UK garage• UK garage is a genre of electronic dance music.• It originated in the early-1990s and descended from house music.• UK garage was popular in the UK up to the mid 2000’s. However elements of UK garage were noticeable in pop music of the late 2000’s• Successful garage artists of the 2000’s include Lisa Maffia, Ms Dynamite, The Artful Dodger, So Solid Crew, Sweet Female Attitude and Mis-Teeq.
Why did UK garage become less popular with audiences after the mid 2000’s?• 2002-3 saw garage evolving into another sub genre called grime. This subgenre was becoming increasingly popular, whilst garage was becoming less popular.• Bad publicity also made the genre less popular. An example of this is noticeable violence and criminal behaviour coming from the garage band So Solid Crew.
Grime• Grime is a style of music that originates from East London.• Grime music was developed in the early 2000s. Grime was most popular in in the early to mid 2000’s, but still had a noticeable fan base in the late 2000’s.• Grime draws on many different genres. The most significant of these genres are UK garage, dancehall, and hip hop.• Pioneers of grime include Dizzee Rascal, Wiley, Kano, Jammer, Crazy Titch, and Ghetts.
Why do audiences like grime?• Audiences can identify and aspire to be like grime artists. This is because the working class audience of grime can identify with the background of the artists as well as their values and beliefs.
Why do audiences like grime?• However audiences can also aspire to be as successful as the grime artists.• They can also aspire to be able to escape relative poverty and become relatively wealthy, just as many grime artists have managed to do.
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Grime artists and institutions• Grime is a niche genre and has a small dedicated following of fans. This means that the revenue grime generates is consistent but not as large as other genres, such as pop.• This has lead to many grime artists creating their own record labels or are releasing content whilst being unsigned. This is because that way they get to keep more of the revenue for themselves.
Grime artists and institutionsIf grime artists were signed to an institution they would have to give a share oftheir revenue to the institution. This lowers the artists revenue. However bycreating their own institutions or remaining unsigned grime artists can keepmore of their revenue. Two examples of Grime artists who own record labelsare Dizzee Rascal and Wiley. Dizzee Rascal owns the record label dirtee stankand Wiley owns the record labels Big dada and eskibeat recording.An example of a successful unsigned grime artist is P money.
Indie rock• Indie rock is a sub-genre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1980s.• In the 2000’s Indie rock successfully immerged in to British mainstream music. This could be because of the successful integration of alternative rock into mainstream music in the 1990’s. Alternative rock bands such as Nirvana, Alice in Chains and Pearl Jam had mainstream success in the 1990’s.• Successful Indie rock bands of the 2000’s include the arctic monkeys, Franz Ferdinand, Razorlight and the Kaiser Chiefs
Indie rock and web 2.0• Many indie rock bands have large fan bases whilst being unsigned. They manage to do this by uploading their music to websites such as YouTube, MySpace and Facebook. This increases the amount of people that know about the band and increases their fan base.• An example of an indie rock band that has achieved mainstream success after amassing a sizeable fan base using the internet is The Arctic Monkeys.
Dance music• Popular genres of dance music in the 2000’s were Trance, Electro house and Dubstep.
Trance• Trance music originated in Germany in the 1990’s.• Trance music found mainstream success in the 2000’s. Especially in Europe.• Successful trance DJ’s and producers of the 2000’s include Tiësto, Paul van Dyk and Armin van Buuren.
Electro house• Electro house is a fusion genre. It is a fusion of house music and several electronic dance subgenres .• Electro house was popular in the early to mid 2000’s. Examples of some electro house artists that were popular in this period are Daft punk, Benny Benassi and Bodyrox.• Electro house successfully integrated with mainstream pop music in the late 2000’s. Artists that successfully integrated into the mainstream include Calvin Harris, Bob Sinclair and David Guetta.
Dubstep• Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in south London.• Dubstep originated in the very late 1990’s, but was popularised in the mid to late 2000’s.• In the late 2000’s dubstep was influencing mainstream pop music, with artists such as Britney Spears using the dubstep sound to modernise their music.• Successful dubstep DJ’s of the 2000’s include Chase & Status, Magnetic Man and Nero.
Pop music and reality TV• In the 2000’s reality TV shows such as the X Factor, Pop Idol and American Idol created many over night pop sensations.• Many people thought that the shows created overproduced unoriginal pop music. The shows were also criticised for profiting from the short term success of the winner and not securing a long term music career for the winners.• The most successful artists that have come from reality TV shows include Lemar, Girls aloud and Will Young.
Reality TV and benefits to creatives• One advantage is that the artist can easily become a successful mainstream artist. As the artists image and music is often safe and mainstream the artist can easily penetrate and conquer the mainstream music market.• Song writers also benefit from the TV shows as they have a source to sell their songs to.
Reality TV and disadvantages to creatives• Instant rejection by alternative audiences. As these audiences will automatically assume that the artists that come from reality TV programmes create mainstream manufactured pop music that they will not like.• Longevity of the majority of the artists that come from reality TV programmes is very low.• Another disadvantage is that the artists creative freedoms are extremely limited, as all the creative decisions are made by people other than the artist.
Reality TV and benefits to audiences• Voting allows them greater control over which artist wins the reality TV programme. So the audience can vote to create music they want to listen to.
Reality TV and disadvantages to audiences• Less variety of musical choice, as most of the music created by the artists that come from reality TV programmes is generic mainstream pop music.
Reality TV and advantages to institutions• Institutions can make a quick safe profit by marketing the mainstream reality TV pop musicians to a large mainstream market.• The institutions profit from the losers of the reality TV programmes as they get to keep the revenue generated when people pay to vote for artists, that later do not go on to win the contest.
Reality TV and disadvantages to institutions• Alternative audiences associate the institutions, that create these reality TV programmes, with mainstream pop music and therefore will not buy music from artists that belong to these institutions.
Pop punk• Pop punk is a fusion music genre. It combines punk rock and pop music.• Pop punk was established as a genre in the 1970’s. However in the early to mid 2000’s pop punk established a sizeable fan base in the mainstream media.• Some pop punk bands that were popular in the 2000’s include Greenday, Blink 182 and the offspring.
Nu metal• It is a fusion genre. It fuses together elements of heavy metal, grunge and hip hop.• Nu metal was established in the 1990’s but conquered the mainstream in the early 2000’s and is still a mainstream success.• Successful nu metal bands of the 2000’s include linkin park, limp bizkit and papa roach.
Crunk• Crunk is a style of hip hop that originated in Memphis late 1990s.• However it had mainstream success in the early to mid 2000’s.• Successful Crunk artists of the 2000’s include Three 6 Mafia, Lil Jon and The East Side Boyz.
Emo• Emo is a style of rock music. Characteristics of the emo music genre are that the songs are melodic and have expressive lyrics.• Although the genre originated in the 1980’s, as an offshoot of punk rock, it achieved mainstream success in the 2000’s• Successful emo bands of the 2000’s include Jimmy eat world, My Chemical Romance and Paramore.
What is file sharing?• File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images, and video), documents, or electronic books. [Wikipedia].• It caused controversy in the music industry the 2000’s
File sharing and illegal downloading music• File sharing has allowed people to illegally download music from the internet.• In particular peer-to-peer file sharing has allowed people to easily upload and download music illegally from the internet.• People can use software, such as FrostWire, to get access peer-to-peer files and can then download music for free.• This is illegal as it infringes copyright laws and also deprives music artists and their record labels of revenue.
File sharing and advantages for the audience• One benefit file sharing has on audiences is that it saves them money. Audiences can save money by downloading songs for free using peer-to-peer software rather than paying for the music.• Another benefit for audiences is that it was easier to get music from peer-to-peer sharing than buying it. This is because before the release of the ITunes store in 2003 many people had to buy CD’s or cassette tapes, as there was no infrastructure in place for them to buy electronic versions of music from the internet. Therefore it was quicker for audiences to download music illegally via peer-to-peer sharing than to go out and buy a CD or cassette tape.
File sharing and disadvantages for the audience• If people do illegally download music they can be punished. Internet service providers, such as Virgin, could be required by law to give details of people illegally downloading music to the authorities. Further action can then be taken against the offenders, such as fining and even sentencing the individuals.• Another disadvantage if artists do not receive royalties for their work, due to illegal downloading, then these artists may choose not to create music and may instead choose to pursue other more profitable careers. An example of an artist who has done this is Lily Allen. She decided to stop creating music in 2009 due to increase of people illegally downloading her music. This reduces the musical choice that the audience has.
File sharing and advantages for the institutions• A benefit of file sharing for institutions is that it allows them to promote their artists freely. People will be willing to listen to an artist’s music if they could get access to it for free. This means that more people will listen to the artists music and awareness of the artist increases.
Illegal downloading and disadvantages for the institutions• Institutions make less revenue as people buy less legal music.• It is costly to close down file sharing site, so the damage done by these site can take place for years.• The lack of regulation on the internet means even if institutions manage to close down one file sharing site, many more will still be created.
File sharing and advantages for the creatives• Many creatives can increase their awareness by distributing free music for people to listen to. An example of this is that rapper Mike Schpitz distributed his album ‘spring cleaning’ for free on peer to peer software FrostWire.• Most artists currently make most of their revenue from live shows. So if people illegally download an artists music, and like it, they may be willing to pay to see the artist perform live. This creates revenue for the artist.
File sharing and advantages for the creatives• Illegal downloading reduces the amount of royalties an artist gets.• Unsigned artists may not be able to afford to pursue their music careers any further if they are unable to get revenue from their music sales, as they often have no other significant forms of revenue.
How has the music industry tried to stop illegal downloading?• They have created online infrastructure for the legal download of music, such as ITunes.• Some artists give out free music to fans, so they don’t have to illegally download it. An example of this is Drake has created two free mix tapes for fans to download and listen to freely.• Institutions allow the audience to listen to music for free legally through Spotify and YouTube. As institutions get advertising royalties from Spotify and YouTube when people listen to the music.
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