natural disasters. Promote and establish sustainable disaster response capabilities among countries.
OFFICE OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT• The Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management is committed to taking positive measures to prevent or reduce the impact of hazards on Jamaica, on its people, natural and resources and economy.• It achieves this through its trained and professional staff, by the use of appropriate technology and through collaborative efforts with national, regional and international agencies.
• Hazard Mitigation Planning• Public Education and Training• Projects Development and Implementation• National Shelter Programme• Use of GIS (Geographical Information System)
THE HAZARD REDUCTION PROCESSReducing the impact of hazards includes a mix ofengineering and building design, land use planning,and improving information to those providing relief.Risk assessment is the study of the costs andbenefits of living in a particular environment. Itinvolves consideration of:• The likely size and range of natural processes involved• The extent of the impacts• Ways in which the impacts can be reduced.
All countries in the Caribbean have adoptedthe concept of disaster reduction through:• Hazard mitigation• Disaster management• Establishing natural disaster agencies to cope with natural disasters.