The Himalayas, also Himalaya, (/ or /; Sanskrit, him (snow) + ālaya (dwelling), literally, "abode of
the snow") is amountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the
The Himalayan range is home to the planet's highest peaks, including the highest, . The Himalayas
include over a hundred mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation. By contrast, the
highest peak outside Asia – Aconcagua, in the Andes – is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall. The
Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia. Many Himalayan peaks are sacred in
bothBuddhism and Hinduism.
Besides the Greater Himalayas of these high peaks there are parallel lower ranges. The first foothills,
reaching about a thousand meters along the northern edge of the plains, are caMount Everestlled the
Sivalik Hills or Sub-Himalayan Range. Further north is a higher range reaching two to three thousand
meters known as the Lower Himalayan or Mahabharat Range.
The Himalayas abut or cross five countries: Bhutan, India, Nepal, China, and Pakistan, with the first
three countries having sovereignty over most of the range. The Himalayas are bordered on the
northwest by the Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, and on the
south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Three of the world's major rivers, the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, all rise near
Mount Kailash and cross and encircle the Himalayas. Their combined drainage basin is home to some
600 million people.
Lifted by the collision of the Indian tectonic plate with the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan range
runs, west-northwest to east-southeast, in an arc 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long. Its western anchor,
Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river, its eastern anchor,
Namcha Barwa, just west of the great bend of the Tsangpo river. The range varies in width from 400
kilometres (250 mi) in the west to 150 kilometres (93 mi) in the east.
It is the third highest Mountain of the world and highest in
It is located between the border of India and Nepal.
The Elevation or Height of it is 28,169 feet (8,586 m)
In 1954, a reconnaissance of Kanchenjunga's southwest side
was made by John Kempe (leader), J.W. Tucker, Ron
Jackson, Trevor H. Braham, G.C. Lewis, and Dr. D.S.
Mathews. This reconnaissance led to the route used by the
successful 1955 expedition.
It is the second highest mountain in India.
It is situated on the border of Uttar Pradesh.
The Elevation or Height of it is 7,816 m (25,643 ft).
First ascent to climb on Nanda Devi on 1939 are J. Bujak
and J. Klarner.
It is located at Uttarakhand, India.
The first one to climb on the mountain in
1947, was a Swiss team led by André Roch.
The Elevation or Height of Kedarnath is
6,940 m (22,769 ft).
Kedarnath is a Hindu holy town and one of
River Mandakini flows from kedarnath.
Gandak , Koshi,Mahananda
Yamuna, Tamsa, Son,
The tributaries of Ganga river are as follows :Left
Tons, Hindon, Sarda, Kunta, Chambal, Betwa, Ken
Gir,Rishiganga, Hanuman , Sindh
The River origin is Champasar Glacier.
The River basin is 366,223 km2 (141,399 sq mi)
The States where it flows are Uttaranchal,
Uttar Pradesh, Haryana .
Bhima, Dindi, Peddavagu, Venna, Koyna, Panchganga,
Halia, Musi, Paleru,
Eastern Coastal Plains
The Eastern Coastal Plains refer to a wide stretch of landmass of India,
lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. These plains
are wider and level as compared to the western coastal plains. It
stretches from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north
Deltas of many of India's rivers form a major portion of these plains.
The Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri and Krishna rivers drain these
plains. The region receives both the Northeast and
Southwest monsoon rains with its annual rainfall averaging between
1,000 mm (40 in) and 3,000 mm (120 in). The width of the plains varies
between 100 to 130 km (62 to 80 miles).
Western Coastal Plains
The Western Coastal Plains is a thin strip of coastal
plain 50 kilometres (31 mi) in width between the west coast
of India and the Western Ghats hills, which starts near
the south of river Tapi. They are sandwiched between the
Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The plains begin at
Gujarat in the north and end at Kerala in the south. It also
includes the states of Maharashtra, Goa andKarnataka. It
consists of three sections. The Northern part of the coast is
called the Konkan (Mumbai-Goa), the central stretch is
called the Kannad Plain while the southern stretch is
referred to as the Malabar Coast. On its northern side
there are two gulfs: the gulf of Khambat and the gulf of
Kachch. The rivers here end up forming estuaries and
therefore it is ideal for pisciculture.
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in India, making up most of the
southern part of the country. It rises a hundred meters high in the north, and
more than a kilometer high in the south, forming a raised triangle within the
familiar downward-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline. It is
located between two mountain ranges: the Western Ghats form its western
boundary, and the Eastern Ghats its eastern boundary. Each rises from their
respective nearby coastal plains and nearly meet at the southern tip of India. It
is separated from the Gangetic plain to the north by the Satpura and Vindhya
Ranges, which form its northern boundary.
Chota Nagpur Plateau
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers
much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, West
Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. The Indo-Gangetic plain lies to the north
and east of the plateau, and the basin of the Mahanadi River lies to the
south. The total area of the Chota Plateau is approximately 65,000 square
kilometers (25,000 sq mi). The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a continental
plateau - an extensive area of land thrust above the general land. The
plateau has been formed by continental uplift from forces acting deep
inside the earth.
Eastern Costal areas
The Eastern Coastal Areas is a wide
stretch of land lying between the Eastern
Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. It stretches
from Tamil Nadu in the south to West
Bengal in the east.
Western Coastal Areas
The Western Coastal Areas is a narrow
strip of land sandwiched between the
Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea,
ranging from 50 to 100 km (31 to 62 mi) in