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Introduction to Flow Measurement

Introduction to Flow Measurement

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  • 1. Flow Measurement By Arvind Chavan
  • 2. Need Flow Measurement • Optimum performance of some equipments and operations require specific flow rates. • In many situations accurate measurement of fluid flow is required, such as in domestic water supply, water flowing in the canal, air flow to an I.C. Engine etc. • The flow measurement covers many aspects of fluid flow as explained below – Measurement of Velocity of flow – Flow rate measurement – Total flow measurment
  • 3. Types of Flow • Uniform/Non – Uniform flow • Steady/Un-Steady flow • Laminar/Terbulent Flow • Compressible/in - compressible flow • Viscous/nonviscous flow
  • 4. Uniform/Non Uniform flow
  • 5. Laminar/ Turbulent flow
  • 6. Reynold’s Number • In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless quantity that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions.
  • 7. Mach Number • Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local speed of sound.
  • 8. Methods of Flow Measurement Flow Transducer Variable Head Type Venturi Orifice Nozzle Variable Area Type Rotameter Miscellane ous Electroma gnetic Turbine Flow Meter
  • 9. Classification of Flow Measurement • Primary or Quantity Methods – Weight or Volume of Tank – Positive Displacement Meters • Secondary or Rate meters – Obstruction meters: Orifice, Flow Nozzle, Venturimeter, Variable area meter. – Velocity Probes: Static Pressure probe, Total Pressure Probe, Direction of flow sensing probe – Special Methods: Turbine Type meter, Thermal or Hot – wire/film anemometer, magnetic flow meter
  • 10. Variable Head Flow Meters • Variable head meter is also called restriction type flow meter. • This results into change in the pressure and this change can be measured. • Flow α Sqrt (∆P) – ∆P – Pressure Difference • Various type of Variable Head Meters are – Venturi tube, – Orifice plate – Nozzle – Pitot tube
  • 11. Orifice Plate • These are simple and cheap form of primary elements and are used frequently than other elements. • Materials for orifice plates are – For corrosive fluid - Stainless steel – For Low Viscosity fluid- Brass – For Very Light flow rates – Gun Metal and Bronze
  • 12. Types of Orifice Plates Concentric Type • This Plate Have “Circular” hole located in the center of the plate. • Made from Nickel, phosphor bronze. Eccentric Type • The Eccentric plate has circular hole located below the center. • Hole provided for prevent the plate from damage from solid particles Segmented Type • The segmental plate has hole that is only partly circular. • Use depend upon characteristic of fluid.
  • 13. Venturimeter
  • 14. Flow Nozzle • It is combine device made up from combination of orifice plate and venturi. • It consist of a smooth, gradual contraction to throat followed by a free, uncontrolled expansion back to the original pipe flow area.
  • 15. Pitot Tube
  • 16. Variable Area Flow Meters • The variable area meters also called the variable aperture meters. • In variable area meters the differential pressure is maintained constant, and then the variation of the cross sectional area of flow is measure of the rate of flow.
  • 17. Rotameter • The increase in the flow rate results into raising of float and there occurs an increase in the annular area between the float and the tube. • The float adjust it’s position according to the discharge of the fluid.
  • 18. Anemometer • It is the instrument that be used to measure gas flow rates. • One method is to keep the temperature of a heating element in a gas flow constant and measure the power required.
  • 19. Hot wire anemometer • Hot wire anemometer is used for measurement of flow rate of fluctuating and unsteady flow
  • 20. Hot Film Anemometer
  • 21. Electromagnetic Flow Meters • It depends for its operation on measuring the electric current or voltages generated when a conducting fluid flow through an applied magnetic field
  • 22. Ultrasonic Flow Meter